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3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4053, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602977

RESUMO

Thrombosis is a major concern in respiratory infections. Our aim was to investigate the magnitude and duration of risk for arterial and venous thrombosis following discharge after respiratory infection. Patients with respiratory infections were identified using the United States Nationwide Readmission Database from 2012 to 2014. Patients admitted with asthma or cellulitis served as comparators. Readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were evaluated at 30 to 180 days. The likelihood of a first thrombotic event after discharge was compared with a 30-day period prior to hospitalization. Among 5,271,068 patients discharged after a respiratory infection, 0.56% and 0.78% were readmitted within 30-days with MI and VTE, respectively. Relative to asthma and cellulitis, respiratory infection was associated with a greater age and sex-adjusted hazard of 30-day readmission for MI (adjusted HR [aHR] 1.48 [95% CI 1.42-1.54] vs. asthma; aHR 1.36 [95% CI 1.31-1.41] vs. cellulitis) and VTE (aHR 1.28 [95% CI 1.24-1.33] vs. asthma; aHR 1.26, [95% CI 1.22-1.30] vs. cellulitis). Risks of MI and VTE attenuated over time. In a crossover-cohort analysis, the odds of MI (OR 1.68 [95% CI 1.62-1.73]) and VTE (OR 3.30 [95% 3.19-3.41]) were higher in the 30 days following discharge after respiratory infection than during the 30-day baseline period. Hospitalization for respiratory infection was associated with increased risks of thrombosis that were highest in the first 30-days after discharge and declined over time.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(5): e019519, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619972

RESUMO

The Go Red for Women movement was initiated by the American Heart Association (AHA) in the early 2000s to raise awareness concerning cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women. In 2016, the AHA funded 5 research centers across the United States to advance our knowledge of the risks and presentation of CVD that are specific to women. This report highlights the findings of the centers, showing how insufficient sleep, sedentariness, and pregnancy-related complications may increase CVD risk in women, as well as presentation and factors associated with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. These projects were augmented by collaborative ancillary studies assessing the relationships between various lifestyle behaviors, including nightly fasting duration, mindfulness, and behavioral and anthropometric risk factors and CVD risk, as well as metabolomic profiling of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in women. The Go Red for Women Strategically Focused Research Network enhanced the evidence base related to heart disease in women, promoting awareness of the female-specific factors that influence CVD.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systemic inflammatory response is observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Elevated serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, are associated with severe disease in bacterial or viral infections. We aimed to explore associations between CRP concentration at initial hospital presentation and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York healthcare system between 1 March and 8 April 2020 were identified. Patients with measurement of CRP were included. Venous thrombo-embolism (VTE), acute kidney injury (AKI), critical illness, and in-hospital mortality were determined for all patients. Among 2782 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 2601 (93.5%) had a CRP measurement [median 108 mg/L, interquartile range (IQR) 53-169]. CRP concentrations above the median value were associated with VTE [8.3% vs. 3.4%; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-3.36], AKI (43.0% vs. 28.4%; aOR 2.11, 95% CI 1.76-2.52), critical illness (47.6% vs. 25.9%; aOR 2.83, 95% CI 2.37-3.37), and mortality (32.2% vs. 17.8%; aOR 2.59, 95% CI 2.11-3.18), compared with CRP below the median. A dose response was observed between CRP concentration and adverse outcomes. While the associations between CRP and adverse outcomes were consistent among patients with low and high D-dimer levels, patients with high D-dimer and high CRP have the greatest risk of adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation, as measured by CRP, is strongly associated with VTE, AKI, critical illness, and mortality in COVID-19. CRP-based approaches to risk stratification and treatment should be tested.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the concordance of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) assessment of coronary anatomy and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference standard in patients enrolled in the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA). BACKGROUND: Performance of CCTA compared with ICA has not been assessed in patients with very high burdens of stress-induced ischemia and a high likelihood of anatomically significant coronary artery disease (CAD). A blinded CCTA was performed after enrollment to exclude patients with left main (LM) disease or no obstructive CAD before randomization to an initial conservative or invasive strategy, the latter guided by ICA and optimal revascularization. METHODS: Rates of concordance were calculated on a per-patient basis in patients randomized to the invasive strategy. Anatomic significance was defined as ≥50% diameter stenosis (DS) for both modalities. Sensitivity analyses using a threshold of ≥70% DS for CCTA or considering only CCTA images of good-to-excellent quality were performed. RESULTS: In 1,728 patients identified by CCTA as having no LM disease ≥50% and at least single-vessel CAD, ICA confirmed 97.1% without LM disease ≥50%, 92.2% with at least single-vessel CAD and no LM disease ≥50%, and only 4.9% without anatomically significant CAD. Results using a ≥70% DS threshold or only CCTA of good-to-excellent quality showed similar overall performance. CONCLUSIONS: CCTA before randomization in ISCHEMIA demonstrated high concordance with subsequent ICA for identification of patients with angiographically significant disease without LM disease.

