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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130803, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403995

RESUMO

Hydroxycinnamoyl quinic acids are important phenolic acids in tea, particularly fermented teas. However, there have been fewer studies that have confirmed their taste properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the astringent compounds in Keemun congou black tea (KBT) using a combination of mass spectrometry, turbidity analysis, and sensory evaluation. Turbidity analysis determined that p-coumaroylquinic acids were the astringent contributing compounds in KBT. Moreover, the separated compound D16 was identified as trans-4-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid (trans-4-O-pCoQA) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and first confirmed to be the astringent contributing compound in KBT by sensory evaluation. Its astringent threshold concentration was tested to be 38 µM. The trans-4-O-pCoQA content in eight KBT samples of various grades ranged from 40.20 ± 0.15 ~ 65.53 ± 0.22 µM. Turbidity analysis combined with sensory evaluation could be a powerful tool for identifying critical compounds responsible for the astringent taste.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Chá , Adstringentes , Espectrometria de Massas , Paladar
2.
Environ Toxicol ; 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599545

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL) shows little or no toxicity in most normal cells and preferentially induces apoptosis in a variety of malignant cells. However, patients develop resistance to TRAIL, therefore, sensitizing agents that can sensitize the tumor cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis are necessary. In this study, we investigated the effect of 2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methylnaphthyridin-4-one (CSC-3436), an useful flavonoid, to overcome the TRAIL-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. We found that CSC-3436 potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant TNBC cells and this correlated with the upregulation of death receptors (DR)-5 and down-regulation of decreased decoy receptor (DcR)-1 expression. When examined for its mechanism, we found that the decreased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins c-FLIPS/L, Bcl-Xl, Bcl-2, Survivin, and XIAP. CSC-3436 would increase the expression of Bax and promoted the cleavage of bid. In addition, the induction of DR5 by CSC-3436 was found to be dependent on the modulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/p38/C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) signaling pathways. Overall, our results indicated that CSC-3436 could potentiate the apoptotic effects of TRAIL through down-regulation of cell survival proteins and upregulation of DR5 via the ROS-mediated upregulation of CHOP protein.

3.
Food Funct ; 12(20): 9658-9668, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664597

RESUMO

The major cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients is metastasis. Moreover, lots of studies have emphasized that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal step in metastasis. Both transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) and dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can induce or regulate EMT, promoting the loss of intercellular adhesion and increased motility of cancer cells. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent or inhibit the metastasis of colorectal cancer. Relatively little is known about the anti-metastatic effect of oxyresveratrol (OXY), a natural derivative of resveratrol (RES), compared to RES. Accordingly, RES was used as the positive control to investigate the effects of OXY on colon cancer cell migration. The results showed that OXY could significantly inhibit cell migration (67.17% ± 0.04, 64.89% ± 0.04) compared to RES (84.6% ± 0.07, 76.34% ± 0.08) in HCT116 cells and TGF-ß-induced HT-29 cells, respectively, via Snail/E-cadherin expression. In addition, OXY improved EMT-related miRNA expression through, for example, lowering the levels of miR-3687 and miR-301a-3p while upregulating miR-3612 in TGF-ß-induced HT-29 cells. In conclusion, OXY inhibits human colon cancer cell migration by regulating EMT and miRNAs. Based on these findings, it can be stated that OXY promotes anti-metastatic properties in CRC.

4.
Food Chem ; 372: 131255, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627084

RESUMO

Tibet's native fruit resources have not been explored and remain underutilized due to geographical isolation. "Medog lemon" (ML), an ethno-species of wild citron, is an important functional food and dietary resource for the local people in southeastern Tibet. Herein comprehensive characterization of components of ML were firstly performed with an integrated strategy based on UHPLC-QE Orbitrap MS. A total of 196 components were characterized, among which 33 were detected from Citrus genus for the first time, and 55 were identified as potential new phytochemicals. The chemical comparison of ML with cultivated citron and fingered citron based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis model and univariate analysis revealed the distinct chemical composition of ML and in which more than 30 differentiated components were identified. The distinct morphological and chemical characters, as well as its good antioxidant properties, indicated ML as a potential new food resource that can be beneficial for human health.

