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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(47): e2204485119, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375053

RESUMO

Magnetic materials are essential for energy generation and information devices, and they play an important role in advanced technologies and green energy economies. Currently, the most widely used magnets contain rare earth (RE) elements. An outstanding challenge of notable scientific interest is the discovery and synthesis of novel magnetic materials without RE elements that meet the performance and cost goals for advanced electromagnetic devices. Here, we report our discovery and synthesis of an RE-free magnetic compound, Fe3CoB2, through an efficient feedback framework by integrating machine learning (ML), an adaptive genetic algorithm, first-principles calculations, and experimental synthesis. Magnetic measurements show that Fe3CoB2 exhibits a high magnetic anisotropy (K1 = 1.2 MJ/m3) and saturation magnetic polarization (Js = 1.39 T), which is suitable for RE-free permanent-magnet applications. Our ML-guided approach presents a promising paradigm for efficient materials design and discovery and can also be applied to the search for other functional materials.


Assuntos
Imãs , Metais Terras Raras , Retroalimentação , Magnetismo , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Aprendizado de Máquina
2.
Inorg Chem ; 61(45): 18154-18161, 2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322924

RESUMO

We perform a high-throughput screening on phonon-mediated superconductivity in a ternary metal diboride structure with alkali, alkaline earth, and transition metals. We find 17 ground states and 78 low-energy metastable phases. From fast calculations of zone-center electron-phonon coupling, 43 compounds are revealed to show electron-phonon coupling strength higher than that of MgB2. An anticorrelation between the energetic stability and electron-phonon coupling strength is identified. We suggest two phases, i.e., Li3ZrB8 and Ca3YB8, to be synthesized, which show reasonable energetic stability and superconducting critical temperature.

3.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(49)2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220012

RESUMO

We introduce a rotationally invariant approach combined with the Gutzwiller conjugate gradient minimization method to study correlated electron systems. In the approach, the Gutzwiller projector is parametrized based on the number of electrons occupying the onsite orbitals instead of the onsite configurations. The approach efficiently groups the onsite orbitals according to their symmetry and greatly reduces the computational complexity, which yields a speedup of20∼50×in the minimal basis energy calculation of dimers. The computationally efficient approach promotes more accurate calculations beyond the minimal basis that is inapplicable in the original approach. A large-basis energy calculation of F2demonstrates favorable agreements with standard quantum-chemical calculations Bytautaset al(2007J. Chem. Phys.127164317).

4.
Inorg Chem ; 61(42): 16699-16706, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217744

RESUMO

We integrate a deep machine learning (ML) method with first-principles calculations to efficiently search for the energetically favorable ternary compounds. Using La-Si-P as a prototype system, we demonstrate that ML-guided first-principles calculations can efficiently explore crystal structures and their relative energetic stabilities, thus greatly accelerate the pace of material discovery. A number of new La-Si-P ternary compounds with formation energies less than 30 meV/atom above the known ternary convex hull are discovered. Among them, the formation energies of La5SiP3 and La2SiP phases are only 2 and 10 meV/atom, respectively, above the convex hull. These two compounds are dynamically stable with no imaginary phonon modes. Moreover, by replacing Si with heavier-group 14 elements in the eight lowest-energy La-Si-P structures from our ML-guided predictions, a number of low-energy La-X-P phases (X = Ge, Sn, Pb) are predicted.

5.
ACS Mater Au ; 2(5): 614-625, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124003

RESUMO

Achieving kinetic control to synthesize metastable compounds is a challenging task, especially in solid-state reactions where the diffusion is slow. Another challenge is the unambiguous crystal structure determination for metastable compounds when high-quality single crystals suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction are inaccessible. In this work, we report an unconventional means of synthesis and an effective strategy to solve the crystal structure of an unprecedented metastable compound LiNi12B8. This compound can only be produced upon heating a metastable layered boride, HT-Li0.4NiB (HT: high temperature), in a sealed niobium container. A conventional heating and annealing of elements do not yield the title compound, which is consistent with the metastable nature of LiNi12B8. The process to crystallize this compound is sensitive to the annealing temperature and dwelling time, a testament to the complex kinetics involved in the formation of the product. The unavailability of crystals suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments prompted solving the crystal structure from high-resolution synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. This compound crystallizes in a new structure type with space group I4/mmm (a = 10.55673(9) Å, c = 10.00982(8) Å, V = 1115.54(3) Å3, Z = 6). The resulting complex crystal structure of LiNi12B8 is confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and solid-state 11B and 7Li NMR spectroscopy analyses. The extended Ni framework with Li/Ni disorder in its crystal structure resulted in the spin-glass or cluster glass type magnetic ordering below 24 K. This report illustrates a "contemporary twist" to traditional methodologies toward synthesizing a metastable compound and provides a recipe for solving structures by combining the complementary characterization techniques in the cases where the traditionally used single-crystal X-ray diffraction method is nonapplicable.

