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1.
J Food Sci ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721210

RESUMO

Maillard reaction intermediate (MGX) generated from glutathione and xylose in aqueous medium was prepared via the Maillard reaction performed under a two-stage temperature increase process. The purified MGX was identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance as N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-glutathione (Amadori compound, C15 H25 O10 N3 S) with five main isomers. The method of Maillard reaction performed under a two-stage temperature increase process was further verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The optimal reaction time and temperature for the preparation of MGX was determined as 60 min at 90 °C. The yield of MGX was increased from 8.60% to 55.52% through thermal reaction coupled with vacuum dehydration. In addition, rapid and more Maillard-type volatile compounds were formed in MGX during thermal treatment than that in Maillard reaction products or glutathione-xylose mixture. Beside, MGX possessed more pleasing meat-like volatile profile compared with the Amadori compound of glutamic acid-xylose (AAX), cysteine-xylose (ACX), and glycine-xylose (AGX). Therefore, it suggested that the MGX had the potential to achieve a better flavor formation during thermal treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Maillard reaction intermediates, such as Amadori or Heyns rearrangement products (ARP or HRP), are important flavor precursors, which possess stable physicochemical properties, but tend to degrade into flavor compounds at high temperatures. Maillard reaction intermediate from glutathione and xylose acts as primary flavor enhancers to complete Maillard reaction to produce flavors in the subsequent thermal processing, which can significantly improve and stabilize the flavor quality of the meaty food, and deserves a very broad application prospects. The new developed method will be a significant theoretical basis on research preparation and properties of Maillard reaction intermediates in complex food systems.

2.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900550, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675164

RESUMO

Neurological disorders occur in the central and peripheral nervous system and include Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and spinal cord injury. Activation of the innate immune system inevitably occurs in all forms of neurological disorders. The NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a multimolecular complex that can sense danger signals associated with neurological disorders. Assembly of the NLRP3 inflammasome promotes caspase-1-mediated interleukin-1ß and interleukin-18 maturation in microglia, where neuroinflammation contributes to neurological disease development and progression. Thus, this review attempts to elucidate the current knowledge regarding NLRP3 inflammasome activation and its crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Recent scientific findings with respect to neuroprotective effects of dietary phytochemicals against NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neurological disorders summarized in this review suggest that modulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome assembly by plant-derived phytochemicals could be a potential strategy for prevention or treatment of neurological disorders.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(43): 11969-11976, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583884

RESUMO

Our present study focused on the regulating effect of oolong tea polyphenols (OTPs) on the circadian rhythm of liver and intestinal microbiome. OTP significantly alleviated the disrupted diurnal oscillation and phase shift of the specific intestinal microbiota and liver clock genes in mice induced by constant dark (CD) treatment. Transcriptomics revealed that 1114 genes in the control group and 647 genes in the CD group showed circadian rhythm while 723 genes were rhythmic in the CD-OTP group. The Gene Ontology (GO) database provided significant differences in differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to OTP treatment. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways enriched the most DEGs after OTP intervention including "Focal adhesion" (9 DEGs) and "PI3K-Akt signaling pathway" (9 DEGs). The present study provided a global view that OTP may alleviate the circadian rhythm disorder of the host, contributing to the improvement of microecology and health.

4.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6915-6926, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588440

RESUMO

Morus species, commonly known as mulberry, is widely distributed in China. The mulberry tree is a high-value plant in agriculture. Morus australis is one of the major Morus species growing in Northern China. However, the biological properties of the main constituents of M. australis roots were not well studied. In the present study, through extensive chromatographic and spectral analysis, 12 phenolic compounds were isolated and identified from the M. australis roots. Compounds 1, 2, 8, 9 and 12 were isolated from M. australis roots for the first time. Antitumor activities of these polyphenols were studied on the A549 cell line. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 exhibited cytotoxicity on A549 cells and induced apoptosis in A549 cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. They also mediated inhibition of autophagic flux contributed cell death via the PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway. In order to explore more potential bioactivities of these isolates, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities were studied, and the results demonstrated that the inhibitory activity of these polyphenols on enzymes was not defined by their basic structural skeletons, but by the substituted position.

