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1.
Am J Hematol ; 94(10): 1123-1131, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328307

RESUMO

Diagnosis of lymphoma leptomeningeal dissemination is challenging and relies on a wide array of methods. So far, no consensus biological guidelines are available. This increases the chance of intra- and interpractice variations, despite the shared concern to perform the minimum amount of tests while preserving clinically relevant results.We evaluated a training cohort of 371 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with putative lymphomatous central nervous system (CNS) localization using conventional cytology (CC), flow cytometry (FCM), molecular clonality assesment by PCR and cytokine quantification (CQ). This led us to propose a biological algorithm, which was then verified on a validation cohort of 197 samples. The samples were classified according to the clinical context and the results of each technique were compared. Using all four techniques was not useful for exclusion diagnosis of CNS lymphoma (CNSL), but they proved complementary for cases with suspected CNSL. This was particularly true for CQ in primary CNSL. Overall, diagnosis can be obtained with a two-step approach. The first step comprises CC and FCM, as results are available quickly and FCM is a sensitive method. Both PCR and CQ can be postponed and performed in a second step, depending on the results from the first step and the clinical context.The proposed algorithm missed none of the CNSL samples of the validation cohort. Moreover, applying this algorithm would have spared 30% of PCR tests and 20% of CQ over a one-year period, without compromising clinical management.

2.
Oncologist ; 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astroblastoma (ABM) is a rare glial brain tumor. Recurrent meningioma 1 (MN1) alterations have been recently identified in most pediatric cases. Adolescent and adult cases, however, remain molecularly poorly defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed clinical and molecular characterization of a retrospective cohort of 14 adult and 1 adolescent ABM. RESULTS: Strikingly, we found that MN1 fusions are a rare event in this age group (1/15). Using methylation profiling and targeted sequencing, most cases were reclassified as either pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas (PXA)-like or high-grade glioma (HGG)-like. PXA-like ABM show BRAF mutation (6/7 with V600E mutation and 1/7 with G466E mutation) and CD34 expression. Conversely, HGG-like ABM harbored specific alterations of diffuse midline glioma (2/5) or glioblastoma (GBM; 3/5). These latter patients showed an unfavorable clinical course with significantly shorter overall survival (p = .021). Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway alterations (including FGFR fusion, BRAF and NF1 mutations) were present in 10 of 15 patients and overrepresented in the HGG-like group (3/5) compared with previously reported prevalence of these alterations in GBM and diffuse midline glioma. CONCLUSION: We suggest that gliomas with astroblastic features include a variety of molecularly sharply defined entities. Adult ABM harboring molecular features of PXA and HGG should be reclassified. Central nervous system high-grade neuroepithelial tumors with MN1 alterations and histology of ABM appear to be uncommon in adults. Astroblastic morphology in adults should thus prompt thorough molecular investigation aiming at a clear histomolecular diagnosis and identifying actionable drug targets, especially in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Astroblastoma (ABM) remains a poorly defined and controversial entity. Although meningioma 1 alterations seem to define a large subset of pediatric cases, adult cases remain molecularly poorly defined. This comprehensive molecular characterization of 1 adolescent and 14 adult ABM revealed that adult ABM histology comprises several molecularly defined entities, which explains clinical diversity and identifies actionable targets. Namely, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like ABM cases show a favorable prognosis whereas high-grade glioma (glioblastoma and diffuse midline gliome)-like ABM show significantly worse clinical courses. These results call for in-depth molecular analysis of adult gliomas with astroblastic features for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

3.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of extra-nodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. PCNSL is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, with over 95% of tumors belonging to the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) group. We have conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on immunocompetent patients to address the possibility that common genetic variants influence the risk of developing PCNSL. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of two new genome-wide association studies of PCNSL totaling 475 cases and 1,134 controls of European ancestry. To increase genomic resolution, we imputed >10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the 1000 Genomes Project combined with UK10K as reference. In addition we performed a transcription factor binding disruption analysis and investigated the patterns of local chromatin patterns by capture Hi-C data. RESULTS: We identified independent risk loci at 3p22.1 (rs41289586, ANO10, P = 2.17 x 10-8) and 6p25.3 near EXOC2 (rs116446171, P = 1.95 x 10-13). In contrast the lack of an association between rs41289586 and DLBCL, suggests distinct germline predisposition to PCNSL and DLBCL. We found looping chromatin interactions between non-coding regions at 6p25.3 (rs11646171) with the IRF4 promoter and at 8q24.21 (rs13254990) with the MYC promoter, both genes with strong relevance to B-cell tumorigenesis. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first study providing insight into the genetic predisposition to PCNSL. Our findings represent an important step in defining the contribution of common genetic variation to the risk of developing PCNSL.