6.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(24)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290968

RESUMO

We review our recent work on the Gutzwiller conjugate gradient minimization method, anab initioapproach developed for correlated electron systems. The complete formalism has been outlined that allows for a systematic understanding of the method, followed by a discussion of benchmark studies of dimers, one- and two-dimensional single-band Hubbard models. In the end, we present some preliminary results of multi-band Hubbard models and large-basis calculations of F2to illustrate our efforts to further reduce the computational complexity.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(2)2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34987099

RESUMO

The Earth's inner core started forming when molten iron cooled below the melting point. However, the nucleation mechanism, which is a necessary step of crystallization, has not been well understood. Recent studies have found that it requires an unrealistic degree of undercooling to nucleate the stable, hexagonal, close-packed (hcp) phase of iron that is unlikely to be reached under core conditions and age. This contradiction is referred to as the inner core nucleation paradox. Using a persistent embryo method and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the metastable, body-centered, cubic (bcc) phase of iron has a much higher nucleation rate than does the hcp phase under inner core conditions. Thus, the bcc nucleation is likely to be the first step of inner core formation, instead of direct nucleation of the hcp phase. This mechanism reduces the required undercooling of iron nucleation, which provides a key factor in solving the inner core nucleation paradox. The two-step nucleation scenario of the inner core also opens an avenue for understanding the structure and anisotropy of the present inner core.

8.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(12)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34947746

RESUMO

The model of a graphene (Gr) sheet putting on a silicon (Si) substrate is used to simulate the structures of Si microparticles wrapped up in a graphene cage, which may be the anode of lithium-ion batteries (LIBS) to improve the high-volume expansion of Si anode materials. The common low-energy defective graphene (d-Gr) structures of DV5-8-5, DV555-777 and SV are studied and compared with perfect graphene (p-Gr). First-principles calculations are performed to confirm the stable structures before and after Li penetrating through the Gr sheet or graphene/Si-substrate (Gr/Si) slab. The climbing image nudged elastic band (CI-NEB) method is performed to evaluate the diffusion barrier and seek the saddle point. The calculation results reveal that the d-Gr greatly reduces the energy barriers for Li diffusion in Gr or Gr/Si. The energy stability, structural configuration, bond length between the atoms and layer distances of these structures are also discussed in detail.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 34(7)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753113

RESUMO

Zr-Rh metallic glass has enabled its many applications in vehicle parts, sports equipment and so on due to its outstanding performance in mechanical property, but the knowledge of the microstructure determining the superb mechanical property remains yet insufficient. Here, we develop a deep neural network potential of Zr-Rh system by using machine learning, which breaks the dilemma between the accuracy and efficiency in molecular dynamics simulations, and greatly improves the simulation scale in both space and time. The results show that the structural features obtained from the neural network method are in good agreement with the cases inab initiomolecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we build a large model of 5400 atoms to explore the influences of simulated size and cooling rate on the melt-quenching process of Zr77Rh23. Our study lays a foundation for exploring the complex structures in amorphous Zr77Rh23, which is of great significance for the design and practical application.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 60(14): 10686-10697, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181854

