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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34651643

RESUMO

The upper respiratory tract (URT) is the primary entry site for SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses, but its involvement in viral amplification and pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we investigated primary nasal epithelial cultures, as well as vital explanted tissues to scrutinize the tropism of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the recently emerged B.1.1.7 variant. Our analyses revealed a widespread replication competence of SARS-CoV-2 in polarized nasal epithelium as well as in the examined URT and salivary gland tissues, which was also shared by the B.1.1.7 virus thereby highlighting the active role of these anatomic sites in COVID-19.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5324, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493730

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels across the Middle East and Africa. Virus-induced pneumonia in humans results from animal contact, with a potential for limited onward transmission. Phenotypic changes have been suspected after a novel recombinant clade (lineage 5) caused large nosocomial outbreaks in Saudi Arabia and South Korea in 2016. However, there has been no functional assessment. Here we perform a comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo comparison of viruses from parental and recombinant virus lineages (lineage 3, n = 7; lineage 4, n = 8; lineage 5, n = 9 viruses) from Saudi Arabia, isolated immediately before and after the shift toward lineage 5. Replication of lineage 5 viruses is significantly increased. Transcriptional profiling finds reduced induction of immune genes IFNB1, CCL5, and IFNL1 in lung cells infected with lineage 5 strains. Phenotypic differences may be determined by IFN antagonism based on experiments using IFN receptor knock out and signaling inhibition. Additionally, lineage 5 is more resilient against IFN pre-treatment of Calu-3 cells (ca. 10-fold difference in replication). This phenotypic change associated with lineage 5 has remained undiscovered by viral sequence surveillance, but may be a relevant indicator of pandemic potential.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Animais , Camelus , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Replicação Viral
4.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452455

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) continuously causes epidemics and claims numerous lives every year. The available treatment options are insufficient and the limited pertinence of animal models for human IAV infections is hampering the development of new therapeutics. Bioprinted tissue models support studying pathogenic mechanisms and pathogen-host interactions in a human micro tissue environment. Here, we describe a human lung model, which consisted of a bioprinted base of primary human lung fibroblasts together with monocytic THP-1 cells, on top of which alveolar epithelial A549 cells were printed. Cells were embedded in a hydrogel consisting of alginate, gelatin and collagen. These constructs were kept in long-term culture for 35 days and their viability, expression of specific cell markers and general rheological parameters were analyzed. When the models were challenged with a combination of the bacterial toxins LPS and ATP, a release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and IL-8 was observed, confirming that the model can generate an immune response. In virus inhibition assays with the bioprinted lung model, the replication of a seasonal IAV strain was restricted by treatment with an antiviral agent in a dose-dependent manner. The printed lung construct provides an alveolar model to investigate pulmonary pathogenic biology and to support development of new therapeutics not only for IAV, but also for other viruses.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3818, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155207

RESUMO

Viruses manipulate cellular metabolism and macromolecule recycling processes like autophagy. Dysregulated metabolism might lead to excessive inflammatory and autoimmune responses as observed in severe and long COVID-19 patients. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 modulates cellular metabolism and reduces autophagy. Accordingly, compound-driven induction of autophagy limits SARS-CoV-2 propagation. In detail, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells show accumulation of key metabolites, activation of autophagy inhibitors (AKT1, SKP2) and reduction of proteins responsible for autophagy initiation (AMPK, TSC2, ULK1), membrane nucleation, and phagophore formation (BECN1, VPS34, ATG14), as well as autophagosome-lysosome fusion (BECN1, ATG14 oligomers). Consequently, phagophore-incorporated autophagy markers LC3B-II and P62 accumulate, which we confirm in a hamster model and lung samples of COVID-19 patients. Single-nucleus and single-cell sequencing of patient-derived lung and mucosal samples show differential transcriptional regulation of autophagy and immune genes depending on cell type, disease duration, and SARS-CoV-2 replication levels. Targeting of autophagic pathways by exogenous administration of the polyamines spermidine and spermine, the selective AKT1 inhibitor MK-2206, and the BECN1-stabilizing anthelmintic drug niclosamide inhibit SARS-CoV-2 propagation in vitro with IC50 values of 136.7, 7.67, 0.11, and 0.13 µM, respectively. Autophagy-inducing compounds reduce SARS-CoV-2 propagation in primary human lung cells and intestinal organoids emphasizing their potential as treatment options against COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Metaboloma , Niclosamida/farmacologia , Organoides , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Espermidina/farmacologia , Espermina/farmacologia
6.
Nat Rev Mater ; : 1-3, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747552

RESUMO

Scientists worldwide struggle to identify suitable animal models to study SARS-CoV-2 infections. Interspecies-related differences, such as host specificity, divergent immune responses, or the unavailability of species-specific reagents hamper the research. Human-based models, such as micro-engineered multi-organs-on-chip, may hold the solution.