5.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153733, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, yet fundamental treatments for the disease remain sparse. Thus, the search for potentially efficacious compounds from medicinal plants that can be used in the treatment of PD has gained significant interest. PURPOSE: In many medicinal plants, selenium is primarily found in an organic form. We investigated the neuroprotective potential of an organic form of selenium, N-γ-(L-glutamyl)-L-selenomethionine (Glu-SeMet) in a Caenorhabditis elegans PD model and its possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: We used a C. elegans pharmacological PD strain (BZ555) that specifically expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in dopaminergic neurons and a transgenic PD strain (NL5901) that expresses human α-synuclein (α-syn) in muscle cells to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Glu-SeMet against PD. RESULTS: We found that Glu-SeMet significantly ameliorated 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic neuron damage in the transgenic BZ555 strain, with corresponding improvements in slowing behavior and intracellular ROS levels. In addition, compared with clinical PD drugs (L-DOPA and selegiline), Glu-SeMet demonstrated stronger ameliorated effects on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity. Glu-SeMet also triggered the nuclear translocation of SKN-1/Nrf2 and significantly increased SKN-1, GST-4, and GCS-1 mRNA levels in the BZ555 strain. However, Glu-SeMet did not increase mRNA levels or ameliorate the damage to dopaminergic neurons when the BZ555 strain was subjected to skn-1 RNA interference (RNAi). Glu-SeMet also upregulated the mRNA levels of the selenoprotein TRXR-1 in both the BZ555 and BZ555; skn-1 RNAi strains and significantly decreased α-syn accumulation in the NL5901 strain, although this was not observed in the NL5901; trxr-1 strain. CONCLUSION: We found that Glu-SeMet has a neuroprotective effect against PD in a C. elegans PD model and that the anti-PD effects of Glu-SeMet were associated with SKN-1/Nrf2 and TRXR-1. Glu-SeMet may thus have the potential for use in therapeutic applications or supplements to slow the progression of PD.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(38): 11417-11426, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519500

RESUMO

During tea processing, roasting significantly affects the transformation pathway of catechins. When (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and glucose were roasted at different pH values, the degree of degradation and isomerization of EGCG was the lowest at pH 7 and the highest at pH 8. Thirty-five products were found in the model reaction of EGCG and glucose under high temperatures, of which four EGCG-glucose adducts were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, catechins, gallic acid, and theanine in tea with added glucose were significantly reduced during roasting. The contents of four EGCG-glucose adducts were increased significantly at 150 °C after 30 min and dropped gradually after 60 min. Therefore, based on the present study, EGCG could form crosslinks with glucose under high temperatures in a short time, which provides insight for tea processing and synthesis of catechin-sugar adducts.


Assuntos
Catequina , Cromatografia Líquida , Glucose , Pós , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Chá , Temperatura
7.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8867-8881, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528635

RESUMO

As the major naturally occurring alkaloid in pepper with a pungent taste, piperine is known for its beneficial biological functions and therapeutic effects. In this work, the bioavailability and biological activities of piperine were presented and discussed. Novel delivery systems for enhancing the bioavailability of piperine were also reviewed. This study could provide a better understanding of the physiological and biochemical aspects of piperine to be further developed in the food and nutraceutical industries.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100434, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506670

RESUMO

SCOPE: A causal relationship between circadian misalignment and microbiota dysbiosis has been discussed recently, due to their association to pathogenesis. Herein, the possible impact of pterostilbene (PSB) and resveratrol (RES) on the gut microbiota brought by chronic jet-lag in mice is investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary supplement of RES and PSB (0.25%) are given to 16 week-jetlagged mice to examine the effects on microbiota and physiological functions. Jetlag significantly induces weight gained that could be effectively prevented by PSB. Both supplements also retain oscillation patterns that found to be lost in jetlag induced (JLG) group, including serum biochemical parameters and gut microbiota. The results of beta diversity suggest the supplementations efficiently lead to distinct gut microbial composition as compared to JLG group. Besides, the supplementation forestalls some microbial elevation, such as Eubacterium ventriosum and Acetitomaculum. Growth of health beneficial bacteria like Blautia and Lachnospiraceae UCG-001 is facilitated and abundance of these bacteria could be correlated to oscillation of biochemical parameters. Result of KEGG indicates distinct effect brought by microbial re-shaping. CONCLUSION: The result suggests that supplementation of RES and PSB could potentially dampen some adverse effects of gut microbiota dysbiosis, and at the same time, re-composite and facilitate the growth of health beneficial microbiota.