6.
Food Funct ; 10(11): 7308-7314, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626263

RESUMO

Pterostilbene (PTE) is broadly found in berries and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To examine the effect of PTE on acute liver injury, mice were administrated PTE prior to concanavalin A (ConA). The mice were divided into the following groups: (i) vehicle control, (ii) ConA alone, (iii) ConA with PTE at 10 mg kg-1 (PTE low dose, PTL), and (iv) ConA with PTE at 40 mg kg-1 (PTE high dose, PTH). After the ConA challenge, the mice showed prompt induction of intrahepatic IFN-γ and TNF-α, followed by tissue factor (TF), which aggravated the fibrin deposition and massive liver necrosis. However, these effects were significantly counteracted by the PTE pretreatment. Furthermore, PTE reversed the phosphorylation of ConA-induced intrahepatic inflammatory kinases including JNK, ERK1/2, p38 and p65. Interestingly, PTE did not directly act on the hepatocytes, but inhibited intrahepatic macrophage accumulation and TF generation by inhibiting the activation of inflammatory p38 MAPK. These results suggest a promising avenue for the exploration of pterostilbene in improving acute liver injury.

7.
J Food Biochem ; : e13088, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646682

RESUMO

The seeds of tree peony (Paeonia ostii) are promulgated as emerging edible oil crops. However, biological properties of principal constituents of peony seeds were not well studied. Fifteen main constituents including suffruticosols A and B, trans-ε-viniferin, ampelopsin E, resveratrol, trans-resveratrol-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, paeoniflorin, luteolin, luteolin-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, apigenin, kaempferol, oleanic acid, betulinic acid, hederagenin, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified. Their cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines (COLO205, HT-29, HepG2, AGS, and HL-60) were evaluated. Among them, trans-ε-viniferin showed the most potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (IC50 5.6 µM); ampelopsin E exhibited the most obvious antiproliferative properties on COLO205 (IC50 78.1 µM) and HT-29 (IC50 4.2 µM) cells, and betulinic acid showed the strongest growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 (IC50 6.6 µM) and AGS (IC50 5.4 µM) cells. Three enzymes (tyronsinase, α-glucosidase, and acetylcholinesterase) inhibitory activities of 12 compounds were also screened. Stilbene compounds, especially suffruticosols A and B, showed a significant inhibitory activity on all three enzymes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The cytotoxicity of 15 main constituents from peony seeds against COLO205, HT-29, HepG2, AGS, and HL-60 cells were evaluated. Among them, trans-ε-viniferin showed the most potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 cells (IC50 5.6 µM); ampelopsin E exhibited the most obvious antiproliferative properties on COLO205 (IC50 78.1 µM) and HT-29 (IC50 4.2 µM) cells, and betulinic acid showed the strongest growth inhibitory effects on HepG2 (IC50 6.6 µM) and AGS (IC50 5.4 µM) cells. Collectively, these results suggested that Paeonia ostii seed (POS) extracts are potential candidates for anticancer agents.

8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10321-10329, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419115

RESUMO

Pterostilbene (PTS) is a phenolic compound with diverse pharmacologic activities. However, its potential for inhibiting obesity-related colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Our study evaluated the mechanism of inhibitory effects of PTS on adipocyte conditioned-medium (aCM)-induced malignant transformation in HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that PTS could downregulate the expression of aCM-induced fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and prometastatic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, and extracellular tumor necrosis factor α via inhibiting aCM-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), ß-catenin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Moreover, PTS can suppress aCM-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK 1/2) signaling pathways activation that are upstream of NF-κB, ß-catenin, and PPAR-γ. Therefore, we suggest that PTS could alleviate adiposity-induced metastasis in CRC via inhibiting cell migration through downregulating FABP5 gene expression.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10089-10096, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423784

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms are closely associated with metabolic homeostasis. Metabolic disorders can be alleviated by many bioactive components through controlling of clock gene expressions. Capsaicin has been demonstrated with many beneficial effects including anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance activities, yet whether the rhythmic expression of circadian clock genes are involved in the regulation of redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder by capsaicin remains unclear. In this work, the insulin resistance was induced in HepG2 cells by treatment of glucosamine. Glucose uptake levels, reactive oxygen species, H2O2 production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with/without capsaicin cotreatment. The mRNA and protein expressions of core circadian clock genes were evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Our study revealed that circadian misalignment could be ameliorated by capsaicin. The glucosamine-induced cellular redox imbalance and glucose metabolism disorder were ameliorated by capsaicin in a Bmal1-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/administração & dosagem , Relógios Circadianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Resistência à Insulina , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/genética , Fatores de Transcrição ARNTL/metabolismo , Animais , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/genética , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo de Glucose/fisiopatologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 5115-5123, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364649