4.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(9): 1027-1038, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the recently proposed diagnostic criteria for chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS). METHODS: We enrolled 42 patients with hindbrain punctate and/or linear enhancements (<3 mm in diameter) and tested the CLIPPERS criteria. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 50 months (IQR 25-82), 13 out of 42 patients were CLIPPERS-mimics: systemic and central nervous system lymphomas (n=7), primary central nervous system angiitis (n=4) and autoimmune gliopathies (n=2). The sensitivity and specificity of the CLIPPERS criteria were 93% and 69%, respectively. Nodular enhancement ( ≥ 3 mm in diameter), considered as a red flag in CLIPPERS criteria, was present in 4 out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics but also in 2 out of 29 patients with CLIPPERS, explaining the lack of sensitivity. Four out of 13 CLIPPERS-mimics who initially met the CLIPPERS criteria displayed red flags at the second attack with a median time of 5.5 months (min 3, max 18), explaining the lack of specificity. One of these four patients had antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies, and the three remaining patients relapsed despite a daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone ≥ 30 mg and a biopsy targeting atypical enhancing lesions revealed a lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that (1) nodular enhancement should be considered more as an unusual finding than a red flag excluding the diagnosis of CLIPPERS; (2) red flags may occur up to 18 months after disease onset; (3) as opposed to CLIPPERS-mimics, no relapse occurs when the daily dose of prednisone/prednisolone is ≥ 30 mg; and (4) brain biopsy should target an atypical enhancing lesion when non-invasive investigations remain inconclusive.

6.
Oncologist ; 24(9): e898-e904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare subtype of extranodal lymphoma. Despite established clinical prognostic scoring such as that of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group, outcome prediction needs to be improved. Several studies have indicated an association between changes in hematologic laboratory parameters with patient outcomes in PCNSL. We sought to assess the association between hematological parameters and overall survival (OS) in patients with PCNSL. METHODS: Pretreatment blood tests were analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed PCNSL (n = 182), and we divided the analysis into two cohorts (A and B, both n = 91). OS was evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards models and log-rank test. Furthermore, the accuracy of the different multivariate models was assessed by Harrell's concordance index (C-index). RESULTS: Using prechemotherapy blood tests, anemia was found in 38 patients (41.8%) in cohort A and 34 patients (37.4%) in cohort B. In univariate analysis, anemia (<12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) was significantly associated with OS. None of the other blood tests parameters (neutrophils, lymphocyte, or platelets counts) or their ratios (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and neutrophil-to-platelets ratio) were associated with OS. In multivariate analysis, after adjusting by MSKCC score, anemia remained an independent prognostic factor. Interestingly, the prediction accuracy of OS using Harrell's C-index was similar using anemia or MSKCC (mean C-index, 0.6) and was increased to 0.67 when combining anemia and MSKCC. CONCLUSION: The presence of anemia was associated with poor prognosis in both cohorts of PCNSL. Validation of these results and biologic role of hemoglobin levels in PCNSL requires further investigation. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The prediction of the outcome of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) using the most frequently used scores (i.e., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center [MSKCC] or International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group) needs to be improved. We analyzed a large cohort of PCNSL to dissect the potential prognostic value of blood tests in this rare entity. We found anemia as an independent predictor for overall survival in PCNSL. Interestingly, the accuracy to predict PCNSL outcome was improved using hemoglobin level. This improvement was additional to the currently used clinical score (i.e., MSKCC). Finally, none of the other blood tests parameters or their ratios had a prognostic impact in this study.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(13): 3793-3801, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890548

