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2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Family history is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We previously developed a COPD risk score from genome-wide genetic markers (Polygenic Risk Score, PRS). Whether the PRS and family history provide complementary or redundant information for predicting COPD and related outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We assessed the predictive capacity of family history and PRS on COPD and COPD-related outcomes in non-Hispanic white (NHW) and African American (AA) subjects from COPDGene and ECLIPSE studies. We also performed interaction and mediation analyses. RESULTS: In COPDGene, family history and PRS were significantly associated with COPD in a single model (PFamHx <0.0001; PPRS<0.0001). Similar trends were seen in ECLIPSE. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for a model containing family history and PRS was significantly higher than a model with PRS (p=0.00035) in NHWs and a model with family history (p<0.0001) alone in NHWs and AAs. Both family history and PRS were significantly associated with measures of quantitative emphysema and airway thickness. There was a weakly positive interaction between family history and the PRS under the additive, but not multiplicative scale in NHWs (relative excess risk due to interaction=0.48, p=0.04). Mediation analyses found that a significant proportion of the effect of family history on COPD was mediated through PRS in NHWs (16.5%, 95% CI 9.4% to 24.3%), but not AAs. CONCLUSION: Family history and the PRS provide complementary information for predicting COPD and related outcomes. Future studies can address the impact of obtaining both measures in clinical practice.

3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106845

RESUMO

Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degree-of-freedom test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-degree-of-freedom interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in the COPDGene study and SpiroMeta Consortium. We considered two smoking variables: (1) ever/never and (2) current/non-current. In the 1-degree-of-freedom interaction test, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on 15q25.1 (CHRNB4) for ever- and current-smoking and identified PI*Z allele (rs28929474) of SERPINA1 for ever-smoking and 3q26.2 (MECOM) for current-smoking in an analysis of previously reported COPD loci. In the 2-degree-of-freedom test, most of the significant signals were also significant for genetic marginal effects, aside from 16q22.1 (SMPD3) and 19q13.2 (EGLN2). The significant effects at 15q25.1 and 19q13.2 loci, both previously described in prior genome-wide association studies of COPD or smoking, were replicated in the COPDGene and SpiroMeta. We identified interaction effects at previously reported COPD loci, however, we failed to identify novel susceptibility loci.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 61: 103026, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prognostic tools are required to guide clinical decision-making in COVID-19. METHODS: We studied the relationship between the ratio of interleukin (IL)-6 to IL-10 and clinical outcome in 80 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, and created a simple 5-point linear score predictor of clinical outcome, the Dublin-Boston score. Clinical outcome was analysed as a three-level ordinal variable ("Improved", "Unchanged", or "Declined"). For both IL-6:IL-10 ratio and IL-6 alone, we associated clinical outcome with a) baseline biomarker levels, b) change in biomarker level from day 0 to day 2, c) change in biomarker from day 0 to day 4, and d) slope of biomarker change throughout the study. The associations between ordinal clinical outcome and each of the different predictors were performed with proportional odds logistic regression. Associations were run both "unadjusted" and adjusted for age and sex. Nested cross-validation was used to identify the model for incorporation into the Dublin-Boston score. FINDINGS: The 4-day change in IL-6:IL-10 ratio was chosen to derive the Dublin-Boston score. Each 1 point increase in the score was associated with a 5.6 times increased odds for a more severe outcome (OR 5.62, 95% CI -3.22-9.81, P = 1.2 × 10-9). Both the Dublin-Boston score and the 4-day change in IL-6:IL-10 significantly outperformed IL-6 alone in predicting clinical outcome at day 7. INTERPRETATION: The Dublin-Boston score is easily calculated and can be applied to a spectrum of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. More informed prognosis could help determine when to escalate care, institute or remove mechanical ventilation, or drive considerations for therapies. FUNDING: Funding was received from the Elaine Galwey Research Fellowship, American Thoracic Society, National Institutes of Health and the Parker B Francis Research Opportunity Award.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Chest ; 158(1): 11-12, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654700
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
7.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(3): 214-223, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621460

RESUMO

Individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) have marked heterogeneity in lung function, suspected to be related to a combination of both environmental (e.g., cigarette smoking) and genetic factors. Lung function is heritable in the general population and in persons with severe AATD. Several genetic modifiers of lung function in persons with AATD have been described; however, replication is lacking. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of lung function in persons with AATD has yet to be performed and may inform whether genetic determinants of lung function are overlapping in persons with AATD and in the general population. As GWASs require large sample sizes for adequate power, genetic risk scores offer an alternate approach to assess the overlap of genetic determinants of lung function in the general population in persons with AATD. Where GWASs are limited to common genetic variant discovery, whole genome sequencing (for rare variant discovery) and integrative genomic studies (examining the influence of genetic variants on gene, protein, and metabolite levels) offer potential for an expanded discovery of genetic modifiers of lung function in AATD. In the following review we examine past descriptions of genetic modifiers of lung function in AATD and describe a path forward to further investigate and define the likely genetic modifiers of lung function in AATD.