RESUMO

Three new sodium zinc antimonides Na11Zn2Sb5, Na4Zn9Sb9, and NaZn3Sb3 were synthesized utilizing sodium hydride NaH as a reactive sodium source. In comparison to the synthesis using sodium metal, salt-like NaH can be ball-milled, leading to the easy and uniform mixing of precursors in the desired stoichiometric ratios. Such comprehensive compositional control enables a fast screening of the Na-Zn-Sb system and identification of new compounds, followed by their preparation in bulk with high purity. Na11Zn2Sb5 crystallizes in the triclinic P1 space group (No. 2, Z = 2, a = 8.8739(6) Å, b = 10.6407(7) Å, c = 11.4282(8) Å, α = 103.453(2)°, ß = 96.997(2)°, γ = 107.517(2)°) and features polyanionic [Zn2Sb5]11- clusters with unusual 3-coordinated Zn atoms. Both Na4Zn9Sb9 (Z = 4, a = 28.4794(4) Å, b = 4.47189(5) Å, c = 17.2704(2) Å, ß = 98.3363(6)°) and NaZn3Sb3 (Z = 8, a = 32.1790(1) Å, b = 4.51549(1) Å, c = 9.64569(2) Å, ß = 98.4618(1)°) crystallize in the monoclinic C2/m space group (No. 12) and have complex new structure types. For both compounds, their frameworks are built from ZnSb4 distorted tetrahedra, which are linked via edge-, vertex-sharing, or both, while Na cations fill in the framework channels. Due to the complex structures, Na4Zn9Sb9 and NaZn3Sb3 compounds exhibit low thermal conductivities (0.97-1.26 W·m-1 K-1) at room temperature, positive Seebeck coefficients (19-32 µV/K) suggestive of holes as charge carriers, and semimetallic electrical resistivities (∼1.0-2.3 × 10-4 Ω·m). Na4Zn9Sb9 and NaZn3Sb3 decompose into the equiatomic NaZnSb above ∼800 K, as determined by in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The discovery of multiple ternary compounds highlights the importance of judicious choice of the synthetic method.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 50(19): 6463-6476, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002748

RESUMO

Complex polymorphic relationships in the LnSiP3 (Ln = La and Ce) family of compounds are reported. An innovative synthetic method was developed to overcome differences in the reactivities of the rare-earth metal and refractory silicon with phosphorus. Reactions of atomically mixed Ln + Si with P allowed for selective control over the reaction outcomes resulting in targeted isolation of three new polymorphs of LaSiP3 and two polymorphs of CeSiP3. In situ X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the developed method bypasses formation of the thermodynamic dead-end, the binary SiP. Careful re-determination of the crystal structure ruled out the previously reported ordered centrosymmetric structure of CeSiP3 and showed that the main LnSiP3 polymorphs crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric Pna21 and Aea2 space groups featuring distinct distortions of the regular P square net to yield either cis-trans 1D phosphorus chains (Pna21) or disordered-2D phosphorus layers (Aea2). The disordered 2D nature of the P layers in the Aea2 LaSiP3 polymorph was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. A unique centrosymmetric P21/c polymorph was observed for LaSiP3 and has a completely different crystal structure lacking P layers. Consecutive polymorphic transformations at increasing temperatures for LaSiP3(Pna21 → P21/c → Aea2) were derived from optimized synthetic profiles and confirmed by a combination of phonon computations and experimental in situ and ex situ annealings. Crystal structures of the LaSiP3 polymorphs were verified via advanced solid state NMR analysis using 31P MAS and 31P{139La} double resonance techniques. A combination of phonon and electronic structure calculations, NMR T1 relaxation times, UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy, and resistivity measurements revealed that all the reported polymorphs are semiconductors with resistivities and thermal conductivities strongly dependent on the degree of distortion of P square layers in the crystal structure. Reported here, non-centrosymmetric LnSiP3 polymorphs with tunable resistivity and thermal conductivity provide a platform for the development of novel functional materials with a wide range of applications.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(11): 4213-4223, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719436

RESUMO

The pursuit of two-dimensional (2D) borides, MBenes, has proven to be challenging, not the least because of the lack of a suitable precursor prone to the deintercalation. Here, we studied room-temperature topochemical deintercalation of lithium from the layered polymorphs of the LiNiB compound with a considerable amount of Li stored in between [NiB] layers (33 at. % Li). Deintercalation of Li leads to novel metastable borides (Li∼0.5NiB) with unique crystal structures. Partial removal of Li is accomplished by exposing the parent phases to air, water, or dilute HCl under ambient conditions. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and solid-state 7Li and 11B NMR spectroscopy, combined with X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis and DFT calculations, were utilized to elucidate the novel structures of Li∼0.5NiB and the mechanism of Li-deintercalation. We have shown that the deintercalation of Li proceeds via a "zip-lock" mechanism, leading to the condensation of single [NiB] layers into double or triple layers bound via covalent bonds, resulting in structural fragments with Li[NiB]2 and Li[NiB]3 compositions. The crystal structure of Li∼0.5NiB is best described as an intergrowth of the ordered single [NiB], double [NiB]2, or triple [NiB]3 layers alternating with single Li layers; this explains its structural complexity. The formation of double or triple [NiB] layers induces a change in the magnetic behavior from temperature-independent paramagnets in the parent LiNiB compounds to the spin-glassiness in the deintercalated Li∼0.5NiB counterparts. LiNiB compounds showcase the potential to access a plethora of unique materials, including 2D MBenes (NiB).