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the efficacy of drug therapies for glioblastoma (GBM). Preclinical data indicate that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU) can transiently disrupt the BBB and increase intracerebral drug concentrations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A first-in-man, single-arm, single-center trial (NCT02253212) was initiated to investigate the transient disruption of the BBB in patients with recurrent GBM. Patients were implanted with a 1-MHz, 11.5-mm diameter cranial ultrasound device (SonoCloud-1, CarThera). The device was activated monthly to transiently disrupt the BBB before intravenous carboplatin chemotherapy. RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2016, 21 patients were registered for the study and implanted with the SonoCloud-1; 19 patients received at least one sonication. In 65 ultrasound sessions, BBB disruption was visible on T1w MRI for 52 sonications. Treatment-related adverse events observed were transient and manageable: a transient edema at H1 and at D15. No carboplatin-related neurotoxicity was observed. Patients with no or poor BBB disruption (n = 8) visible on MRI had a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 2.73 months, and a median overall survival (OS) of 8.64 months. Patients with clear BBB disruption (n = 11) had a median PFS of 4.11 months, and a median OS of 12.94 months. CONCLUSIONS: SonoCloud-1 treatments were well tolerated and may increase the effectiveness of systemic drug therapies, such as carboplatin, in the brain without inducing neurotoxicity.See related commentary by Sonabend and Stupp, p. 3750.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(10): 823-833, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785830

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy and toxicity of chemoimmunotherapy followed by either whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as a first-line treatment of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Immunocompetent patients (18 to 60 years of age) with untreated PCNSL were randomly assigned to receive WBRT or ASCT as consolidation treatment after induction chemotherapy consisting of two cycles of R-MBVP (rituximab 375 mg/m2 day (D) 1, methotrexate 3 g/m2 D1; D15, VP16 100 mg/m2 D2, BCNU 100 mg/m2 D3, prednisone 60 mg/kg/d D1-D5) followed by two cycles of R-AraC (rituximab 375 mg/m2 D1, cytarabine 3 g/m2 D1 to D2). Intensive chemotherapy consisted of thiotepa (250 mg/m2/d D9; D8; D7), busulfan (8 mg/kg D6 through D4), and cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/d D3; D2). WBRT delivered 40 Gy (2 Gy/fraction). The primary end point was 2-year progression-free survival. Cognitive outcome was the main secondary end point. Analysis was intention to treat in a noncomparative phase II trial. RESULTS: Between October 2008 and February 2014, 140 patients were recruited from 23 French centers. Both WBRT and ASCT met the predetermined threshold (among the first 38 patients in each group, at least 24 patients were alive and disease free at 2 years). The 2-year progression-free survival rates were 63% (95% CI, 49% to 81%) and 87% (95% CI, 77% to 98%) in the WBRT and ASCT arms, respectively. Toxicity deaths were recorded in one and five patients after WBRT and ASCT, respectively. Cognitive impairment was observed after WBRT, whereas cognitive functions were preserved or improved after ASCT. CONCLUSION: WBRT and ASCT are effective consolidation treatments for patients with PCNSL who are 60 years of age and younger. The efficacy end points tended to favor the ASCT arm. The specific risk of each procedure should be considered.

9.
J Neurooncol ; 142(1): 139-148, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536197

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is common and potentially fatal in patients with primary malignant brain tumors (PMBT). However, few data are available regarding its precipitating factors and prognosis. We sought to: (1) compare the causes of ARF and the outcome between patients with PMBT and patients with other peripheral solid tumors (PST), (2) identify the factors influencing ICU survival in PMBT patients. METHODS: Two-center retrospective case-control study from March 1996 to May 2014. Primary central nervous system lymphomas were also included. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients with PMBT and 133 patients with PST were included. Acute infectious pneumonia was more frequent in PMBT than PST patients (77 vs. 36%, p < 0.001). Pulmonary embolism was also more frequent in PMBT patients (13% vs. 5%, p = 0.042), while cardiogenic pulmonary edema and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure were more frequent in PST patients (37 vs. 10%, p < 0.001). Among acute infectious pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia were more frequent in PMBT patients (19 vs. 2%, p < 0.001 and 19 vs. 8%, p < 0.001, respectively). ICU mortality was similar between PMBT and PST patients (24% vs. 24%, p = 0.966). In multivariate analysis, cancer progression (OR 7.25 95% CI 1.13-46.45, p = 0.034), need for intubation (OR 7.01 95% CI 1.29-38.54, p = 0.022), were independently associated with ICU mortality in PMBT patients. CONCLUSIONS: The cause of ARF in patients with PMBT differs significantly than those with PST and up to 50% may have been prevented. Mortality did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that PMBT alone is not a relevant criterion for ICU recusal.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Pneumonia Aspirativa/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Aspirativa/mortalidade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
10.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 75: 1-10, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502564

