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1.
Cancer Cell ; 39(11): 1531-1547.e10, 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624218

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are highly heterogeneous. With the lack of a comprehensive understanding of CAFs' functional distinctions, it remains unclear how cancer treatments could be personalized based on CAFs in a patient's tumor. We have established a living biobank of CAFs derived from biopsies of patients' non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) that encompasses a broad molecular spectrum of CAFs in clinical NSCLC. By functionally interrogating CAF heterogeneity using the same therapeutics received by patients, we identify three functional subtypes: (1) robustly protective of cancers and highly expressing HGF and FGF7; (2) moderately protective of cancers and highly expressing FGF7; and (3) those providing minimal protection. These functional differences among CAFs are governed by their intrinsic TGF-ß signaling, which suppresses HGF and FGF7 expression. This CAF functional classification correlates with patients' clinical response to targeted therapies and also associates with the tumor immune microenvironment, therefore providing an avenue to guide personalized treatment.

2.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(4): e12464, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263245

RESUMO

Objective: Emergency caregivers provide initial care to women sexual assault (SA) survivors. An improved understanding of the issues facing this population can aide emergency care practitioners in providing high quality care. The goal of this study was to share the experiences of women SA survivors with the emergency care practitioners that care for them. Methods: English-speaking adult women (n = 706) who received SA Nurse Examiner (SANE) evaluation within 72 hours of SA at 1 of 13 geographically distributed sites were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal multi-site observational study. We qualitatively analyzed responses to the open-ended question: "What do you think is most important for researchers to understand about your experience since the assault?" asked 1 week, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after enrollment. Results: Themes from responses (n = 1434) from 590 women (84% of study sample) fell into 12 broad categories: daily life, justice, medical, and social services, mental health, physical health, prior trauma, recovery, romantic relationships, safety, self, shame, and social interactions. Responses demonstrated that the assault permeates many aspects of assault survivors' daily lives. Conclusions: Qualitative analyses of open-ended responses from a large cohort of women SA survivors receiving SANE care highlight the challenges for survivors and can increase understanding among the emergency care practitioners who care for them. The authors propose a brief acronym to help emergency care practitioners recall important messages for SA survivors.

3.
Pain ; 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224498

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Clinically significant new or worsening pain (CSNWP) is a common, yet often overlooked, sequelae of sexual assault. Little is known regarding factors influencing the development of CSNWP in sexual assault survivors. The current study used data from a recently completed prospective study to evaluate whether posttraumatic alterations in arousal and reactivity in the early aftermath of sexual assault influence the transition from acute to clinically significant new or worsening persistent pain. Women ≥ 18 years of age (n = 706) presenting for emergency care after sexual assault to 13 emergency care sites were enrolled in the study. Women completed assessments at the time of presentation as well as at 1 week (n = 706, 100%) and 6 weeks (n = 630, 91%). Nearly 70% of women reported CSNWP at the time of emergency care (n = 475, 69%), which persisted to 6 weeks in approximately 2 in 5 survivors (n = 248, 41%). A structural equation model adjusted for age, race, past trauma exposure, and preassault pain levels suggested that posttraumatic alterations in arousal/reactivity symptoms 1 week after assault partially mediated the transition from acute to persistent CSNWP. A significant portion (41%) of women sexual assault survivors develop CSNWP 6 weeks postassault. Posttraumatic arousal/reactivity symptoms in the early aftermath of assault contribute to CSNWP development; such symptoms are potential targets for secondary preventive interventions to reduce chronic postassault pain.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917562

RESUMO

Ebola virus (EBOV) is a virulent pathogen, notorious for inducing life-threatening hemorrhagic fever, that has been responsible for several outbreaks in Africa and remains a public health threat. Yet, its pathogenesis is still not completely understood. Although there have been numerous studies on host transcriptional response to EBOV, with an emphasis on the clinical features, the impact of EBOV infection on post-transcriptional regulatory elements, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), remains largely unexplored. MiRNAs are involved in inflammation and immunity and are believed to be important modulators of the host response to viral infection. Here, we have used small RNA sequencing (sRNA-Seq), qPCR and functional analyses to obtain the first comparative miRNA transcriptome (miRNome) of a human liver cell line (Huh7) infected with one of the following three EBOV strains: Mayinga (responsible for the first Zaire outbreak in 1976), Makona (responsible for the West Africa outbreak in 2013-2016) and the epizootic Reston (presumably innocuous to humans). Our results highlight specific miRNA-based immunity pathways and substantial differences between the strains beyond their clinical manifestation and pathogenicity. These analyses shed new light into the molecular signature of liver cells upon EBOV infection and reveal new insights into miRNA-based virus attack and host defense strategy.