RESUMO

Both as a food and an herbal plant, Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has long been used in food and prescriptions for several centuries in Southeast Asia. trans-2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene 2-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (trans-THSG) is one of the major compounds derived from PM and has been reported to exhibit multiple biological activities such as antioxidation and anti-obesity activities among others. The current study was aimed at investigating the effects of trans-THSG on liver fibrosis and renal injury in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced rodent model via oral feeding. Research results have demonstrated that administration of trans-THSG (100 and 300 mg kg-1) significantly ameliorated liver fibrosis, manifested by reduced expression of desmin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) plus collagen deposition. Specifically, treatment with trans-THSG effectively decreased the levels of transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) and reduced the phosphorylation of Smad1/2 (p-Smad1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (p-ERK1/2). Furthermore, we found that trans-THSG significantly down-regulated CCl4-induced excessive collagen secretion and increased the levels of desmin, MMP2 and MMP9 in rat liver tissues, suggesting that trans-THSG prevents liver fibrosis by attenuating the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) through the inhibition of Smad and ERK signaling pathways. Hence, the present findings demonstrate that trans-THSG is an effective antifibrotic agent in protecting liver from CCl4-induced toxicity.

11.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443488

RESUMO

As a functional polysaccharide, inulin was carboxymethylated and it formed nanocomplexes with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The success of obtaining carboxymethyl inulin (CMI) was confirmed by a combination of Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and titration. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the formation of CMI/BSA nanocomplexes were investigated. Our results showed that the formation of complex coacervate (pHφ1) and dissolution of CMI/BSA insoluble complexes (pHφ2) appeared in pH near 4.85 and 2.00 respectively. FT-IR and Raman data confirmed the existence of electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonding between CMI and BSA. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) results suggested that the process of complex formation was spontaneous and exothermic. The complexation was dominated by enthalpy changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S < 0) at pH 4.00, while it was contributed by enthalpic and entropic changes (∆Η < 0, ∆S > 0) at pH 2.60. Irregularly shaped insoluble complexes and globular soluble nanocomplexes (about 150 nm) were observed in CMI/BSA complexes at pH 4.00 and 2.60 while using optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. The sodium chloride suppression effect on CMI/BSA complexes was confirmed by the decrease of incipient pH for soluble complex formation (or pHc) and pHφ1 under different sodium chloride concentrations. This research presents a new functional system with the potential for delivering bioactive food ingredients.

12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(20): e1900514, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368236

RESUMO

SCOPE: A gut-microbiota-dependent metabolite of L-carnitine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), has been recently discovered as an independent and dose-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to investigate the effects of pterostilbene on reducing TMAO formation and on decreasing vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice are treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water with or without pterostilbene supplementation. Using LC-MS/MS, the result shows that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine only significantly increased the plasma TMAO and pterostilbene supplementation group can reverse it. Additionally, pterostilbene decreases hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. It appears that pterostilbene can alter host physiology and create an intestinal microenvironment favorable for certain gut microbiota. Gut microbiota analysis reveals that pterostilbene increases the abundance of Bacteroides. Further, pterostilbene decreases mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that amelioration of carnitine-induced vascular inflammation after consumption of pterostilbene is partially mediated via modulation of gut microbiota composition and hepatic enzyme FMO3 gene expression.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8632-8640, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309828

RESUMO

The Maillard reaction under a stepwise increase of temperature using l-cysteine as the indicator was performed to determine the formation conditions for the preparation of 2-threityl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) which was the main Maillard reaction intermediate (MRI) derived from the xylose (Xyl)-cysteine (Cys) model system in aqueous medium. To clarify the indicating mechanism of Cys for the TTCA formation, the thermal model systems of TTCA-Cys and TTCA solutions were investigated. The browning of the final Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and concentration of downstream degradation products of MRIs indicated that the added Cys could react with TTCA to inhibit the formation of visible color via preventing the generation of dicarbonyl compounds derived from MRIs. Through HPLC analysis, it was demonstrated that added Cys affected the normal reaction pathway from TTCA to ARP and other downstream products by restoring TTCA to sugar and amino acid under heat treatment.


Assuntos
Cisteína/química , Tiazolidinas/química , Xilose/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Temperatura Alta , Reação de Maillard
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8994-9001, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347366

RESUMO

The effect of simultaneous dehydration-reaction (SDR) on Amadori rearrangement product (ARP) N-(1-deoxy-d-xylulos-1-yl)-glutathione and its key degradation products, 3-deoxyxylosone (3-DX) and 1-deoxyxylosone (1-DX), were investigated in an aqueous glutathione-xylose (GSH-Xyl) system. The yield of ARP was increased to 67.98% by SDR compared with 8.44% by atmospheric thermal reaction at 80 °C. Reaction kinetics was applied to analyze the mechanism and characteristics of ARP formation and degradation under SDR. ARP formation and degradation rate was highly dependent on temperature, and the latter was more sensitive to temperature. By regulating the reaction conditions of temperature and pH, the ratio of ARP formation rate constant to its degradation rate constant could be controlled to achieve an efficient preparation of ARP from GSH-Xyl Maillard reaction through SDR.