8.
Circulation ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267610

RESUMO

Background: In ISCHEMIA, an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce rates of cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality compared with a conservative strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and moderate/severe myocardial ischemia. The most frequent component of composite cardiovascular endpoints was myocardial infarction. Methods: ISCHEMIA prespecified that the primary and major secondary composite endpoints of the trial be analyzed using two MI definitions. For procedural MI, the primary MI definition used CK-MB as the preferred biomarker whereas the secondary definition used cardiac troponin. Procedural thresholds were >5 times URL for PCI and >10 times for CABG. Procedural MI definitions included (i) a category of elevated biomarker only events with much higher biomarker thresholds (ii) new ST segment depression of ≥ 1mm for the primary and ≥ 0.5 mm for the secondary definition and (iii) new coronary dissections ≥ NHLBI grade 3. We compared MI type, frequency, and prognosis by treatment assignment using both MI definitions. Results: Procedural MI's accounted for 20.1% of all MI events with the primary definition and 40.6% of all MI events with the secondary definition. Four-year MI rates in patients undergoing revascularization were more frequent with the invasive vs conservative strategy using the primary [2.7% vs. 1.1%; adjusted HR 2.98 (95% CI 1.87, 4.73)] and secondary [8.2% vs. 2.0%; adjusted HR 5.04 (95% CI 3.64, 6.97)] MI definitions. Type 1 MI's were less frequent with the invasive vs conservative strategy using the primary [3.40% vs. 6.89%; adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41,0.69); p<0.0001], and secondary [3.48% vs 6.89%; adjusted HR 0.53 (95% CI 0.41, 0.69); p<0.0001] definitions. The risk of subsequent cardiovascular death was higher after a type 1 MI compared to no MI using the primary [adjusted HR 3.38 (95% CI 2.03,5.61); p<0.001] or secondary MI definition [adjusted HR 3.52 (2.11, 5.88); p<0.001]. Conclusions: In ISCHEMIA, type 1 MI events using the primary and secondary definitions during 5-year follow-up were more frequent with an initial conservative strategy and associated with subsequent cardiovascular death. Procedural MI rates were greater in the invasive strategy and using the secondary MI definition. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT01471522.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(24): 2878-2894, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33303078

RESUMO

Fine particulate air pollution <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a major environmental threat to global public health. Multiple national and international medical and governmental organizations have recognized PM2.5 as a risk factor for cardiopulmonary diseases. A growing body of evidence indicates that several personal-level approaches that reduce exposures to PM2.5 can lead to improvements in health endpoints. Novel and forward-thinking strategies including randomized clinical trials are important to validate key aspects (e.g., feasibility, efficacy, health benefits, risks, burden, costs) of the various protective interventions, in particular among real-world susceptible and vulnerable populations. This paper summarizes the discussions and conclusions from an expert workshop, Reducing the Cardiopulmonary Impact of Particulate Matter Air Pollution in High Risk Populations, held on May 29 to 30, 2019, and convened by the National Institutes of Health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

10.
Circulation ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191769

RESUMO

Background: Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in 6-15% of MI and disproportionately affects women. Scientific statements recommend multi-modality imaging in MINOCA to define the underlying cause. We performed coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to assess mechanisms of MINOCA. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, international, observational study, we enrolled women with a clinical diagnosis of MI. If invasive coronary angiography revealed <50% stenosis in all major arteries, multi-vessel OCT was performed, followed by CMR (cine imaging, late gadolinium enhancement, and T2-weighted imaging and/or T1 mapping). Angiography, OCT, and CMR were evaluated at blinded, independent core laboratories. Culprit lesions identified by OCT were classified as definite or possible. The CMR core laboratory identified ischemia-related and non-ischemic myocardial injury. Imaging results were combined to determine the mechanism of MINOCA, when possible. Results: Among 301 women enrolled at 16 sites, 170 were diagnosed with MINOCA, of whom 145 had adequate OCT image quality for analysis; 116 of these underwent CMR. A definite or possible culprit lesion was identified by OCT in 46.2% (67/145) of participants, most commonly plaque rupture, intra-plaque cavity or layered plaque. CMR was abnormal in 74.1% (86/116) of participants. An ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (infarction or myocardial edema in a coronary territory) was present in 53.4% of participants undergoing CMR (62/116). A non-ischemic pattern of CMR abnormalities (myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy) was present in 20.7% (24/116). A cause of MINOCA was identified in 84.5% of the women with multi-modality imaging (98/116), higher than with OCT alone (p<0.001) or CMR alone (p=0.001). An ischemic etiology was identified in 63.8% of women with MINOCA (74/116), a non-ischemic etiology was identified in 20.7% (24/116), and no mechanism was identified in 15.5% (18/116). Conclusions: Multi-modality imaging with coronary OCT and CMR identified potential mechanisms in 84.5% of women with a diagnosis of MINOCA, three-quarters of which were ischemic and one-quarter of which were non-ischemic, alternate diagnoses to MI. Identification of the etiology of MINOCA is feasible and has the potential to guide medical therapy for secondary prevention. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT02905357.