Assuntos
Ebolavirus/metabolismo , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , RNA-Seq , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ebolavirus/genética , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/genética , Humanos , Fígado/virologia , MicroRNAs/genética
5.
J Emerg Nurs ; 47(3): 449-458, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examined the perspectives of female patients who had been sexually assaulted regarding the quality of care provided by sexual assault nurse examiners, including whether the patients' perspectives varied by their demographic characteristics and health status before the assault. METHODS: A total of 695 female patients who received care from sexual assault nurse examiners at 13 United States emergency care centers and community-based programs completed standardized surveys 1 week after receiving sexual assault nurse examiners' care for sexual assault. RESULTS: Most patients strongly agreed that the sexual assault nurse examiners provided high-quality care, including taking patients' needs/concerns seriously, not acting as though the assault was the patient's fault, showing care/compassion, explaining the sexual assault examination, and providing follow-up information. The perceptions did not vary by the patients' demographic characteristics or preassault health status. DISCUSSION: Female patients who had been sexually assaulted and who were evaluated at 13 widely geographically distributed sexual assault nurse examiners' programs consistently reported that the sexual assault nurse examiners provided high-quality, compassionate care.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Estupro , Delitos Sexuais , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
6.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(1): 67-78, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately, 100,000 US women receive emergency care after sexual assault each year, but no large-scale study has examined the incidence of posttraumatic sequelae, receipt of health care, and frequency of assault disclosure to providers. The current study evaluated health outcomes and service utilization among women in the 6 weeks after sexual assault. METHODS: Women ≥18 years of age presenting for emergency care after sexual assault to twelve sites were approached. Among those willing to be contacted for the study (n = 1080), 706 were enrolled. Health outcomes, health care utilization, and assault disclosure were assessed via 6 week survey. RESULTS: Three quarters (76%) of women had posttraumatic stress, depression, or anxiety, and 65% had pain. Less than two in five reported seeing health care provider; receipt of care was not related to substantive differences in symptoms and was less likely among Hispanic women and women with a high school education or less. Nearly one in four who saw a primary care provider did not disclose their assault, often due to shame, embarrassment, or fear of being judged. CONCLUSION: Most women receiving emergency care after sexual assault experience substantial posttraumatic sequelae, but health care in the 6 weeks after assault is uncommon, unrelated to substantive differences in need, and limited in socially disadvantaged groups. Lack of disclosure to primary care providers was common among women who did receive care.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 25(4): 588-592, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776812

RESUMO

The American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma (ACS-COT), the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), the National Association of State EMS Officials (NASEMSO), the National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) and the National Association of EMTs (NAEMT) have previously offered varied guidance on the use of ketamine in trauma patients. The following consensus statement represents the collective positions of the ACS-COT, ACEP, NASEMSO, NAEMSP and NAEMT. This updated uniform guidance is intended for use by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, EMS medical directors, emergency physicians, trauma surgeons, nurses and pharmacists in their treatment of the trauma patient in both the prehospital and hospital setting.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ketamina , Consenso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais , Humanos
8.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 77: 102088, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242742

RESUMO

We used a previously described methodology in a swine model to compare the relative cardiac safety of the Axon T7 Conducted Electrical Weapon (CEW), released in October of 2018, to two prior generations of Axon CEWs to include the X2 and the X26E. A total of 5 swine (252 total CEW exposures) were tested by alternating the three weapons at each chest exposure location. Our testing, using systemic hypotension as the quantitative surrogate for cardiac capture, demonstrated that the T7 and X2 were not statistically different. Both were superior, in terms of reduced hypotension during exposure, to the X26E. This study is important as it demonstrates that the newly released weapon is non-inferior to the X2 and superior to the X26E using this surrogate safety model. It is also important because it is the first study to examine the cardiac effects of simultaneous multi-bay exposures. Our prior study compared the X2 to the X26E but examined only single bay exposures from the X2. Lastly, we feel we have improved the methodology for studying the comparative cardiac effects of CEWs.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Lesões por Armas de Eletrochoque , Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Animais , Modelos Animais , Polícia , Suínos , Armas
9.
J Trauma Stress ; 33(6): 1111-1120, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179292