RESUMO

Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) are rare and poor prognosis diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Because of the brain tumor environment and the restricted distribution of drugs in the CNS, specific PCNSL patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) models are needed for preclinical research to improve the prognosis of PCNSL patients. PCNSL patient specimens (n = 6) were grafted in the caudate nucleus of immunodeficient nude mice with a 83% rate of success, while subcutaneous implantation in nude mice of human PCNSL sample did not generate lymphoma, supporting the role of the brain microenvironment in the PCNSL physiopathology. PDOXs showed diffuse infiltration of B-cell lymphoma cells in the brain parenchyma. Each model had a unique mutational signature for genes in the BCR and NF-κB pathways and retained the mutational profile of the primary tumor. The models can be stored as cryopreserved biobank. Human IL-10 levels measured in the plasma of PCNSL-PDOX mice showed to be a reliable tool to monitor the tumor burden. Treatment response could be measured after a short treatment with the targeted therapy ibrutinib. In summary, we established a panel of human PCNSL-PDOX models that capture the histological and molecular characteristics of the disease and that proved suitable for preclinical experiments. Our methods of generation and characterization will enable the generation of additional PDOX-PCNSL models, essential tools for cognitive and preclinical drug discovery.

11.
Semin Hematol ; 55(4): 179-181, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502843

RESUMO

We here report for the first time that low levels of interleukin (IL)-10 do not exclude lymphomatous meningitis (LM) in B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (CLPD). Unexpectedly, IL-10 levels and IL-10:IL-6 ratio in CLPD differed from the levels observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We report the usefulness of adding the IL-10:IL-6 ratio in order to potentially reveal more aggressive lymphomas: either a transformation or an association with another "hidden" lymphoma such as primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL).

12.
Presse Med ; 47(11-12 Pt 2): e213-e244, 2018 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30416008

RESUMO

A rare tumor, primary central nervous system lymphoma can affect immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. While sensitive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy crossing the blood-brain barrier, it often recurs. Modern treatment consists of high-dose methotrexate-based induction chemotherapy, often followed by consolidation with either radiotherapy or further chemotherapy. Neurotoxicity is however a concern with radiotherapy, especially for patients older than 60 years. The benefit of the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy is unclear. Targeted therapies and immunotherapy have been effective in some patients and are tested on a larger scale. Survival has improved in the last decade, but remains poor in older patients.

13.
Br J Haematol ; 183(4): 608-617, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421536

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative (ND) complications in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are a late-onset but dramatic sequelae for which incidence and risk factors are not well defined. Based on a national prospective registry of paediatric LCH patients, we determined the incidence rate of clinical ND LCH (cND-LCH) and analysed risk factors, taking into account disease extent and molecular characteristics. Among 1897 LCH patients, 36 (1·9%) were diagnosed with a cND-LCH. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cND-LCH was 4·1%. cND-LCH typically affected patients previously treated for a multisystem, risk organ-negative LCH, represented in 69·4% of cND-LCH cases. Pituitary gland, skin and base skull/orbit bone lesions were more frequent (P < 0·001) in cND-LCH patients compared to those without cND-LCH (respectively 86·1% vs. 12·2%, 75·0% vs. 34·2%, and 63·9% vs. 28·4%). The 'cND susceptible patients' (n = 671) i.e., children who had experienced LCH disease with pituitary or skull base or orbit bone involvement, had a 10-year cND risk of 7·8% vs. 0% for patients who did not meet these criteria. Finally, BRAFV 600E status added important information among these cND susceptible patients, with the 10-year cND risk of 33·1% if a BRAFV 600E mutation was present compared to 2·9% if it was absent (P = 0·002).

