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1.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023225

RESUMO

BACE1 is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the production and deposition of ß-amyloid (Aß). Since neurotoxic Aß plays a critical role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, BACE1 has emerged as a key target for preventing AD. In the present study, the potential of sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, as a BACE1 inhibitor has been investigated. Sulforaphane exhibited six times more potent activity against BACE1 compared to well-known positive controls including resveratrol and quercetin. Sulforaphane presented selective and non-competitive BACE1 inhibitory activity with low off-target inhibition of BACE2 and other aspartic and serine proteases. In addition, sulforaphane presented negative binding energy, suggesting that the compound had a high affinity for BACE1. It interacted with locations other than the active binding sites of BACE1 through van der Waals forces. Overall, sulforaphane appeared to be a promising candidate with potent and selective BACE1 inhibitory properties that play an important role in AD prevention.

2.
Food Chem ; 341(Pt 1): 128230, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038771

RESUMO

Wuyi rock tea (WRT), is one kind of oolong tea and widely appreciated for its typical 'rock flavor'. The odor characteristics of WRT during processing were comprehensive investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, sensory evaluation and odor activity value (OAV). Alcohols, alkenes and esters were the main volatiles formed during tea processes, but the WRT contained more heterocyclic compounds, among which 15 N-containing volatiles were newly identified in this study, accounting for 60.52% of total amounts of volatiles in WRT. In response, the original green and chemical odors converted to roasted and woody odors, and full fire processing was effective to enhance roasted, floral and woody odors, weaken chemical odor. 2-Ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (OAV 4.71) was confirmed as the aroma-active compound of WRT with roasted odor by aroma recombination experiment. In addition, strong roasted, floral and moderate woody odors were perceived as the outline of 'rock flavor' in WRT aroma. These results provide theoretical basis for processing and quality control of WRT.

3.
Molecules ; 25(17)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887336

RESUMO

Previously we conducted a phytochemical study on the seeds of Fraxinus excelsior and isolated nine secoiridoid compounds with adipocyte differentiation inhibitory activity and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation effects. However, the bioactive constituents and functions of Fraxinus mandshurica seeds have not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the secoiridoid compounds in F. mandshurica seed extract (FM) using column chromatography, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and HPLC-DAD methods. The pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro. Additionally, the anti-obesity and gut microbiota modulation effect of FM on high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice were also studied in vivo. The results showed that 19 secoiridoids were isolated from FM and identified. The total content of secoiridoids in FM reached 181.35 mg/g and the highest content was nuzhenide (88.21 mg/g). All these secoiridoid compounds exhibited good pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity with inhibition rate ranged from 33.77% to 70.25% at the concentration of 100 µM. After obese mice were administrated with FM at 400 mg/kg.bw for 8 weeks, body weight was decreased by 15.81%. Moreover, FM could attenuate the lipid accumulation in serum and liver, relieve the damage in liver and kidney, and extenuate oxidative stress injury and inflammation caused by obesity in mice. FM could also modulate the structural alteration of gut microbiota in obese mice, increasing the proportion of anti-obesity gut microbiota (Bacteroidetes, Bacteroidia, S24-7 and Allobaculum), and reducing the proportion of obesogenic gut microbiota (Firmicutes and Dorea). This study suggests that F. mandshurica seeds or their secoiridoids may have potential for use as a dietary supplement for obesity management.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10709-10718, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880448

RESUMO

Nobiletin, one of the prevalent polymethoxyflavones in citrus peels, was reported to possess various health benefits. We conducted the excretion study and pharmacokinetics study of nobiletin via oral administration and intravenous injection and 15 day consecutive dosing study using the high fat diet-induced obese rats and their lean counterparts. By comparing the demethylated metabolite profiles in the urine and feces, gut microbiota demonstrated greater biotransformation activity on nobiletin than the host. The absolute oral bioavailability of nobiletin in lean (22.37% ± 4.52%) and obese (18.67% ± 4.80%) rats has a negligible statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). However, a higher extent of demethylated metabolites was found in the feces and plasma of obese rats than lean rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, the consecutive dosing of nobiletin might lead to a higher extent of demethylated metabolites in the plasma and in feces. These results suggested that gut microbiota played important roles in nobiletin metabolism.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10902-10911, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893622