RESUMO

Anxiety sensitivity is a potential risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and has been hypothesized to contribute to PTSS development. However, few prospective studies have evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity predicts PTSS. In a subsample of 48 women sexual assault survivors enrolled as part of a larger prospective observational study, elevated anxiety sensitivity measured via a brief assessment 1 week after experiencing a sexual assault was concurrently associated with PTSS at 1 week and prospectively predicted PTSS 6 weeks after the event, with small-to-medium effect sizes, η2 p = .10, even after covarying for trauma history. Heightened anxiety sensitivity at 1-week postevent also interacted with time to predict anxiety and depression both before and after sexual assault, with medium-to-large effect sizes, ηp 2 = .21- .24. This is consistent with research linking anxiety sensitivity to PTSS, but this was the first prospective study of which we are aware to demonstrate that anxiety sensitivity in the acute posttrauma period predicts PTSS among women who have recently experienced sexual assault. Future research should use the full Anxiety Sensitivity Index to replicate findings in a larger sample and explore whether targeting anxiety sensitivity could mitigate the development of PTSS in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Delitos Sexuais/classificação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(4): 613-621, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812174

RESUMO

Conducted electrical weapons (CEW) are ubiquitous in law enforcement given their unique ability to physically incapacitate violently resisting subjects. Early use of animal models to study CEW incapacitation effectiveness (e.g. porcine model with 4-limb strain gauges) proved to be poorly predictive of human incapacitation effectiveness. In a previously published human study, we developed a methodology for the prospective assessment of the incapacitation effectiveness of CEWs in highly motivated human subjects. Here we use this methodology in Part 1 to compare the incapacitation effectiveness of the newly released Axon® (formerly TASER® International) T(ASER) 7 to the TASER X26E, the "gold standard", and the TASER X2, a current model. The T7 has a new "adaptive cross-connect" technology that may improve incapacitation effectiveness in the scenario of small spreads between probe pairs, a common cause of weapon "failure" in the field. In Part 2, we use our methodology to test the functionality of the T7 cross-connect technology by comparing different bay and probe configurations. This is the first published study in the literature comparing different CEW models using this human model. For Part 1, 29 subjects completed the study and had data available for analysis. For Part 2, 21 subjects completed the study and had data available for analysis. The subjects were motivated to complete the task of reaching a suspended martial arts dummy 3.4 m (11 ft) away while being exposed "under power" to the CEW. In Part 1, subjects were assigned to 1 of 6 groups with probe spreads of 10, 20, and 30 cm (4, 8, 12 in). Subjects were exposed to a "control" CEW (either the X2 or X26E) and the T7 on alternating sides. Exposures with the X2 and T7 included 2 bay-exposures. In Part 2, 21 subjects were assigned to 1 of 5 groups of different T7 bay and probe configurations all with a theoretical effective spread of 30 cm (12 in). Subjects were rated on their progress towards successfully reaching the dummy and on the extent of limb incapacitation using a quasi-blinded expert-observer scoring panel based on high-speed video review. In Part 1, all CEW models achieved maximal or near-maximal subject control with the 30 cm probe spread. With probe spreads of 10 and 20 cm the pooled data showed the T7 to be superior to the X2 for goal achievement (p < 0.001) and limb incapacitation (p = 0.002) mostly driven by differences seen with the 10 cm spread (2-bay exposures). The T7 was non-inferior to the X26E. In Part 2, there was no statistical significance between the limb capture scores, but there was a statistically significant difference in goal scores. The results overall validate that the T7 CEW cross-connect feature performed as expected. The T7 adaptive cross-connect feature with two simultaneous deployed probe pairs demonstrated a significant improvement in incapacitation effectiveness compared to the current X2 CEW with two simultaneously deployed probe pairs. Small probe spreads are a common reason for limited incapacitation effectiveness in the field and this study suggests the T7 may offer an improvement in this scenario. The T7, with single-bay exposures, was non-inferior to the single-bay X26E.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Imobilização , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Armas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(15)2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717901