14.
Radiother Oncol ; 128(2): 221-228, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041961

RESUMO

Life expectancy of patients treated for brain tumors has lengthened due to the therapeutic improvements. Cognitive impairment has been described following brain radiotherapy, but the mechanisms leading to this adverse event remain mostly unknown. Technical evolutions aim at enhancing the therapeutic ratio. Sparing of the healthy tissues has been improved using various approaches; however, few dose constraints have been established regarding brain structures associated with cognitive functions. The aims of this literature review are to report the main brain areas involved in cognitive adverse effects induced by radiotherapy as described in literature, to better understand brain radiosensitivity and to describe potential future improvements.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos da radiação , Cognição/efeitos da radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Órgãos em Risco , Doses de Radiação , Radiometria , Substância Branca/efeitos da radiação
15.
Neurology ; 90(23): e2086-e2094, 2018 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the prevalence and prognostic significance of major driver molecular alterations in adult midline diffuse gliomas (MLG). METHODS: Adults with histologically proven MLG diagnosed between 1996 and 2017 were identified from our tumor bank, systematically reviewed, and reclassified according to WHO 2016. Targeted sequencing was performed, including determination of H3F3A, HIST1H3B, TERTp, IDH1/2, FGFR1, p16/CDKN2A, and EGFR status. RESULTS: A total of 116 adult patients (M/F 71/45, median age 46.5 years) with MLG (17 cerebellar, 8 spinal, 30 brainstem, 57 thalamic, and 4 diencephalic nonthalamic) were identified. Most patients had high-grade disease at presentation (grade II: 11%, grade III: 15%, grade IV: 75%). Median overall survival was 17.3 months (14.5-23.8 months). Main molecular alterations observed were TERT promoter, H3F3A, and hotspot FGFR1 (N546 and K656) mutations, in 37%, 34%, and 18% of patients, respectively. IDH1 mutations only affected brainstem gliomas (6/24 vs 0/78; p = 7.5 × 10-5), were mostly non-R132H (contrasting with hemispheric gliomas, p = 0.0001), and were associated with longer survival (54 vs 12 months). TERT promoter mutation (9.1 vs 24.2 months), CDKN2A deletion (9.9 vs 23.8 months), and EGFR amplification (4.3 vs 23.8 months) were associated with shorter survival. Of interest, in contrast with pediatric MLG, H3K27M mutations were not associated with worse prognosis (23 vs 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adult MLG present with unique clinical and molecular characteristics, differing from their pediatric counterparts. The identification of potentially actionable FGFR1 mutations in a subset of adult MLG highlights the importance of comprehensive genomic analysis in this rare affection.

16.
Oncotarget ; 9(24): 16822-16831, 2018 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29682187

RESUMO

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare topographic variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). While prognostic scales are useful in clinical trials, no dynamic prognostic marker is available in this disease. We report here the prognostic value of early metabolic response by 18F-FDG PET scanner (PET) in 25 newly diagnosed immunocompetent PCNSL patients. Induction treatment consisted of four cycles of Rituximab, Methotrexate and Temozolamide (RMT). Based on patient's general condition, consolidation by high-dose Etoposide and Aracytine was given to responding patients. Brain MRI and PET were performed at diagnosis, after two and four cycles of RMT, and after treatment completion. Two-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 62% and 74%, respectively for the whole cohort. Best responses after RMT induction were 18 (72%) complete response (CR)/CR undetermined (CRu), 4 (16%) partial response, 1 (4%) progressive disease and 2 (8%) stable disease. Response evaluation was concordant between MRI and PET at the end of induction therapy. Nineteen patients (76%) had a negative PET2. Predictive positive and negative values of PET2 on end-of-treatment (ETR) CR were 66.67% and 94.74%, respectively. We observed a significant association between PET2 negativity and ETR (p = 0.001) and longer PFS (p = 0.02), while having no impact on OS (p = 0.32). Two years PFS was 72% and 33% for PET2- and PET2+ patients, respectively (p < 0.02). PET2 evaluation may help to early define a subgroup of CR PCNSL patients with a favorable outcome.

17.
Eur Radiol ; 28(10): 4324-4333, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of cerebral remote microhaemorrhages (RMH) and remote haematomas (RH) using magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) among patients treated for gliomas during follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single centre longitudinal study on 58 consecutive patients treated for gliomas from January 2009 through December 2010. Our institutional review board approved this study. We evaluated the presence and number of RMH and RH found outside the brain tumour on follow-up MR imaging. We performed univariate and bivariate analyses to identify predictors for RMH and RH and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: Twenty-five (43%) and four patients (7%) developed at least one RMH or RH, respectively, during follow-up. The risk was significantly higher for patients who received radiation therapy (49% and 8% versus 0%) (p = 0.02). The risk of developing RH was significantly higher in patients with at least one RMH and a high burden of RMH. The mean age of those presenting with at least one RMH or RH was significantly lower. CONCLUSIONS: RMH were common in adult survivors of gliomas who received radiation therapy and may predict the onset of RH during follow-up, mainly in younger patients. KEY POINTS: • Brain RMH and RH are significantly more likely to occur after RT. • RMH occur in almost half of the patients treated with RT. • RMH and RH are significantly more frequent in younger patients. • RH occur only in patients with RMH.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Glioma/radioterapia , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Feminino , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
18.
Neuro Oncol ; 20(8): 1092-1100, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432597