RESUMO

The interaction mechanism of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) with Amadori compound (Amadori rearrangement product, ARP) in xylose-alanine model reaction systems was investigated. The adducts between ARP and EGCG were identified as two ARP-EGCG isomers, two ARP-EGCG-H2O isomers, and multiple ARP-deoxypentosone (DP)-EGCG isomers. The structure of an isolated and purified ARP-EGCG adduct was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-time-of-flight (TOF)-mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Using the two-dimensional NMR analyses, the structure of ARP-EGCG adducts was clarified to consist of a covalent linkage between the C12 position of the ARP and the C8 position of the A-ring of EGCG, presumably generated by the nucleophilic nature of the EGCG or aromatic substitution reactions. The results showed that slightly alkaline pH and higher temperature could facilitate this reaction. Additionally, the thermal stability of ARP-EGCG and its degradation products revealed that the decomposition pathways of this adduct altered the classic decomposition pathway of ARP, resulting in a lower browning rate and blocking the subsequent Maillard reaction.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(39): 10884-10892, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902964

RESUMO

2-Threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) was found to be the predominant product rather than the Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) during the formation of xylose-cysteine-derived (Xyl-Cys-derived) Maillard reaction intermediates (MRIs) through a thermal reaction coupled with vacuum dehydration. To regulate the existence forms of Xyl-Cys-derived MRIs, an effective method carried out by pH adjustment during high-temperature instantaneous dehydration through spray-drying was proposed in this research to promote the conversion from TTCA to ARP. The increased inlet air temperature of spray-drying could properly facilitate the shift of chemical equilibrium between the MRIs and promote the transformation from TTCA to ARP while raising the total yield of TA (TTCA + ARP). The conversion to ARP was increased to 20.83% at 190 °C of hot blast compared to the product without spray-drying (6.03%). The conversion from TTCA to ARP was further facilitated in the pH range of 7.5-9.5. When the pH of the aqueous reactants was adjusted to 9.5, the equilibrium conversion to ARP was improved to 47.23% after spray-drying, which accounted for 59.48% of the TA formation. Accordingly, MRIs with different TTCA/ARP proportions could be selectively obtained by pH adjustment of the stock solution during high-temperature instantaneous dehydration of spray-drying.

7.
Carbohydr Polym ; 249: 116874, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933694

RESUMO

Ganoderma leucocontextum is a new species of Ganoderma discovered in 2014. Up to now, the structural characteristics and immunoregulatory activity of its polysaccharides remain virtually unknown. In this study, a water-soluble polysaccharide termed, GLP-3, was purified from G. leucocontextum by ultrafiltration and column chromatography. The results revealed that GLP-3 mainly consisted of glucose (92.7 %) and its weight average molecular weight was 159.7 kDa. The structural analysis indicated that the backbone of GLP-3 was →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→4,6)-ß-D-Glcp-(1→ with a ß-Glcp-(1→ branch. Atomic force microscopy and Congo red experiments revealed that GLP-3 might possess a globular structure with triple-helix conformation in water. Moreover, GLP-3 was recognized by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and exerted immunomodulatory effects via activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Collectively, these results suggested that GLP-3 could be developed as a potential functional food ingredient for immunomodulation.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911493

RESUMO

Theanine (thea) is a unique non-protein amino acid in tea plant (Camellia sinensis) and one of the most important small molecular compounds for tea quality and health effects. The molecular mechanism that maintains thea biosynthesis is not clear but may be reflected in complicated biological networks as other secondary metabolites in plants. We performed an integrative transcriptomic analysis of tea seedlings bud and leave over the time-course of ethylamine (EA) treatment that activated thea pathway. We identified 54 consistent differentially expressed genes (cDEGs, 25 upregulated and 29 downregulated) during thea activation. Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis of upregulated genes and downregulated genes showed that they may function as a cascade of biological events during their cooperative contribution to thea biosynthesis. Among the total cDEGs, a diversity of functional genes (e.g., enzymes, transcription factors, transport and binding proteins) were identified, indicating a hierarchy of gene control network underlying thea biosynthesis. A gene network associated with thea biosynthesis was modeled and three interconnected gene functional modules were identified. Among the gene modules, several topologically important genes (e.g., CsBCS-1, CsRP, CsABC2) were experimentally validated using a combined thea content and gene expression analysis. Collectively, we presented here for the first time a comprehensive landscape of the biosynthetic mechanism of thea controlled by a underling gene network, which might provide a theoretical basis for the identification of key genes that contribute to thea biosynthesis.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(41): 11412-11420, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935545