RESUMO

Privacy is often overlooked in Hong Kong nursing homes with the majority of elderly residents living in shared bedrooms of three to five people. Only a few studies have used Bluetooth low energy indoor positioning systems to explore the relationship between privacy and social interaction among elderly residents. The study investigates the social behavioural patterns of elderly residents living in three-bed, four-bed, and five-bed rooms in a nursing home. Location data of 50 residents were used for the identification of mobility and social interaction patterns in relation to different degrees of privacy and tested for statistical significance. Privacy is found to have a weak negative correlation with mobility patterns and social behaviour, implying that the more privacy there is, the less mobility and more formal interaction is found. Residents who had more privacy did not spend more time in social space. Residents living in bedrooms that opened directly onto social space had higher social withdrawal tendencies, indicating the importance of transitional spaces between private and public areas. Friends' rooms were used extensively by residents who had little privacy, however, the concept of friends' rooms have rarely been discussed in nursing homes. There is evidence supporting the importance of privacy for social interaction. Future study directions include considering how other design factors, such as configuration and social space diversity, work with privacy to influence social interaction.


Assuntos
Privacidade , Interação Social , Idoso , Hong Kong , Humanos , Casas de Saúde
12.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 16(3): 406-414, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388670

RESUMO

Axon Enterprise, Inc. (Axon) released its newest generation conducted electrical weapon (CEW), the T7, in October 2018. In order to compare the effects of this new CEW to prior generations, we used our previously described methodology to study the physiologic effects of CEWs on human volunteers at rest. This was a prospective, observational study of human subjects consisting of two parts. Part 1 was testing a single cartridge (2-probe) exposure. Subjects received a 10-s exposure from the T7 to the back with a 30 cm (12 in.) spread between the two probes. Part 2 was testing a simultaneous two-cartridge (4-probe) exposure. Subjects received a 10-s exposure from the T7 to the back with two cartridges with a 10 cm (4 in.) spread between each probe pair. The probe pairs were arranged cephalad to caudal such that the distance between the top probe of the first cartridge and the bottom probe of the second cartridge was 30 cm (12 in.). Vital signs were measured immediately before and after the exposure. Continuous spirometry was performed. ECG monitoring was performed immediately before and after the exposure. Venous pH, lactate, potassium, CK, catecholamines, and troponin were measured before and immediately after the exposure, at 1-h post-exposure, and again at 24 h. 11 subjects completed part 1 of the study. 9 subjects completed part 2 of the study. No subjects had a dysrhythmia or morphology change in the surface ECG. There were no statistical changes in vital signs pre- and post-exposure. While subjects did not have a statistical change in spirometry parameters pre-exposure to exposure except for a small drop in PETCO2, there was an increase in minute ventilation after the exposure that could have several explanations. A similar pattern was seen with prior generation weapons. No subject had elevated troponin levels. Other blood parameters including venous pH, lactate, potassium, CK, and catecholamines had changes similar to prior generation weapons. Comparison of the data for the single-cartridge exposures against the simultaneous two-cartridge exposures yielded no difference in vital signs, but the minute ventilation was higher for the two-cartridge exposures. The blood data, where there was a difference, was mixed. In our study, the physiologic effects of the Axon T7 are modest, consistent with the electrically-induced motor nerve-driven muscle contraction, and were similar to prior generation weapons.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/instrumentação , Descanso/fisiologia , Armas , Adulto , Idoso , Catecolaminas/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Eletrocardiografia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Espirometria , Troponina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(2): 111-113, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046869

RESUMO

We read with interest the recent editorial, "The Hennepin Ketamine Study," by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton's editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton's editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators' reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111-113.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medicina de Emergência , Ketamina , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Ann Emerg Med ; 72(4): 361-370, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031556

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the characteristics and prevalence of agitation among patients in an urban county emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of ED patients at an urban Level I trauma center. All ED patients were screened during daily randomized 8-hour enrollment periods. Adult agitated patients, defined as having an altered mental status score greater than 1, were included. Trained research volunteers collected demographics and baseline data, including the presenting altered mental status score, use and type of restraints, and whether any initial sedative was given. The altered mental status score, vital signs, and any medications or treatments given were recorded every 5 minutes thereafter until the patient had an altered mental status score less than 1. Providers were asked to describe clinical events resulting in an intervention occurring during the patient course, including hypotension, vomiting, increased monitoring, use of supplemental oxygen or airway adjunct, or intubation. The provider also completed a checklist to determine the presence of delirium symptoms. RESULTS: A total of 43,838 patients were screened (45.1% women; median age 33 years; range 0 to 102 years). The prevalence of agitation was 2.6% (1,146/43,838; median altered mental status score 2). Of these patients, 84% (969/1,146) required physical restraint and 72% (829/1,146) required sedation with an intramuscular injection. Sedative agents were olanzapine in 39% of patients (442/1,146), droperidol in 20% (224/1,146), haloperidol in 20% (226/1,146), a benzodiazepine in 6% (68/1,146), and ketamine in 5% (52/1,146). Delirium characteristics were observed in 0.6% of patients (260/43,838), representing 23% of agitated patients in the ED. Clinical events were observed in 13% of agitated patients (114/866) without delirium symptoms and 26% (68/260) with delirium symptoms. Characteristics associated with a clinical event included delirium symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.4), a cause related to a drug other than alcohol (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.9), or a nondrug-induced cause of agitation (OR 3.5; 95% CI 2.3 to 5.6). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of agitation in the ED was 2.6%. Agitated patients frequently required restraint and sedation, with significant rates of clinical events requiring intervention.