11.
Am Heart J ; 231: 93-95, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181067

RESUMO

We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses nationwide from 2012 to 2014 and compared this to the incidence among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large health system in New York. Non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness was complicated by acute MI in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (5% vs 16%; P< .001). BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is a prominent feature of the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence of thrombosis during hospitalization for non-COVID-19 viral respiratory infections is uncertain. We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses compared to COVID-19. METHODS: Adults age >18 years hospitalized with a non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness between 2002 and 2014 were identified. The primary study outcome was a composite of venous and arterial thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), acute ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of thrombosis in non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illnesses was compared to the recently published incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 from 3,334 patients hospitalized in New York in 2020. RESULTS: Among 954,521 hospitalizations with viral pneumonia from 2002 to 2014 (mean age 62.3 years, 57.1% female), the combined incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis was 5.0%. Acute MI occurred in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. Patients with thrombosis had higher in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 3.3%, P< .001) than those without thrombosis. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (median age 64; 39.6% female) in 2020 (5% vs 16%; P< .001) CONCLUSION: In a nationwide analysis of hospitalizations for viral pneumonias, thrombosis risk was lower than that observed in patients with COVID-19. Investigations into mechanisms of thrombosis and risk reduction strategies in COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections are necessary.

13.
Circulation ; 142(18): 1-29, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1148119

RESUMO

Background: It is unknown whether an initial invasive strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and at least moderate ischemia improves outcomes in patients with a history of heart failure (HF) or left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) when EF >35%, but <45%. Methods: Among 5179 participants randomized into the International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness with Medical and Invasive Approaches (ISCHEMIA), all of whom had LVEF >35%, we compared cardiovascular outcomes by treatment strategy in those with a history of HF or LV dysfunction (HF/LVD) at baseline versus those without HF/LVD. Median follow up was 3.2 years. Results: There were 398 (7.7%) participants with HF/LVD at baseline of whom 177 had HF/LVEF>45%, 28 had HF/LVEF 35-45% and 193 had LVEF 35-45% but no prior history of HF. HF/LVD was associated with more comorbidities at baseline, particularly prior myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and hypertension. Compared to those without HF/LVD, those with HF/LVD were more likely to experience a primary outcome composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, or hospitalization for unstable angina, HF, or resuscitated cardiac arrest; four-year cumulative incidence rate (22.7% vs. 13.8%), cardiovascular death or MI (19.7% vs. 12.3%), and all-cause death or HF (15.0% vs. 6.9%). Those with HF/LVD randomized to the invasive versus conservative strategy had a lower rate of the primary outcome (17.2% vs. 29.3%, difference in 4- year event rate -12.1%; 95% CI: -22.6, -1.6%), whereas those without HF/LVD did not (13.0% vs. 14.6%, difference in 4-year event rate -1.6%; 95% CI: -3.8%, 0.7%; p-interaction = 0.055). A similar differential effect was seen for the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and CV mortality when invasive versus conservative strategy associated outcomes were analyzed with LVEF as a continuous variable for those with and without prior HF. Conclusions: ISCHEMIA trial participants with stable ischemic heart disease and at least moderate ischemia with a history of HF or LVD were at increased risk for the primary outcome. In the small, high-risk subgroup with HF and LVEF 35-45%, an initial invasive approach was associated with a better event-free survival. This result should be considered hypothesis generating.


