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1.
J Anesth ; 33(3): 463-477, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076946

RESUMO

Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made regarding infraclavicular brachial plexus block (ICB) in adults, especially since the introduction of ultrasound guidance. The advancements in ICB have been attributed to the development of various approaches to improve the success rate and reduce complications. This has also necessitated a unified nomenclature system to facilitate comparison among different approaches. This review aimed to propose an anatomical nomenclature system by classifying ICB approaches into proximal and distal ones to aid future research and provide practice advisories according to recent updates. We also comprehensively discuss various aspects of this nomenclature system. Our review suggests that ultrasound-guided ICB should be categorized as an advanced technique that should be performed under supervision and dual guidance. For one-shot block, the conventional distal approach is still preferred but should be modified to follow ergonomic practice, with the arm in the proper position. For continuous ICB, the proximal approach is promising for reducing local anesthetic volume and increasing efficacy. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted in this direction. We provide practice advisories to maximize safety and minimize adverse events, and recommend designing future studies on ICB according to these findings based on the unified nomenclature system.

2.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 46(4): 810-820, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: (4S)-4-(3-18F-Fluoropropyl)-L-glutamate (FSPG) positron emission tomography (PET) reflects system xC- transporter (xCT) expression. FSPG PET has been used to detect brain, lung, breast and liver cancer with only modest success. There is no report on the use of FSPG PET in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), presumably because of normal xCT expression in the pancreas. Nonetheless, the tissue-specific expression of xCT in the pancreas suggests that FSPG PET may be ideal for identifying metastasized PDAC. METHODS: The performance of FSPG in detecting PDAC metastases was compared with that of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in small-animal PET studies in seven PDAC tumour-bearing mice and in prospective PET/computed tomography (CT) studies in 23 patients with tissue-confirmed PDAC of stage III or stage IV. All PET/CT results were correlated with the results of histopathology or contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) performed 3 and 6 months later. RESULTS: In the rodent model, FSPG PET consistently found more PDAC metastases earlier than FDG PET. FSPG PET showed a trend for a higher sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy than FDG PET in detecting PDAC metastases in a patient-based analysis: 95.0%, 100.0% and 95.7%, and 90.0%, 66.7% and 90.0%, respectively. In a lesion-based analysis, FSPG PET identified significantly more PDAC metastases, especially in the liver, than FDG PET (109 vs. 95; P = 0.0001, 95% CI 4.9-14.6). The tumour-to-background ratios for FSPG and FDG uptake on positive scans were similar (FSPG 4.2 ± 4.3, FDG 3.6 ± 3.0; P = 0.44, 95% CI -1.11 to 0.48), despite a lower tumour maximum standardized uptake value in FSPG-avid lesions (FSPG 4.2 + 2.3, FDG 7.7 + 5.7; P = 0.002, 95% CI 0.70-4.10). Because of the lower physiological activity of FSPG in the liver, FSPG PET images of the liver are more easy to interpret than FDG PET images, and therefore the use of FSPG improves the detection of liver metastasis. CONCLUSION: FSPG PET is superior to FDG PET in detecting metastasized PDAC, especially in the liver.

3.
Nutr Res ; 52: 87-97, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525610

RESUMO

Arctigenin (ATG), a lignin extracted from Arctium lappa (L.), exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We hypothesized that ATG exerts a protective effect on hepatocytes by preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation. We established an in vitro NAFLD cell model by using normal WRL68 hepatocytes to investigate oleic acid (OA) accumulation and the potential bioactive role of ATG. The results revealed that ATG inhibited OA-induced lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in WRL68 hepatocytes, as determined using Oil Red O staining, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay, and inflammation antibody array assays. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that ATG significantly mitigated the expression of acetylcoenzyme A carboxylase 1 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 and significantly increased the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. The 40 targets of the Human Inflammation Antibody Array indicated that ATG significantly inhibited the elevation of the U937 lymphocyte chemoattractant, ICAM-1, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-6sR, IL-7, and IL-8. ATG could activate the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways and could increase the phosphorylation levels of Akt and AMPK to mediate cell survival, lipid metabolism, oxidation stress, and inflammation. Thus, we demonstrated that ATG could inhibit NAFLD progression associated with lipid oxidation-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation, and we provided insights into the underlying mechanisms and revealed potential targets to enable a thorough understanding of NAFLD progression.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo
4.
Phytomedicine ; 24: 39-48, 2017 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28160860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen, an anti-oestrogenic drug for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, was observed to stimulate tumor growth or drug resistance in patients. Antrodia cinnamomea (AC), a precious medicinal fungus has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for cancers in Asian countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioefficacy and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the AC fruiting bodies extracts (AC-3E) against human ER+ T47D breast cancer cells, and compare the effect with that of tamoxifen. METHODS: Cell proliferation, migration, TUNEL assay, western blotting, time-lapse confocal microscopy analyses, chorioallantoic membrane assay, and a xenograft BALB/c nude mouse system were used in this study. Chemical fingerprinting of AC-3E was established using LC-MS. RESULTS: AC-3E attenuated T47D breast cancer cell activity by deregulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and key cell-cycle mediators, and inducing apoptosis. AC-3E also effectively inhibited tube-like structures of endothelial cells, blood vessel branching and microvessel formation ex vivo and in vivo. Significant preventive and therapeutic effects against T47D mammary tumor growth of AC-3E was observed comparable or superior to tamoxifen treatment in xenograft BALB/c nude mice. Dehydroeburicoic acid (2) was characterized as the main chemical constituent in AC-3E against breast cancer. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that AC-3E extracts can be employed as a double-barreled approach to treat human ER+ breast cancer by attacking both cancer cells and tumor-associated blood vessel cells.