9.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110592, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507737

RESUMO

5-Demethylnobiletin (5-DMN), identified in the aged citrus peels, has received increasing attentions due to its outstanding bioactivity among citrus polymethoxyflavones (PMFs). However, the poor water solubility and high crystallinity limit its oral bioavailability. Besides, the solubility of 5-DMN in the oil is very limited, which restricts its loading capacity in emulsions for bioavailability enhancement. In this study, an organogel formulation was developed to improve the solubility of 5-DMN in medium-chain triacylglycerols by 3.5 times higher without crystal formation during 5-day storage at room temperature. Increasing the gelator (i.e., sugar ester) concentration led to the increase of viscosity and a gel-like structure of the organogel. The ternary phase diagram of organogel-based emulsions was explored, and 40% organogel was selected as the oil phase for emulsion preparation. Increasing the concentration of Tween 80 from 0% to 6% decreased the droplet size and viscoelasticity of the emulsions. Two in vitro models, the pH-stat lipolysis model and TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM-1), were applied to investigate the bioaccessibility of 5-DMN in different delivery systems. Compared with the conventional emulsion and oil suspension, the pH-stat lipolysis demonstrated that the organogel-based emulsion was the most efficient tool to enhance 5-DMN bioacccessibility. Moreover, TIM-1 digestive study indicated that 5-DMN bioaccessibility delivered by organogel-based emulsions was about 3.26-fold higher than that of oil suspension. Our results suggested that the organogel-based emulsion was an effective delivery route to enhance the loading and bioaccessibility of lipophilic compounds of high crystallinity.


Assuntos
Flavonas , Disponibilidade Biológica , Emulsões , Solubilidade
10.
Food Chem ; 371: 131137, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562777

RESUMO

The role of amino acids and α-dicarbonyls in the flavor formation of Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during thermal processing was investigated. Comparisons of the volatile compounds and their concentrations when N-(1-deoxy-α-d-ribulos-1-yl)-glycine reacted with different amino acids or glyoxal (GO) at 100 °C were executed. Additional amino acids, such as glycine (Gly), in ARP models contributed to the diversity of furanoids by the chain elongation of the derived formaldehyde. Whereas the monoanion of additional glutamic acid acted as nucleophile, favored 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation; the nonionized amino group of additional lysine were involved in α-dicarbonyls formation, causing pyrazine and methylpyrazine accumulation in the ARP model. Moreover, the high dosage and pH stabilization of additional GO probably promoted the ARP degradation and deoxyosones retro-aldol cleavage, resulting in methylpyrazine rather than furanoids formation. The present work provided the guidance for the controlled flavor formation of ARP in industrial application.

11.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452146

RESUMO

Tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) has been well known for its superior antioxidant properties. Therefore, it is speculated that it might be effective to relieve oxidative stress-induced diseases, such as skin hyperpigmentation. In this work, an in vitro B16F10 melanoma cell model was used to study the impact of THC on the melanogenic process under stressed conditions. It was demonstrated that THC could effectively inhibit the α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) induced melanin production in B16F10 melanoma cells and the expressions of three key enzymes involved with the biosynthetic process of melanin, tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2), were all significantly reduced. In addition, an in vitro human keratinocyte cell model was used to investigate the potential protective role of THC on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. It was found that THC could prevent H2O2-induced oxidative stress based on the results of both the cell viability study and the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) study assessed by the flow cytometry. Last, THC was formulated into a lecithin based nanoemulsion, and an in vitro Franz diffusion cell study using Strat-M® membrane concluded that the nanoemulsion could significantly enhance the membrane permeation compared to the unformatted THC suspension. This research demonstrated the anti-melanogenic benefits of THC on the melanoma and keratinocyte cell models and the topical delivery efficacy could be significantly enhanced using a lecithin based nanoemulsion.