Assuntos
Tratamento Conservador , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Isquemia
18.
Circulation ; 142(18): 1725-1735, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether an initial invasive strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease and at least moderate ischemia improves outcomes in the setting of a history of heart failure (HF) or left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) when ejection fraction is ≥35% but <45% is unknown. METHODS: Among 5179 participants randomized into ISCHEMIA (International Study of Comparative Health Effectiveness With Medical and Invasive Approaches), all of whom had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥35%, we compared cardiovascular outcomes by treatment strategy in participants with a history of HF/LVD at baseline versus those without HF/LVD. Median follow-up was 3.2 years. RESULTS: There were 398 (7.7%) participants with HF/LVD at baseline, of whom 177 had HF/LVEF >45%, 28 HF/LVEF 35% to 45%, and 193 LVEF 35% to 45% but no history of HF. HF/LVD was associated with more comorbidities at baseline, particularly previous myocardial infarction, stroke, and hypertension. Compared with patients without HF/LVD, participants with HF/LVD were more likely to experience a primary outcome composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina, HF, or resuscitated cardiac arrest (4-year cumulative incidence rate, 22.7% versus 13.8%; cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction, 19.7% versus 12.3%; and all-cause death or HF, 15.0% versus 6.9%). Participants with HF/LVD randomized to the invasive versus conservative strategy had a lower rate of the primary outcome (17.2% versus 29.3%; difference in 4-year event rate, -12.1% [95% CI, -22.6 to -1.6%]), whereas those without HF/LVD did not (13.0% versus 14.6%; difference in 4-year event rate, -1.6% [95% CI, -3.8% to 0.7%]; P interaction = 0.055). A similar differential effect was seen for the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality when invasive versus conservative strategy-associated outcomes were analyzed with LVEF as a continuous variable for patients with and without previous HF. CONCLUSIONS: ISCHEMIA participants with stable ischemic heart disease and at least moderate ischemia with a history of HF or LVD were at increased risk for the primary outcome. In the small, high-risk subgroup with HF and LVEF 35% to 45%, an initial invasive approach was associated with better event-free survival. This result should be considered hypothesis-generating. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01471522.

19.
EClinicalMedicine ; 24: 100434, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766543

RESUMO

Background: There is increasing recognition of a prothrombotic state in COVID-19. Post-mortem examination can provide important mechanistic insights. Methods: We present a COVID-19 autopsy series including findings in lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, and bone, from a New York academic medical center. Findings: In seven patients (four female), regardless of anticoagulation status, all autopsies demonstrated platelet-rich thrombi in the pulmonary, hepatic, renal, and cardiac microvasculature. Megakaryocytes were seen in higher than usual numbers in the lungs and heart. Two cases had thrombi in the large pulmonary arteries, where casts conformed to the anatomic location. Thrombi in the IVC were not found, but the deep leg veins were not dissected. Two cases had cardiac venous thrombosis with one case exhibiting septal myocardial infarction associated with intramyocardial venous thrombosis, without atherosclerosis. One case had focal acute lymphocyte-predominant inflammation in the myocardium with no virions found in cardiomyocytes. Otherwise, cardiac histopathological changes were limited to minimal epicardial inflammation (n = 1), early ischemic injury (n = 3), and mural fibrin thrombi (n = 2). Platelet-rich peri­tubular fibrin microthrombi were a prominent renal feature. Acute tubular necrosis, and red blood cell and granular casts were seen in multiple cases. Significant glomerular pathology was notably absent. Numerous platelet-fibrin microthrombi were identified in hepatic sinusoids. All lungs exhibited diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with a spectrum of exudative and proliferative phases including hyaline membranes, and pneumocyte hyperplasia, with viral inclusions in epithelial cells and macrophages. Three cases had superimposed acute bronchopneumonia, focally necrotizing. Interpretation: In this series of seven COVID-19 autopsies, thrombosis was a prominent feature in multiple organs, in some cases despite full anticoagulation and regardless of timing of the disease course, suggesting that thrombosis plays a role very early in the disease process. The finding of megakaryocytes and platelet-rich thrombi in the lungs, heart and kidneys suggests a role in thrombosis. Funding: None.

20.
Circulation ; 142(9): 841-857, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revascularization is often performed in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. However, whether revascularization reduces death and other cardiovascular outcomes is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted PUBMED/EMBASE/Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials searches for randomized trials comparing routine revascularization versus an initial conservative strategy in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. The primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure, stroke, unstable angina, and freedom from angina. Trials were stratified by percent stent use and by percent statin use to evaluate outcomes in contemporary trials. RESULTS: Fourteen randomized clinical trials that enrolled 14 877 patients followed up for a weighted mean of 4.5 years with 64 678 patient-years of follow-up fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Most trials enrolled patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function and low symptom burden, and excluded patients with left main disease. Revascularization compared with medical therapy alone was not associated with a reduced risk of death (relative risk [RR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.90-1.09]). Trial sequential analysis showed that the cumulative z-curve crossed the futility boundary, indicating firm evidence for lack of a 10% or greater reduction in death. Revascularization was associated with a reduced nonprocedural MI (RR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.67-0.85]) but also with increased procedural MI (RR, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.86-3.31]) with no difference in overall MI (RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.83-1.03]). A significant reduction in unstable angina (RR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.45-0.92]) and increase in freedom from angina (RR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.15]) was also observed with revascularization. There were no treatment-related differences in the risk of heart failure or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, routine revascularization was not associated with improved survival but was associated with a lower risk of nonprocedural MI and unstable angina with greater freedom from angina at the expense of higher rates of procedural MI. Longer-term follow-up of trials is needed to assess whether reduction in these nonfatal spontaneous events improves long-term survival.

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