Assuntos
Agitação Psicomotora/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Agitação Psicomotora/etiologia , Agitação Psicomotora/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 36(5): 789-796, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29033344

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effectiveness of ketamine as a primary therapy for prehospital profound agitation. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of patients receiving 5mg/kg of intramuscular ketamine for profound agitation, defined as a score of +4 on the Altered Mental Status Scale (AMSS), a validated ordinal scale of agitation from -4 (unresponsive) to +4 (most agitated). The primary outcome was time to adequate sedation (AMSS<+1). Secondary outcomes included need for additional sedatives, intubation frequency, complications associated with ketamine, and mortality. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients were enrolled. Median age was 29years (range 18-66); 76% (37/49) were male. Median time to adequate sedation was 4.2min (95% CI: 2.5-5.9, range 1-25min) and 90% (44/49) had adequate sedation prehospital. Seven patients (14%) received a second sedative prehospital. Intubation occurred in 57% (28/49) of patients. Mechanical ventilation lasted <24h in 82% (23/28) of patients, and <48h in 96% (27/28) of patients. A single physician intubated 36% (10/28) of the patients. Complications related to ketamine included hypersalivation (n=9, 18%), vomiting (n=3, 6%), and emergence reaction (n=2, 4%). One patient died from complications of septic shock on hospital day 29, likely unrelated to ketamine. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with prehospital profound agitation, ketamine provides rapid effective sedation when used as a primary therapy. Intubation was common but accompanied by a short duration of mechanical ventilation and appears to have been subject to individual physician practice variation.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/uso terapêutico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Agitação Psicomotora/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anestésicos Dissociativos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Intubação Intratraqueal , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; 21(2): 263-271, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636021

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current Emergency Medical Services (EMS) documentation practices usually occur from memory after an event is over. While this practice is fairly standard, it is unclear if it can introduce significant error. Modern technology has seen the increased use of recorded video by society to more objectively document notable events. Stationary mounted cameras, cell-phone cameras, and law enforcement officer Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) are increasingly used by society for this purpose. Video used in this way can often clarify or contradict recall from memory. BWCs are currently not widely used by EMS. The hypothesis is that current EMS documentation practices are inaccurate and that BWCs will have a positive effect on documentation accuracy. METHODS: This prospective, observational study used a convenience sample of paramedics in a simulation lab. The Paramedics wore a BWC and responded to a simulated call of "One Down" (unresponsive from heroin abuse) involving Role Players (RPs). The paramedics received standardized cues from the RPs during the simulation to keep it on track.  The simulation contained many factors of concern (e.g., weapons and drugs in plain view, unattended minors, etc.) and intentional stressors (e.g., distraught family member, uncooperative patient, etc.). Upon completion of the scenario, paramedic documentation occurred from memory on an electronic template.  After initial documentation, paramedics viewed their BWC recording and were allowed to make tabulated changes. Changes were categorized by a priori criteria as minor, moderate, or major. RESULTS: Ten paramedics participated with an average age of 33.3 years (range 22-43), 8 males and 2 females. The average length of paramedic career experience was 7.7 years (range 2 months to 20 years). There were 71 total documentation changes (7 minor, 51 moderate, 13 major) made after video review. Linear regression (ANCOVA) indicated changes made indirectly correlated with years of experience (coefficient 8.27, 4.22-12.3, 95% CI, p = 0.002), but all made some changes. CONCLUSION: Current EMS documentation practices demonstrate significant inaccuracy regardless of years of experience. Use of BWC technology appears to significantly improve EMS documentation accuracy in this pilot study.


Assuntos
Documentação/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo/instrumentação , Adulto Jovem
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