Assuntos
Antrodia/química , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpóforos/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Invest Dermatol ; 135(4): 1065-1073, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25380351

RESUMO

IGF II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3) has been reported to be a marker of melanoma progression. However, the mechanisms by which it impacts melanoma are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of IMP-3 in melanoma progression and also its underlying mechanisms. We found that IMP-3 expression was much higher in advanced-stage/metastatic melanomas and that it was associated with a poor prognosis (P=0.001). Univariate analysis showed that IMP-3 expression was associated with stage III/IV melanomas (odds ratio=5.40, P=0.031) and the acral lentiginous subtype (odds ratio=3.93, P=0.0034). MeWo cells with overexpression of IMP-3 showed enhanced proliferation and migration and significantly increased tumorigenesis and metastatic ability in nude mice. We further demonstrated that IMP-3 could bind and enhance the stability of the mRNA of high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2). It was also confirmed that IMP-3 had an important role in melanoma invasion and metastasis through regulating HMGA2 mRNA expression. IMP-3 expression was positively correlated with HMGA2 expression in melanoma cells and also in melanoma tissues. Our results show that IMP-3 expression is a strong prognostic factor for melanoma, especially acral lentiginous melanoma.


Assuntos
Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Proteína HMGA2/metabolismo , Melanoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Prognóstico
6.
J Tradit Complement Med ; 2(4): 301-11, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24716145

RESUMO

The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB), paclitaxel (PTX) and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX) against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI) analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value < 1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1) and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1(pGL-COX-2/Luc) cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1(pGL-COX-2/Luc) metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

7.
Int J Biol Sci ; 7(6): 869-80, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21814482

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the tumor microenvironment play important roles in tumor invasion and metastasis. Recently, ROS have been reported to cause a significant increase in the production and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, which is closely correlated with metastatic colorectal cancer. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the scavenging activity of dimerumic acid (DMA) for H2O2 isolated from Monascus-fermented rice to investigate the inhibitory effects of DMA on the invasive potential of SW620 human colon cancer cells, and to explore the mechanisms underlying both these phenomena. Our results showed that increased MMP-7 expression due to H2O2 exposure was mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and p38 kinase. DMA pretreatment suppressed activation of H2O2-mediated MAPK pathways and cell invasion. Moreover, H2O2-triggered MMP-7 production was demonstrated via JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos activation in an activating protein 1 (AP-1)-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that DMA suppresses H2O2-induced cell invasion by inhibiting AP-1-mediated MMP-7 gene transcription via the JNK/c-Jun and ERK/c-Fos signaling pathways in SW620 human colon cancer cells. Our data suggest that DMA may be useful in minimizing the development of colorectal metastasis. In the future, DMA supplementation may be a beneficial antioxidant to enhance surgical outcomes.


Assuntos
Dicetopiperazinas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Dicetopiperazinas/isolamento & purificação , Dicetopiperazinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Monascus , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Oryza/química , Oryza/microbiologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20019075

RESUMO

The prevalence of oral tumor has exponentially increased in recent years; however, the effective therapies or prevention strategies are not sufficient. Red mold rice is a traditional Chinese food, and several reports have demonstrated that red mold rice had an anti-tumor effect. However, the possible anti-tumor mechanisms of the red mold rice are unclear. In this study, we examined the anti-tumor effect of red mold rice on 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral tumor in hamster. The ethanol extract of red mold rice (RMRE) treatment significantly decreases the levels of DMBA-induced reactive oxygen species, nitro oxide and prostaglandin E(2) than those of the lovastatin-treated group (P < .001). Moreover, RMRE decreases the formation of oral tumor induced by DMBA. Monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or other red mold rice metabolites had been reported to decrease inflammation and oxidative stress and exerted anti-tumor effects. Therefore, we evaluated the anti-inflammation and anti-oxidative stress effects of monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin and citrinin in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells. We found that RMRE reduced the LPS-induced nitrite levels in RAW264.7 cells better than monacolin K, monascin, ankaflavin or citrinin (P < .05).