13.
Chemistry ; 27(64): 15954-15966, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472129

RESUMO

Here, the combination of theoretical computations followed by rapid experimental screening and in situ diffraction studies is demonstrated as a powerful strategy for novel compounds discovery. When applied for the previously "empty" Na-Zn-Bi system, such an approach led to four novel phases. The compositional space of this system was rapidly screened via the hydride route method and the theoretically predicted NaZnBi (PbClF type, P4/nmm) and Na11 Zn2 Bi5 (Na11 Cd2 Sb5 type, P 1‾ ) phases were successfully synthesized, while other computationally generated compounds on the list were rejected. In addition, single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of NaZnBi indicate minor deviations from the stoichiometric 1 : 1 : 1 molar ratio. As a result, two isostructural (PbClF type, P4/nmm) Zn-deficient phases with similar compositions, but distinctly different unit cell parameters were discovered. The vacancies on Zn sites and unit cell expansion were rationalized from bonding analysis using electronic structure calculations on stoichiometric "NaZnBi". In-situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction studies shed light on complex equilibria in the Na-Zn-Bi system at elevated temperatures. In particular, the high-temperature polymorph HT-Na3 Bi (BiF3 type, Fm 3‾ m) was obtained as a product of Na11 Zn2 Bi5 decomposition above 611 K. HT-Na3 Bi cannot be stabilized at room temperature by quenching, and this type of structure was earlier observed in the high-pressure polymorph HP-Na3 Bi above 0.5 GPa. The aforementioned approach of predictive synthesis can be extended to other multinary systems.

14.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 33(9)2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017810

RESUMO

An appropriate treatment of electronic correlation effects plays an important role in accurate descriptions of physical and chemical properties of real materials. The recently proposed correlation matrix renormalization theory with sum rule correction (CMR) [1] for studying correlated-electron materials has shown good performance in molecular systems and a periodic hydrogen chain in comparison with various quantum chemistry and quantum Monte Carlo calculations [2]. This work gives a detailed formulation and computational code implementation of CMR in multi-band periodic lattice systems. This lattice CMRab initiotheory is highly efficient, has no material specific adjustable parameters, and has no double counting issues faced by the hybrid approaches like LDA +U, DFT + DMFT and DFT + GA type theories. Benchmark studies on materials with s and p orbitals in this study show that CMR in its current implementation consistently performs well for these systems as the electron correlation increases from the bonding region to the bond breaking region.

15.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 16(10): 6256-6266, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877181

RESUMO

We develop a resource-efficient step-merged quantum imaginary time evolution approach (smQITE) to solve for the ground state of a Hamiltonian on quantum computers. This heuristic method features a fixed shallow quantum circuit depth along the state evolution path. We use this algorithm to determine the binding energy curves of a set of molecules, including H2, H4, H6, LiH, HF, H2O, and BeH2, and find highly accurate results. The required quantum resources of smQITE calculations can be further reduced by adopting the circuit form of the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) technique, such as the unitary coupled cluster ansatz. We demonstrate that smQITE achieves a similar computational accuracy as VQE at the same fixed-circuit ansatz, without requiring a generally complicated high-dimensional nonconvex optimization. Finally, smQITE calculations are carried out on Rigetti quantum processing units, demonstrating that the approach is readily applicable on current noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(25): 13975-13980, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609127

RESUMO

Due to the high cost and insufficient resources of lithium, alternative sodium-ion batteries have been widely investigated for large-scale applications. NaFePO4 has the highest theoretical capacity of 154 mA h g-1 among the iron-based phosphates, which makes it an attractive cathode material for Na-ion batteries. Experimentally, LiFePO4 has been highly successful as a cathode material in Li-ion batteries because its olivine crystal structure provides a stable framework during battery cycling. In NaFePO4, maricite replaces olivine as the most stable phase. However, the maricite phase is experimentally found to be electrochemically inactive under normal battery operating voltages (0-4.5 V). We found that partial substitutions of Na with Li stabilize the olivine structure and may be a way to improve the performance of NaFePO4 cathodes. Using the previously developed structural LiFePO4 database, we examined the low-energy crystal structures in the system when we replace Li with Na. The known maricite and olivine NaFePO4 phases are reconfirmed and an unreported phase with energy between them is identified by our calculations. Besides, the Li-doped olivine type compound LixNa1-xFePO4 with mixed alkali ions retains better energetic stability compared with the other two types of structures of the same composition, as long as the proportion of Li exceeds 0.25. The thermodynamic stability of o-type LixNa1-xFePO4 can be further improved at finite temperatures. The primary limitation of the calculations is that we mainly focus on the zero-temperature condition; however, the relative stability of the structures may vary depending on the ambient temperature.