12.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356378

RESUMO

Two low-molecular-weight polysaccharides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) were purified from Ganoderma leucocontextum fruiting bodies, and their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities were investigated and compared in this study. The results showed that GLP-1 and GLP-2 were mainly composed of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose, with weight-average molecular weights of 6.31 and 14.07 kDa, respectively. Additionally, GLP-1 and GLP-2 had a similar chain conformation, crystal structure, and molecular surface morphology. Moreover, GLP-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than GLP-2 in five different assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion radical, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC). The main linkage types of GLP-1 were found to be →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →4)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →3)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→, →6)-ß-D-Galp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →4,6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, and Glcp-(1→ by methylation analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, GLP-1 could protect NIH3T3 cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP)-induced oxidative damage by increasing catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, elevating the glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio, and decreasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) level. These findings indicated that GLP-1 could be explored as a potential antioxidant agent for application in functional foods.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10648-10656, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34463101

RESUMO

2-Threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), a nonvolatile precursor of flavor and color, is considered to be more stable than its isomeric Amadori compound (ARP). The degradation behavior of TTCA favors higher temperatures and pH. In order to adjust and control the thermal degradation of TTCA to improve its food processing adaptability, a TTCA-Xyl thermal reaction model was constructed to explore the effect of extra-added Xyl on the thermal degradation behavior of TTCA. The results confirmed that the extra-added Xyl was involved in the degradation pathway of TTCA and accelerated its depletion, thus promoting the formation of characteristic downstream products of TTCA including some α-dicarbonyl compounds, and consequently accelerating the browning formation. The isotope-labeling technique was further applied to confirm that the added Xyl could trap the Cys released from the decomposition of ARP and formed additional TTCA, which could promote the movement of chemical equilibrium and gradually accelerate the degradation rate of TTCA as well as melanoidins formation. The higher pH value could even promote this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Reação de Maillard , Xilose , Cisteína , Tiazolidinas
14.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443472

RESUMO

Feruloylacetone (FER) is a natural degradant of curcumin after heating, which structurally reserves some functional groups of curcumin. It is not as widely discussed as its original counterpart has been previously; and in this study, its anticancer efficacy is investigated. This study focuses on the suppressive effect of FER on colon cancer, as the efficacious effect of curcumin on this typical cancer type has been well evidenced. In addition, demethoxy-feruloylacetone (DFER) was applied to compare the effect that might be brought on by the structural differences of the methoxy group. It was revealed that both FER and DFER inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 cells, possibly via suppression of the phosphorylated mTOR/STAT3 pathway. Notably, FER could significantly repress both the STAT3 phosphorylation and protein levels. Furthermore, both samples showed capability of arresting HCT116 cells at the G2/M phase via the activation of p53/p21 and the upregulation of cyclin-B. In addition, ROS elevation and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were revealed, as indicated by p-atm elevation. The apoptotic rate rose to 36.9 and 32.2% after being treated by FER and DFER, respectively. In summary, both compounds exhibited an anticancer effect, and FER showed a greater proapoptotic effect, possibly due to the presence of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estirenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/agonistas , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Estirenos/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/agonistas
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10036-10057, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460268

RESUMO

Biological targeting or molecular targeting is the main strategy in drug development and disease prevention. However, the problem of "off-targets" cannot be neglected. Naturally derived drugs are preferred over synthetic compounds in pharmaceutical markets, and the main goals are high effectiveness, lower cost, and fewer side effects. Single-target drug binding may be the major cause of failure, as the pathogenesis of diseases is predominantly multifactorial. Naturally derived drugs are advantageous because they are expected to have multitarget effects, but not off-targets, in disease prevention or therapeutic actions. The capability of phytochemicals to modulate molecular signals in numerous diseases has been widely discussed. Among them, stilbenoids, especially resveratrol, have been well-studied, along with their potential molecular targets, including AMPK, Sirt1, NF-κB, PKC, Nrf2, and PPARs. The analogues of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and hydroxylated-pterostilbene may have similar, if not more, potential biological targeting effects compared with their original counterpart. Furthermore, new targets that have been discussed in recent studies are reviewed in this paper.


Assuntos
Estilbenos , Resveratrol
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9924-9933, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427083

RESUMO

The Maillard reaction performed under a stepwise increase of temperature was applied for researching the inhibition of Maillard browning caused by ellagic acid. Ellagic acid was found effective for the inhibition of melanoidin formation in the xylose-glycine Maillard reaction but depended on its dosage and the point of time it was added in the reaction system. The lightest color of the Maillard reaction products was observed when ellagic acid was added at the 90th min, which was the point of time when the Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) developed the most. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis results showed a significant tendency of the ellagic acid hydrolysis product to react with the predominant intermediate ARP to yield an adduct. The adduct stabilized the ARP and delayed its decomposition and inhibited the downstream reactions toward browning. After the ARP was depleted, ellagic acid also showed an effect on scavenging some short-chain dicarbonyls which contributed to the inhibition of Maillard browning.