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 58(24): 12703-9, 2010 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21080714

RESUMO

The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of Monascus secondary metabolites, monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK), on cell proliferation, adipogenesis, lipolysis and heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (HR-LPL) in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. MS and AK inhibit the proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. At 8 µg/mL concentration MS inhibits proliferation for 80.5% after 48 h, whereas the value for AK is 69.2%. Adipogenesis is inhibited by MS and AK without dose-dependency. Triglyceride is decreased 37.1% and 41.1% respectively by treating 0.125 µg/mL MS and AK. Adipocyte-specific transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ß (C/EBPß), C/EBPδ and C/EBPα mRNA levels are measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression of the four transcriptional factors analyzed (PPARγ, C/EBPß, C/EBPδ and C/EBPα) is reduced at the initial and the middle period. At the later period, there is no effect on the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα by treating MS and AK. Furthermore, both MS and AK increase basal lipolysis of mature adipocytes by 113.2% and 278.3% upregulation, respectively. And both MS and AK reduce the activity of HR-LPL, by 45.3% and 58.1% reduction, respectively. This study reveals for the first time that Monascus secondary metabolites, MS and AK, can prevent the differentiation of preadipocyte and stimulate basal lipolysis of mature adipocytes, avoiding the accumulation of lipid.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavinas/farmacologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/farmacologia , Lipólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrolídeos/metabolismo , Monascus/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/enzimologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Flavinas/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Camundongos , Monascus/química
10.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 9(2): 204-12, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20356949

RESUMO

The traditional Chinese medicine, Hong-Qu, also called red mold rice in the United States and Europe, is used for treating blood stasis, a disorder related to hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. In addition to improving metabolic syndrome, extracts from Monascus-fermented rice inhibit the proliferation of various cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The objective was to examine the effect of red mold rice ethanol extract (RMRE) on angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis during tumor progression. RMRE significantly inhibited the proliferation of SW480 and SW620 human colorectal carcinoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner by using the MTT assay. A capillary-like network morphology was observed after the addition of 20 ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor or SW620 culture-conditional medium, which was not seen after RMRE treatment. Moreover, spontaneous intravasation into Matrigel grafts of SW620 cells from the upper to the lower layers in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of human Alu genomic DNA from the lower CAMs in the RMRE-untreated group. Neovascularization increased to 75.3% +/- 11.6% by SW620 cells onplant with Matrigel grafts in the CAM model. However, RMRE significantly reduced CAM neovascularization in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, RMRE effectively decreased the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 as determined by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR), Western blotting, and casein zymography assays. In summary, Monascus-fermented products exert a potent effect on tumor growth and activation, suggesting that they may serve as supplementary agents in adjuvant cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Corioalantoide/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fermentação , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Monascus/metabolismo , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(22): 10600-7, 2009 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19860468

RESUMO

Zn deficiency is a common disease leading to memory impairment with increasing age. This study evaluated the protection effects of red mold rice (RMR) administration and Zn supplementation against memory and learning ability impairments from oxidative stress caused by Zn deficiency. Rats (4 weeks old) were induced to be Zn deficiency by a Zn-deficient diet for 12 weeks. After that, rats were administered Zn, 1xRMR, 5xRMR, and various dosages of RMR plus Zn, respectively. Decreases of antioxidant enzyme activities in the hippocampus and cortex were observed, and the levels of Ca, Fe, and Mg were increased in the hippocampus and cortex of Zn-deficient rats, leading to memory and learning ability injury. However, the administration of RMR (1- or 5-fold dosage) and with or without Zn significantly improved the antioxidase and neural activity to maintain cortex and hippocampus functions. This study demonstrates that RMR is a possible functional food for the prevention or cure of neural injury associated with Zn deficiency.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Monascus/metabolismo , Oryza/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/deficiência , Animais , Cálcio/análise , Córtex Cerebral/química , Córtex Cerebral/enzimologia , Dieta , Fermentação , Hipocampo/química , Hipocampo/enzimologia , Ferro/análise , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Oryza/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/análise
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 57(18): 8258-65, 2009 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19754167

RESUMO

Monascus -fermented red mold rice extract (RMRE) offers valuable therapeutic benefits and has been extensively used for centuries in East Asia. Monascus secondary polyketide metabolites, including monacolin K (MK) and ankaflavin (AK), have been reported to have antitumor-initiating effects on cancer progression. This paper reports that the oral administration of RMRE dramatically inhibited the metastatic ability of murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice caused by the decline of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels compared with untreated metastatic groups. MK is a key antimetastatic and antiangiogenesis compound in RMRE, as shown by down-regulation of VEGF-stimulated invasive activity in LLC cells by Matrigel-coating transwell and tube-forming assays and reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). Therefore, application of RMRE may serve as a nontoxic natural chemopreventive or antineoplastic agent in the development of cancer adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/tratamento farmacológico , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Monascus/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Lewis/patologia , Fermentação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oryza/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
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