RESUMO

Nobiletin has received much attention for its promising biological activities. Owing to its limited solubility, various encapsulation strategies have been developed to enhance nobiletin bioavailability. However, the understanding of the bioavailability and biotransformation of nobiletin in vivo and the correlation between in vitro and in vivo data remains limited. This study developed a high-loading nobiletin (1%) emulsion. The in vitro models, which combined pH-stat lipolysis with a Franz cell, showed very good correlation with in vivo data for the relative bioavailability. Rat studies showed that nobiletin had a high absolute bioavailability (≈20% for oil suspension). Besides, the emulsification improved the amount of bioavailable nobiletin and its major metabolite in the blood by about two times, as compared to an oil suspension. This work provides scientific insights into a rapid screening method for delivery systems and a better understanding of the biological fate of nobiletin in vivo.

10.
Food Res Int ; 136: 109485, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846567

RESUMO

Mushrooms from different varieties and manufacturing methods show different flavor profiles. In order to understand the sensory attributes and aroma compounds of boletus, the discrepancy of aroma profile in four varieties of boletus was determined using gas chromatography-olfactometry combined with sensory analysis and partial least squares regression analysis (PLSR). Sensory analysis revealed that Boletus Edulis had potent roasted and buttery attributes, Boletus Aereu exhibited woody note and Boletus Auripes Pk presented powerful floral and smoky aromas, while Boletus Rubellus Krombh showed weakness in five sensory attributes. The quantitative analysis revealed that the dominant volatiles in boletus samples were esters, aldehydes, acids, alcohols, pyrazines, ketones and phenols. A total of 42 potent aroma compounds (OAVs > 1) were determined by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantitative analysis. 1-Octen-3-ol and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine were the potent aroma compounds among four boletus samples. In addition, the key aroma compounds were 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine in Boletus edulis. Isovaleric acid, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, benzeneacetaldehyde and (E)-2-octenal were the key aroma compounds in Boletus aereu. In Boletus auripes Pk, isovaleric acid, 3-ethylphenol and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine were the key aroma compounds, while 3-methylvaleric acid, isovaleric acid and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine significantly contributed to the aroma of boletus rubellus Krombh. Indeed, PLSR indicated that significant difference on aroma resulted from different varieties of boletus.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(35): 9345-9357, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786868

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease due to lipid accumulation in the hepatocyte. Diet, especially a high-fat diet, is one risk factor that leads to NAFLD. Many natural compounds such as isoflavones have antiobesity effects. Therefore, intake of these functional compounds through daily dietary choices is a method of improving health. Miso is a kind of fermented soy paste, which is rich in isoflavones and has a different biological activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of fermented soy paste on NAFLD in high-fat-diet (HFD)-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The results showed that 2% fermented soy paste decreased serum triacylglycerol (TG) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and reduced lipid accumulation in the liver through induced fatty acid oxidation by activating the adenosine 5'-monophosphate -activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing PGC1α and CPT1α protein expression. Furthermore, we found that 2% fermented soy paste increased the abundance of Prevotellaceae NK3B31 and Desulfovibrio. Taken together, fermented soy paste improved HFD-induced lipid accumulation in the liver by activating fatty acid oxidation and modulating gut microbiota.