8.
AMIA Jt Summits Transl Sci Proc ; 2020: 278-287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32477647

RESUMO

Biobanks have facilitated the conduct of large-scale genomics studies, but they are challenged by the difficulty of validating some phenotypes, particularly for complex traits that represent heterogeneous groups ofpatients. The guideline definition of COPD, based on objective spirometry measures, has been preferred in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted with epidemiological cohorts, but spirometry measures are seldom available for biobank participants. Defining COPD based on International Classification of Disease (ICD) codes or self-reported measures is highly feasible in biobanks, but it remains unclear whether the misclassification inherent in these definitions prevent the discovery of genetic variants that contribute to COPD. We found that while there was poor agreement in classification of UK Biobank participants as having COPD based on ICD diagnosis codes, self-reported doctor diagnosis or spirometry measures, contrasting GWAS results for these definitions provided insights into what patient characteristics each trait may capture.

9.
Chest ; 158(3): 952-964, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of mortality. RESEARCH QUESTION: We hypothesized that applying machine learning to clinical and quantitative CT imaging features would improve mortality prediction in COPD. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected 30 clinical, spirometric, and imaging features as inputs for a random survival forest. We used top features in a Cox regression to create a machine learning mortality prediction (MLMP) in COPD model and also assessed the performance of other statistical and machine learning models. We trained the models in subjects with moderate to severe COPD from a subset of subjects in Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) and tested prediction performance in the remainder of individuals with moderate to severe COPD in COPDGene and Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE). We compared our model with the BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, exercise capacity (BODE) index; BODE modifications; and the age, dyspnea, and airflow obstruction index. RESULTS: We included 2,632 participants from COPDGene and 1,268 participants from ECLIPSE. The top predictors of mortality were 6-min walk distance, FEV1 % predicted, and age. The top imaging predictor was pulmonary artery-to-aorta ratio. The MLMP-COPD model resulted in a C index ≥ 0.7 in both COPDGene and ECLIPSE (6.4- and 7.2-year median follow-ups, respectively), significantly better than all tested mortality indexes (P < .05). The MLMP-COPD model had fewer predictors but similar performance to that of other models. The group with the highest BODE scores (7-10) had 64% mortality, whereas the highest mortality group defined by the MLMP-COPD model had 77% mortality (P = .012). INTERPRETATION: An MLMP-COPD model outperformed four existing models for predicting all-cause mortality across two COPD cohorts. Performance of machine learning was similar to that of traditional statistical methods. The model is available online at: https://cdnm.shinyapps.io/cgmortalityapp/.

11.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(1): 73-82, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197047