Assuntos
Ácido Elágico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Reação de Maillard , Xilose
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 155: 112380, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216713

RESUMO

The intake of common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), is strongly correlated to the initiation of colon cancer. BaP is a well-known pro-carcinogen that is metabolically activated by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Studies indicate that polymethoxyflavones, including 5-demethylnobiletin (5-DMNB), exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. However, the effects of 5-DMNB on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and BaP-induced carcinogenesis remain unclear. The combination of BaP and a promoting agent-dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-has been demonstrated to induce tumors in mouse models. Thus, this study aimed to determine the protective effect of 5-DMNB on carcinogen biotransformation and BaP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. Our results showed that 5-DMNB had a substantial inhibitory effect on CYP1B1 induced by BaP and upregulated the detoxification enzymes UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Furthermore, subsequent analyses confirmed that the dietary administration of 5-DMNB markedly ameliorated tumor formation in BaP/DSS-treated mice. Exposure to BaP/DSS also significantly elevated TNF-α levels, and the administration of 5-DMNB reversed this increase. Taken together, we determined that 5-DMNB attenuates BaP/DSS-induced colon cancer through the regulation of inflammation and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. These results indicate that 5-DMNB has significant potential as a novel chemopreventive agent for preventing carcinogen activation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis.

18.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299589

RESUMO

Flavor is one of the most important factors in attracting consumers and maximizing food quality, and the Maillard reaction (MR) is highly-involved in flavor formation. However, Maillard reaction products have a big drawback in their relatively low stability in thermal treatment and storage. Amadori rearrangement products (ARPs), MR intermediates, can alternatively act as potential flavor additives for their better stability and fresh flavor formation ability. This review aims to elucidate key aspects of ARPs' future application as flavorings. The development of current analytical technologies enables the precise characterization of ARPs, while advanced preparation methods such as synthesis, separation and drying processes can increase the yield of ARPs to up to 95%. The stability of ARPs is influenced by their chemical nature, pH value, temperature, water activity and food matrix. ARPs are associated with umami and kokumi taste enhancing effects, and the flavor formation is related to amino acids/peptides of the ARPs. Peptide-ARPs can generate peptide-specific flavors, such as: 1,6-dimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone, 1,5-dimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone, and 1,5,6-trimethy-2(1H)-pyrazinone. However, further research on systematic stability and toxicology are needed.


Assuntos
Aromatizantes/química , Reação de Maillard , Peptídeos/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203004

RESUMO

Green tea and its bioactive components, especially polyphenols, possess many health-promoting and disease-preventing benefits, especially anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer, and metabolic modulation effects with multi-target modes of action. However, the effect of tea polyphenols on immune function has not been well studied. Moreover, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating immunoregulation are not well understood. This review summarizes the recent studies on the immune-potentiating effects and corresponding mechanisms of tea polyphenols, especially the main components of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG). In addition, the benefits towards immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, cutaneous-related immune diseases, and obesity-related immune diseases, have been discussed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Polifenóis/química
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200163

RESUMO

Tea polysaccharides (TPSs) are one of the main bioactive constituents of tea with various biological activities such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, antitumor, and immunomodulatory. The bioactivities of TPSs are directly associated with their structures such as chemical composition, molecular weight, glycosidic linkages, and conformation among others. To study the relationship between the structures of TPSs and their bioactivities, it is essential to elucidate the structure of TPSs, particularly the fine structures. Due to the vast variation nature of monosaccharide units and their connections, the structure of TPSs is extremely complex, which is also affected by several major factors including tea species, processing technologies of tea and isolation methods of TPSs. As a result of the complexity, there are few studies on their fine structures and chain conformation. In the present review, we aim to provide a detailed summary of the multiple factors influencing the characteristics of TPS chemical structures such as variations of tea species, degree of fermentation, and preparation methods among others as well as their applications. The main aspects of understanding the structural difference of TPSs and influencing factors are to assist the study of the structure and bioactivity relationship and ultimately, to control the production of the targeted TPSs with the most desired biological activity.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos/química , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Monossacarídeos/química
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