12.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7356-7370, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820787

RESUMO

Obesity and overweight have become serious health problems in the world and are linked to a variety of metabolic disorders. Phytochemicals with a weight-loss effect have been widely studied for the past few decades. Capsaicin is the major bioactive component in red chili peppers with many beneficial functions. Its anti-obesity effects have been evaluated extensively using different model systems, including cell models, animal models and human subjects. In this paper, anti-obesity effects of capsaicin are reviewed and the underlying mechanisms are characterized.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(30): 8008-8015, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610897

RESUMO

A typical glycoconjugate of glutamic acid, namely, N-(ß-d-deoxyfructos-1-yl)-l-glutamic acid, was successfully synthesized as the primary isomer in a yield of 96.08% using a food-grade preparation method, and its chemical structure was clearly demonstrated by mass spectrometry and 1D/2D NMR. The reaction kinetics of glucose and glutamic acid were systematically studied to investigate the effect of lyophilization and thermal treatment on the conversion of reactants to their corresponding Amadori rearrangement product (ARP). Interestingly, besides the initial pH value, temperature, and heating time, the initial concentration of glutamic acid also influenced the final yield because intramolecular dehydration occurred at the same time, competing with the Maillard reaction and degrading reaction. Moreover, a similar Amadori compound of carnosine was also prepared in a yield of about 66.38% and the yield could be further improved to 95% after condition optimization. One major isomer of the corresponding ARP of the peptide was confirmed to be N-(ß-d-deoxyfructos-1-yl)-ß-alanyl-l-histidine by structure characterization, indicating that this is a good method to prepare the N-(ß-d-deoxyfructos-1-yl)-amino acid/peptide.

14.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 461, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is one of the world's most important beverage crops due to its numerous secondary metabolites conferring tea quality and health effects. However, only a small fraction of tea genes (especially for those metabolite-related genes) have been functionally characterized to date. A cohesive bioinformatics platform is thus urgently needed to aid in the functional determination of the remaining genes. DESCRIPTION: TeaCoN, a database of gene co-expression network for tea plant, was established to provide genome-wide associations in gene co-expression to survey gene modules (i.e., co-expressed gene sets) for a function of interest. TeaCoN featured a comprehensive collection of 261 high-quality RNA-Seq experiments that covered a wide range of tea tissues as well as various treatments for tea plant. In the current version of TeaCoN, 31,968 (94% coverage of the genome) tea gene models were documented. Users can retrieve detailed co-expression information for gene(s) of interest in four aspects: 1) co-expressed genes with the corresponding Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC-values) and statistical P-values, 2) gene information (gene ID, description, symbol, alias, chromosomal location, GO and KEGG annotation), 3) expression profile heatmap of co-expressed genes across seven main tea tissues (e.g., leaf, bud, stem, root), and 4) network visualization of co-expressed genes. We also implemented a gene co-expression analysis, BLAST search function, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis, and genome browser to facilitate use of the database. CONCLUSION: The TeaCoN project can serve as a beneficial platform for candidate gene screening and functional exploration of important agronomical traits in tea plant. TeaCoN is freely available at http://teacon.wchoda.com .

15.
Biomolecules ; 10(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486019

RESUMO

In recent decades, cancer has been one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite advances in understanding the molecular basis of tumorigenesis, diagnosis, and clinical therapies, the discovery and development of effective drugs is an active and vital field in cancer research. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a major curcuminoid metabolite of curcumin, naturally occurring in turmeric. The interest in tetrahydrocurcumin research is increasing because it is superior to curcumin in its solubility in water, chemical stability, bioavailability, and anti-oxidative activity. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that tetrahydrocurcumin exerts anti-cancer effects through various mechanisms, including modulation of oxidative stress, xenobiotic detoxification, inflammation, proliferation, metastasis, programmed cell death, and immunity. Despite the pharmacological similarities between tetrahydrocurcumin and curcumin, the structure of tetrahydrocurcumin determines its distinct and specific molecular mechanism, thus making it a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of cancers. However, the utility of tetrahydrocurcumin is yet to be evaluated as only limited pharmacokinetic and oral bioavailability studies have been performed. This review summarizes research on the anti-cancer properties of tetrahydrocurcumin and describes its mechanisms of action.

16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(27): 7112-7120, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538091

RESUMO

Acute liver injury resulting from several factors such as medication, food toxins, and herbal supplementation often leads to a severe health condition and makes treatment difficult; thereby, the prevention of acute liver injury remains a critical issue and is of great importance. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of nobiletin (NOB) on a mouse model of concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute liver injury. We observed that NOB (10 mg/kg) pretreatment of ConA-treated mice significantly lowered the levels of liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), decreased the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Pathological data suggested that pretreatment with NOB ameliorated ConA-induced liver damage by promoting proliferation and alleviating apoptosis of hepatocytes. Furthermore, significant suppression of the c-Jun-activating kinase (JNK) signal was also observed in NOB-pretreated liver tissues compared with that of ConA treatment only. In addition, an in vitro mechanism study confirmed that the addition of NOB protected hepatocytes via inhibition of JNK activation, manifesting that alleviation of JNK-induced apoptosis of hepatocytes is correlated with NOB protection in acute liver injury.