RESUMO

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) represents a particular entity within non-Hodgkin lymphomas and is associated with poor outcome. The present study addresses the potential clinical relevance of chimeric transcripts in PCNSL discovered by using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Methods: Seventy-two immunocompetent and newly diagnosed PCNSL cases were included in the present study. Among them, 6 were analyzed by RNA-seq to detect new potential fusion transcripts. We confirmed the results in the remaining 66 PCNSL. The gene fusion was validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples. We assessed the biological and clinical impact of one new gene fusion. Results: We identified a novel recurrent gene fusion, E26 transformation-specific translocation variant 6-immunoglobulin heavy chain (ETV6-IgH). Overall, ETV6-IgH was found in 13 out of 72 PCNSL (18%). No fusion conserved an intact functional domain of ETV6, and ETV6 was significantly underexpressed at gene level, suggesting an ETV6 haploinsufficiency mechanism. The presence of the gene fusion was also validated by FISH in FFPE samples. Finally, PCNSL samples harboring ETV6-IgH showed a better prognosis in multivariate analysis, P = 0.03, hazard ratio = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.12-0.88. The overall survival at 5 years was 69% for PCNSL harboring ETV6-IgH versus 29% for samples without this gene fusion. Conclusions: ETV6-IgH is a new potential surrogate marker of PCNSL with favorable prognosis with ETV6 haploinsufficiency as a possible mechanism. The potential clinical impact of ETV6-IgH should be validated in larger prospective studies.

19.
Acta Neuropathol ; 135(5): 743-755, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460007

RESUMO

Recent genome-wide association studies of glioma have led to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 25 loci influencing risk. Gliomas are heterogeneous, hence to investigate the relationship between risk SNPs and glioma subtype we analysed 1659 tumours profiled for IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. These data allowed definition of five molecular subgroups of glioma: triple-positive (IDH mutated, 1p/19q co-deletion, TERT promoter mutated); TERT-IDH (IDH mutated, TERT promoter mutated, 1p/19q-wild-type); IDH-only (IDH mutated, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type); triple-negative (IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type, TERT promoter wild-type) and TERT-only (TERT promoter mutated, IDH wild-type, 1p/19q wild-type). Most glioma risk loci showed subtype specificity: (1) the 8q24.21 SNP for triple-positive glioma; (2) 5p15.33, 9p21.3, 17p13.1 and 20q13.33 SNPs for TERT-only glioma; (3) 1q44, 2q33.3, 3p14.1, 11q21, 11q23.3, 14q12, and 15q24.2 SNPs for IDH mutated glioma. To link risk SNPs to target candidate genes we analysed Hi-C and gene expression data, highlighting the potential role of IDH1 at 2q33.3, MYC at 8q24.21 and STMN3 at 20q13.33. Our observations provide further insight into the nature of susceptibility to glioma.

20.
Acta Neuropathol ; 135(4): 601-615, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368212

RESUMO

The optimal treatment for patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) WHO grade II remains controversial. Overall survival ranges from 2 to over 15 years depending on molecular and clinical factors. Hence, risk-adjusted treatments are required for optimizing outcome and quality of life. We aim at identifying mechanisms and associated molecular markers predictive for benefit from radiotherapy (RT) or temozolomide (TMZ) in LGG patients treated in the randomized phase III trial EORTC 22033. As candidate biomarkers for these genotoxic treatments, we considered the DNA methylome of 410 DNA damage response (DDR) genes. We first identified 62 functionally relevant CpG sites located in the promoters of 24 DDR genes, using the LGG data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Then we tested their association with outcome [progression-free survival (PFS)] depending on treatment in 120 LGG patients of EORTC 22033, whose tumors were mutant for isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 or 2 (IDHmt), the molecular hallmark of LGG. The results suggested that seven CpGs of four DDR genes may be predictive for longer PFS in one of the treatment arms that comprised MGMT, MLH3, RAD21, and SMC4. Most interestingly, the two CpGs identified for MGMT are the same, previously selected for the MGMT-STP27 score that is used to determine the methylation status of the MGMT gene. This score was higher in the LGG with 1p/19q codeletion, in this and other independent LGG datasets. It was predictive for PFS in the TMZ, but not in the RT arm of EORTC 22033. The results support the hypothesis that a high score predicts benefit from TMZ treatment for patients with IDHmt LGG, regardless of the 1p/19q status. This MGMT methylation score may identify patients who benefit from first-line treatment with TMZ, to defer RT for long-term preservation of cognitive function and quality of life.

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