RESUMO

Rationale: The ZZ genotype of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), even among never-smokers. The SZ genotype is also considered severe; yet, its effect on lung health remains unclear.Objectives: To determine the effect of SZ-AATD on spirometry compared with a normal-risk population and to determine the effect of smoking cessation in this genotype.Methods: We prospectively enrolled 166 related individuals, removing lung index cases to reduce bias, and compared spirometry between 70 SZ and 46 MM/MS individuals (control subjects). The effect of AAT concentrations on outcomes was assessed in 82 SZ individuals (including lung index cases). Subsequently, we analyzed retrospective SZ registry data to determine the effect of smoking cessation on spirometry decline (n = 60) and plasma anti-neutrophil elastase capacity (n = 20).Measurements and Main Results: No difference between SZ and control never-smokers was seen. Ever smoking was associated with a lower FEV1% predicted (-14.3%; P = 0.0092) and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-0.075; P = 0.0041) in SZ-AATD. No association was found between AAT concentration and outcomes for SZ-AATD. Longitudinal analysis of 60 SZ individuals demonstrated that COPD at baseline, but not former smoking or AAT concentrations, predicted greater spirometry decline. Finally, anti-neutrophil elastase capacity did not differ between former smokers and never-smokers (P = 0.67).Conclusions: SZ never-smokers demonstrated no increased risk of COPD, regardless of AAT concentration. Smoking interacts with SZ-AATD to significantly increase airflow obstruction. Former smoking alone is not associated with greater spirometry decline in SZ-AATD, suggesting that cessation attenuates the obstructive process. We found no evidence that the putative protective threshold or AAT concentrations predict risk within the SZ genotype, raising further doubts over the need for intravenous AAT augmentation in this cohort.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Deficiência de alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
12.
Chest ; 157(1): 47-60, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have identified COPD subtypes by using visual or quantitative evaluation of CT images. However, there has been no systematic assessment of a combined visual and quantitative CT imaging classification. We integrated visually defined patterns of emphysema with quantitative imaging features and spirometry data to produce a set of 10 nonoverlapping CT imaging subtypes, and we assessed differences between subtypes in demographic features, physiological characteristics, longitudinal disease progression, and mortality. METHODS: We evaluated 9,080 current and former smokers in the COPDGene study who had available volumetric inspiratory and expiratory CT images obtained using a standardized imaging protocol. We defined 10 discrete, nonoverlapping CT imaging subtypes: no CT imaging abnormality, paraseptal emphysema (PSE), bronchial disease, small airway disease, mild emphysema, upper lobe predominant centrilobular emphysema (CLE), lower lobe predominant CLE, diffuse CLE, visual without quantitative emphysema, and quantitative without visual emphysema. Baseline and 5-year longitudinal characteristics and mortality were compared across these CT imaging subtypes. RESULTS: The overall mortality differed significantly between groups (P < .01) and was highest in the 3 moderate to severe CLE groups. Subjects having quantitative but not visual emphysema and subjects with visual but not quantitative emphysema were unique groups with mild COPD, at risk for progression, and with likely different underlying mechanisms. Subjects with PSE and/or moderate to severe CLE had substantial progression of emphysema over 5 years compared with findings in subjects with no CT imaging abnormality (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of visual and quantitative CT imaging features reflects different underlying pathological processes in the heterogeneous COPD syndrome and provides a useful approach to reclassify types of COPD. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00608764; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/classificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fumantes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Testes de Função Respiratória
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 564-574, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterized by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defense, telomere maintenance, signaling, and cell-cell adhesion.Objectives: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations.Methods: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analyzed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression, and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF.Measurements and Main Results: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1, and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility.Conclusions: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signaling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Fuso Acromático , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
14.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(5): 384-399, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710793

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Present-day diagnostic criteria are largely based solely on spirometric criteria. Accumulating evidence has identified a substantial number of individuals without spirometric evidence of COPD who suffer from respiratory symptoms and/or increased morbidity and mortality. There is a clear need for an expanded definition of COPD that is linked to physiologic, structural (computed tomography [CT]) and clinical evidence of disease. Using data from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene®), we hypothesized that an integrated approach that includes environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, chest CT imaging and spirometry better defines disease and captures the likelihood of progression of respiratory obstruction and mortality. Methods: Four key disease characteristics - environmental exposure (cigarette smoking), clinical symptoms (dyspnea and/or chronic bronchitis), chest CT imaging abnormalities (emphysema, gas trapping and/or airway wall thickening), and abnormal spirometry - were evaluated in a group of 8784 current and former smokers who were participants in COPDGene® Phase 1. Using these 4 disease characteristics, 8 categories of participants were identified and evaluated for odds of spirometric disease progression (FEV1 > 350 ml loss over 5 years), and the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was examined. Results: Using smokers without symptoms, CT imaging abnormalities or airflow obstruction as the reference population, individuals were classified as Possible COPD, Probable COPD and Definite COPD. Current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria would diagnose 4062 (46%) of the 8784 study participants with COPD. The proposed COPDGene® 2019 diagnostic criteria would add an additional 3144 participants. Under the new criteria, 82% of the 8784 study participants would be diagnosed with Possible, Probable or Definite COPD. These COPD groups showed increased risk of disease progression and mortality. Mortality increased in patients as the number of their COPD characteristics increased, with a maximum hazard ratio for all cause-mortality of 5.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.15-6.48) in those with all 4 disease characteristics. Conclusions: A substantial portion of smokers with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities do not manifest spirometric obstruction as defined by population normals. These individuals are at significant risk of death and spirometric disease progression. We propose to redefine the diagnosis of COPD through an integrated approach using environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, CT imaging and spirometric criteria. These expanded criteria offer the potential to stimulate both current and future interventions that could slow or halt disease progression in patients before disability or irreversible lung structural changes develop.