17.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 64(14): e2000187, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506625

RESUMO

Tea polyphenols (TP) have shown multiple biological activities and the ability to modulate the composition and function of intestinal microbiota. Certain human metabolic diseases are engendered by the disruption of the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythm oscillations exist in both intestinal microbiota and hypothalamus. The brain-gut-microbiome axis enables intestinal microorganisms to communicate with the brain. The close reciprocity between intestinal microbiota and circadian rhythm supplies a new opportunity for TP to regulate circadian-rhythm-related diseases relying on intestinal microbiota. Therefore, based on the potential bidirectional association of the brain and gut microbes, this review mainly discussed the interaction between TP and intestinal microbiota from the perspective of the gut-brain axis (GBA) to improve the theory of metabolic diseases prevention.

18.
Food Chem ; 329: 127118, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512391

RESUMO

Sonication was applied to accelerate aroma formation and shorten fermentation time of soy sauce. Effects of sonication at 68 kHz on the aroma and aroma-producing Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Tetragenococcus halophilus in moromis were investigated using sensory evaluation, SPME-GC-olfactometry/MS, viable cell counting and scanning electron microscopy. The sensory scores of caramel-like, fruity, alcoholic, floral, malty, smoky, sour and overall aroma in sonicated moromis were enhanced by 23.4%, 23.2%, 13.6%, 12.8%, 7.6%, 6.3%, 5.6% and 14.4%, respectively. Sensory scores of samples fermented for 90-180 days were higher than those of controls fermented for 180 days, suggesting that sonication could reduce fermentation time by 90 days. Thirty-four aroma-active compounds were detected from 85 volatile compounds in soy sauces. Sonication accelerated and elevated the formation of aroma compounds by chemical reactions. It also markedly increased the reproduction and cell permeability of both microorganisms in moromis, which favored the formation of aroma compounds by both strains.


Assuntos
Odorantes/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Enterococcaceae , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Sonicação , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Paladar , Zygosaccharomyces
19.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-14, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462891

RESUMO

Historically, spices have played an important economic role, due to their large applications and unique flavor. The supply and cost of spice materials and their corresponding natural products are often affected by environmental, geopolitical and climatic conditions. Secondary metabolite composition, including certain flavor compounds in spice plants, is recognized and considered closely related to plant classification. Both genes and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of spice flavors are constantly identified, which provides insight into metabolic engineering of flavor compounds (i.e. aroma and pungent compounds) from spice plants. In this review, a systematic meta-analysis was carried out based on a comprehensive literature survey of the flavor profiles of 36 spice plants from nine families. We also reviewed typical biosynthetic pathways and metabolic engineering of most representative aroma and pungent compounds that may assist in the future study of spice plants as biosynthetic factories facing a new challenge in creating spice products.

20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(22): 6142-6153, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394707

RESUMO

Tangeretin (TAN) exhibited antilipogenic, antidiabetic, and lipid-lowering effects. However, the lipid biomarkers and the underlying mechanisms for antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects of TAN have not been sufficiently investigated. Herein, we integrated biochemical analysis with lipidomics to elucidate its efficacy and mechanisms in high-fat diet-fed rats. TAN at supplementation levels of 0.04 and 0.08% not only significantly decreased body weight gain, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels but also ameliorated hepatic steatosis. These beneficial effects were associated with the declining levels of fatty acids, diacylglycerols (DGs), triacylglycerols, ceramides, and cholesteryl esters by hepatic lipidomics analysis, which were attributed to downregulating lipogenesis-related genes and upregulating lipid oxidation- and bile acid biosynthesis-related genes. Additionally, 21 lipids were identified as potential lipid biomarkers, such as DGs and phosphatidylethanolamines. These findings indicated that the modulation of lipid homeostasis might be the key pathways for the mechanisms of TAN in the antiobesity and cholesterol-lowering effects.

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