17.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 6795-6802, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479719

RESUMO

A first-principles prediction of the binary nanoparticle phase diagram assembled by solvent evaporation has eluded theoretical approaches. In this paper, we show that a binary system interacting through the Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential contains all experimental phases in which nanoparticles are effectively described as quasi hard spheres. We report a phase diagram consisting of 53 equilibrium phases, whose stability is quite insensitive to the microscopic details of the potentials, thus giving rise to some type of universality. Furthermore, we show that binary lattices may be understood as consisting of certain particle clusters, i.e., motifs, that provide a generalization of the four conventional Frank-Kasper polyhedral units. Our results show that metastable phases share the very same motifs as equilibrium phases. We discuss the connection with packing models, phase diagrams with repulsive potentials, and the prediction of likely experimental superlattices.

18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(17): 9759-9766, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334427

RESUMO

Phase-change materials such as Ge-Sb-Te compounds have attracted much attention due to their potential value in electrical data storage. In contrast to the amorphous and crystalline phases, supercooled liquids are far from being deeply understood despite their inevitable role in both amorphization and crystallization processes. To this end, we have studied the dynamics properties and structural characteristics of liquid and supercooled liquid Ge3Sb2Te6 during the fast cooling process. As the temperature decreases, chemical bonds become more homogeneous, but coordination numbers of Ge, Sb and Te atoms change very little. Meanwhile, the structural order of short-range configuration is obviously enhanced. Further studies suggest that Ge-centered, Sb-centered and Te-centered configurations change to the more ordered defective octahedrons mainly by adjusting the bond-angle relationship and bond length, rather than just by changing the coordination environment. It is the more ordered octahedrons that promote the formation of medium-range order. Our findings provide a deep insight into the origin of local structural order in supercooled liquid Ge3Sb2Te6, which is of great importance for the comprehensive understanding of amorphization and crystallization processes.

19.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 15(1): 56, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140792

RESUMO

We report a new graphene allotrope named HOT graphene containing carbon hexagons, octagons, and tetragons. A corresponding series of nanotubes are also constructed by rolling up the HOT graphene sheet. Ab initio calculations are performed on geometric and electronic structures of the HOT graphene and the HOT graphene nanotubes. Dirac cone and high Fermi velocity are achieved in a non-hexagonal structure of HOT graphene, implying that the honeycomb structure is not an indispensable condition for Dirac fermions to exist. HOT graphene nanotubes show distinctive electronic structures depending on their topology. The (0,1) n (n ≥ 3) HOT graphene nanotubes reveal the characteristics of semimetals, while the other set of nanotubes (1,0) n shows continuously adjustable band gaps (0~ 0.51 eV) with tube size. A competition between the curvature effect and the zone-folding approximation determines the band gaps of the (1,0) n nanotubes. Novel conversion between semimetallicity and semiconductivity arises in ultra-small tubes (radius < 4 Å, i.e., n < 3).

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(10): 105701, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573294

RESUMO

Relaxation processes significantly influence the properties of glass materials. However, understanding their specific origins is difficult; even more challenging is to forecast them theoretically. In this study, using microseconds molecular dynamics simulations together with an accurate many-body interaction potential, we predict that an Al_{90}Sm_{10} metallic glass would have complex relaxation behaviors: In addition to the main (α) relaxation, the glass (i) shows a pronounced secondary (ß) relaxation at cryogenic temperatures and (ii) exhibits an anomalous relaxation process (α_{2}) accompanying α relaxation. Both of the predictions are verified by experiments. Computational simulations reveal the microscopic origins of relaxation processes: while the pronounced ß relaxation is attributed to the abundance of stringlike cooperative atomic rearrangements, the anomalous α_{2} process is found to correlate with the decoupling of the faster motions of Al with slower Sm atoms. The combination of simulations and experiments represents a first glimpse of what may become a predictive routine and integral step for glass physics.

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