15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(11): 1402-1413, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339356

RESUMO

Rationale: Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF); however, the extent to which there are unique associations among individuals with ILAs or additional overlap with IPF is not known.Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILAs.Methods: ILAs and a subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES (Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility), COPDGene (Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]), Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points), MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study) studies. We performed a GWAS of ILAs in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF.Measurements and Main Results: Genome-wide genotyping data were available for 1,699 individuals with ILAs and 10,274 control subjects. The MUC5B (mucin 5B) promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILAs (P = 2.6 × 10-27) and subpleural ILAs (P = 1.6 × 10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, P = 3.8 × 10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, P = 4.8 × 10-8) with ILAs, and near HTRE1 (rs7744971, P = 4.2 × 10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILAs. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Among 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, five (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (P < 0.05/12) with ILAs.Conclusions: In a GWAS of ILAs in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common genetically driven biologic pathways between ILAs and IPF, and also suggest distinct ones.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mucina-5B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Semelhantes à Proteína de Ligação a TATA-Box , beta Carioferinas/genética
16.
PLoS Genet ; 15(7): e1008229, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269066

RESUMO

While many disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs), a large proportion of complex disease genome-wide association study (GWAS) variants are of unknown function. Some of these SNPs may contribute to disease by regulating gene splicing. Here, we investigate whether SNPs that are associated with alternative splicing (splice QTL or sQTL) can identify novel functions for existing GWAS variants or suggest new associated variants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). RNA sequencing was performed on whole blood from 376 subjects from the COPDGene Study. Using linear models, we identified 561,060 unique sQTL SNPs associated with 30,333 splice sites corresponding to 6,419 unique genes. Similarly, 708,928 unique eQTL SNPs involving 15,913 genes were detected at 10% FDR. While there is overlap between sQTLs and eQTLs, 55.3% of sQTLs are not eQTLs. Co-localization analysis revealed that 7 out of 21 loci associated with COPD (p<1x10-6) in a published GWAS have at least one shared causal variant between the GWAS and sQTL studies. Among the genes identified to have splice sites associated with top GWAS SNPs was FBXO38, in which a novel exon was discovered to be protective against COPD. Importantly, the sQTL in this locus was validated by qPCR in both blood and lung tissue, demonstrating that splice variants relevant to lung tissue can be identified in blood. Other identified genes included CDK11A and SULT1A2. Overall, these data indicate that analysis of alternative splicing can provide novel insights into disease mechanisms. In particular, we demonstrated that SNPs in a known COPD GWAS locus on chromosome 5q32 influence alternative splicing in the gene FBXO38.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arilsulfotransferase/genética , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Éxons , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Bioinformatics ; 35(21): 4336-4343, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957844

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Complex diseases often involve a wide spectrum of phenotypic traits. Better understanding of the biological mechanisms relevant to each trait promotes understanding of the etiology of the disease and the potential for targeted and effective treatment plans. There have been many efforts towards omics data integration and network reconstruction, but limited work has examined the incorporation of relevant (quantitative) phenotypic traits. RESULTS: We propose a novel technique, sparse multiple canonical correlation network analysis (SmCCNet), for integrating multiple omics data types along with a quantitative phenotype of interest, and for constructing multi-omics networks that are specific to the phenotype. As a case study, we focus on miRNA-mRNA networks. Through simulations, we demonstrate that SmCCNet has better overall prediction performance compared to popular gene expression network construction and integration approaches under realistic settings. Applying SmCCNet to studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and breast cancer, we found enrichment of known relevant pathways (e.g. the Cadherin pathway for COPD and the interferon-gamma signaling pathway for breast cancer) as well as less known omics features that may be important to the diseases. Although those applications focus on miRNA-mRNA co-expression networks, SmCCNet is applicable to a variety of omics and other data types. It can also be easily generalized to incorporate multiple quantitative phenotype simultaneously. The versatility of SmCCNet suggests great potential of the approach in many areas. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The SmCCNet algorithm is written in R, and is freely available on the web at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/SmCCNet/index.html. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(14): 2352-2364, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997486

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are two pathologically distinct chronic lung diseases that are associated with cigarette smoking. Genetic studies have identified shared loci for COPD and IPF, including several loci with opposite directions of effect. The existence of additional shared genetic loci, as well as potential shared pathobiological mechanisms between the two diseases at the molecular level, remains to be explored. Taking a network-based approach, we built disease modules for COPD and IPF using genome-wide association studies-implicated genes. The two disease modules displayed strong disease signals in an independent gene expression data set of COPD and IPF lung tissue and showed statistically significant overlap and network proximity, sharing 19 genes, including ARHGAP12 and BCHE. To uncover pathways at the intersection of COPD and IPF, we developed a metric, NetPathScore, which prioritizes the pathways of a disease by their network overlap with another disease. Applying NetPathScore to the COPD and IPF disease modules enabled the determination of concordant and discordant pathways between these diseases. Concordant pathways between COPD and IPF included extracellular matrix remodeling, Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and ALK pathways, whereas discordant pathways included advanced glycosylation end product receptor signaling and telomere maintenance and extension pathways. Overall, our findings reveal shared molecular interaction regions between COPD and IPF and shed light on the congruent and incongruent biological processes lying at the intersection of these two complex diseases.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/genética , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
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