Assuntos
Glutationa/química , Xilose/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cetoses/química , Cinética , Reação de Maillard , Temperatura Ambiente
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8847-8854, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328515

RESUMO

Microbiome has been revealed as a key element involved in maintaining the circadian rhythms. Oolong tea polyphenols (OTP) has been shown to have potential prebiotic activity. Therefore, this study focused on the regulation mechanisms of OTP on host circadian rhythms. After 8 weeks of OTP administration, a large expansion in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes with a decrease in Firmicutes was observed, which reflected the positive modulatory effect of OTP on gut flora. In addition, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways of ATP-binding cassette transporters, two-component system, and the biosynthesis of amino acids enriched the most differentially expressed genes after OTP treatment. Of the differentially expressed proteins identified, most were related to metabolism, genetic information processing, and environmental information processing. It underscores the ability of OTP to regulate circadian rhythm by enhancing beneficial intestinal microbiota and affecting metabolic pathways, contributing to the improvement of host microecology.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/microbiologia , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Chá/química
16.
In Vivo ; 33(4): 1193-1201, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Our current study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms of citronellol-induced cell death and ROS accumulation in non-small cell lung cancer (NCI-H1299 cells) and also compare the anticancer effects of citronellol and EOPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ROS measurement and western blotting were performed to detect whether citronellol can induce necroptosis in vitro. Besides, we performed an in vivo analysis of tumourigenesis inhibition by citronellol treatment in BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mice. RESULTS: Necroptosis occured by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1/RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3/caspase-8 activities after citronellol treatment in NCI-H1299 cells. Citronellol also resulted in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells. Xenograft model experiments showed that citronellol could effectively inhibit subcutaneous tumours produced 4 weeks after intraperitoneal injection of NCI-H1299 in BALB/c nude mice. CONCLUSION: Citronellol induced necroptosis of NCI-H1299 cells via TNF-α pathway and ROS accumulation.

17.
Molecules ; 24(15)2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349561

RESUMO

Bee pollen contains all the essential amino acids needed by humans. China is the largest producer of bee pollen in the world. In the present study, we identified 11 fatty acids in F. esculentum bee pollen oil by GC-MS analysis, and 16 compounds were isolated from F. esculentum bee pollen by column chromatography and identified. A high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was established for the quality control of F. esculentum bee pollen. A validated HPLC-DAD method was successfully applied to the simultaneous characterization and quantification of nine main constituents in seven samples collected from seven different areas in China. The results showed that all standard calibration curves exhibited good linearity (R2 > 0.999) in HPLC-DAD analysis with excellent precision, repeatability and stability. The total amount in the samples from the seven regions ranged from 23.50 to 46.05 mg/g. In addition, seven compounds were studied for their bioactivity using enzymic methods, whereby kaempferol (3) showed high α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 80.35 µg/mL), ergosterol peroxide (8) showed high tyrosinase inhibitory activity (IC50: 202.37 µg/mL), and luteolin (1) had strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50: 476.25 µg/mL). All results indicated that F. esculentum bee pollen could be a nutritious health food.

18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 293: 333-339, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151620

RESUMO

The volatile compounds of Volvariella volvacea mushroom were investigated by solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE)/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), odor activity value (OAV), combined with aroma reconstitution and omission. The results showed that a total of 63 compounds were detected after SAFE extraction. A total of 26 compounds were determined after GC-O and 17 compounds whose OAV greater than 1 were subjected to reconstitution and omission experiments. The results showed that dihydro-ß-ionone, 1-octen-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, γ-undecalactone, 3-octanol, 2-octanone, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, camphene, carvone, 2-nonanone, and phenylacetaldehyde have been successfully identified as the key aroma compounds. More significantly, dihydro-ß-ionone as a key aroma compound was first found in Volvariella volvacea mushroom.


Assuntos
Álcoois/análise , Cetonas/análise , Odorantes/análise , Volvariella/química , Adulto , Aldeídos/análise , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Cetonas/química , Masculino , Octanóis , Olfatometria/métodos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Org Lett ; 21(13): 5147-5151, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247775

RESUMO

Racemic trimethylallantoin monomer (1), mesomeric and racemic trimethylallantoin dimers (2 and 3), were isolated from tea. Two pairs of optically pure enantiomers (1a, 1b and 3a, 3b) were separated by chiral column from the two racemes (1 and 3). Their structures were elucidated by a combination of extensive spectroscopic techniques, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism. A novel caffeine catabolic pathway was proposed based on the caffeine stable isotopic tracer experiments.

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