7.
iScience ; 24(3): 102151, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585804

RESUMO

Detailed knowledge of the molecular biology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is crucial for understanding of viral replication, host responses, and disease progression. Here, we report gene expression profiles of three SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-infected human cell lines. SARS-CoV-2 elicited an approximately two-fold higher stimulation of the innate immune response compared to SARS-CoV in the human epithelial cell line Calu-3, including induction of miRNA-155. Single-cell RNA sequencing of infected cells showed that genes induced by virus infections were broadly upregulated, whereas interferon beta/lambda genes, a pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, were expressed only in small subsets of infected cells. Temporal analysis suggested that transcriptional activities of interferon regulatory factors precede those of nuclear factor κB. Lastly, we identified heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a protein relevant for the infection. Inhibition of the HSP90 activity resulted in a reduction of viral replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in primary human airway epithelial cells.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 223(11): 1973-1983, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045080

RESUMO

Apoptosis is an indispensable mechanism for eliminating infected cells and activation of executioner caspases is considered to be a point of no return. Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common bacterial pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia, induces apoptosis via its pore-forming toxin pneumolysin, leading to rapid influxes of mitochondrial calcium [Ca2+]m as well as fragmentation, and loss of motility and membrane potential, which is accompanied by caspase-3/7 activation. Using machine-learning and quantitative live-cell microscopy, we identified a significant number of alveolar epithelial cells surviving such executioner caspase activation after pneumolysin attack. Precise single-cell analysis revealed the [Ca2+]m amplitude and efflux rate as decisive parameters for survival and death, which was verified by pharmacological inhibition of [Ca2+]m efflux shifting the surviving cells towards the dying fraction. Taken together, we identified the regulation of [Ca2+]m as critical for controlling the cellular fate under pneumolysin attack, which might be useful for therapeutic intervention during pneumococcal infection.

11.
Cell ; 183(4): 1058-1069.e19, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058755

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 led to pandemic spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), manifesting with respiratory symptoms and multi-organ dysfunction. Detailed characterization of virus-neutralizing antibodies and target epitopes is needed to understand COVID-19 pathophysiology and guide immunization strategies. Among 598 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from 10 COVID-19 patients, we identified 40 strongly neutralizing mAbs. The most potent mAb, CV07-209, neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 with an IC50 value of 3.1 ng/mL. Crystal structures of two mAbs in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain at 2.55 and 2.70 Å revealed a direct block of ACE2 attachment. Interestingly, some of the near-germline SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing mAbs reacted with mammalian self-antigens. Prophylactic and therapeutic application of CV07-209 protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection, weight loss, and lung pathology. Our results show that non-self-reactive virus-neutralizing mAbs elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection are a promising therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Sítios de Ligação , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae , Cristalografia por Raios X , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Cinética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
12.
Cell ; 182(6): 1419-1440.e23, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810438

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild to moderate respiratory tract infection, however, a subset of patients progress to severe disease and respiratory failure. The mechanism of protective immunity in mild forms and the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 associated with increased neutrophil counts and dysregulated immune responses remain unclear. In a dual-center, two-cohort study, we combined single-cell RNA-sequencing and single-cell proteomics of whole-blood and peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to determine changes in immune cell composition and activation in mild versus severe COVID-19 (242 samples from 109 individuals) over time. HLA-DRhiCD11chi inflammatory monocytes with an interferon-stimulated gene signature were elevated in mild COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 was marked by occurrence of neutrophil precursors, as evidence of emergency myelopoiesis, dysfunctional mature neutrophils, and HLA-DRlo monocytes. Our study provides detailed insights into the systemic immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and reveals profound alterations in the myeloid cell compartment associated with severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Mielopoese , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD11/genética , Antígenos CD11/metabolismo , COVID-19 , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/genética , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Mieloides/citologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Análise de Célula Única
13.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817952

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 led to pandemic spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), manifesting with respiratory symptoms and multi-organ dysfunction. Detailed characterization of virus-neutralizing antibodies and target epitopes is needed to understand COVID-19 pathophysiology and guide immunization strategies. Among 598 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from ten COVID-19 patients, we identified 40 strongly neutralizing mAbs. The most potent mAb CV07-209 neutralized authentic SARS-CoV-2 with IC50 of 3.1 ng/ml. Crystal structures of two mAbs in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain at 2.55 and 2.70 A revealed a direct block of ACE2 attachment. Interestingly, some of the near-germline SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs reacted with mammalian self-antigens. Prophylactic and therapeutic application of CV07-209 protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection, weight loss and lung pathology. Our results show that non-self-reactive virus-neutralizing mAbs elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection are a promising therapeutic strategy.

14.
Nature ; 587(7833): 270-274, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726801

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the rapidly unfolding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic1,2. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 vary, ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory failure. The mechanisms that determine such variable outcomes remain unresolved. Here we investigated CD4+ T cells that are reactive against the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 in the peripheral blood of patients with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2-unexposed healthy donors. We detected spike-reactive CD4+ T cells not only in 83% of patients with COVID-19 but also in 35% of healthy donors. Spike-reactive CD4+ T cells in healthy donors were primarily active against C-terminal epitopes in the spike protein, which show a higher homology to spike glycoproteins of human endemic coronaviruses, compared with N-terminal epitopes. Spike-protein-reactive T cell lines generated from SARS-CoV-2-naive healthy donors responded similarly to the C-terminal region of the spike proteins of the human endemic coronaviruses 229E and OC43, as well as that of SARS-CoV-2. This results indicate that spike-protein cross-reactive T cells are present, which were probably generated during previous encounters with endemic coronaviruses. The effect of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive T cells on clinical outcomes remains to be determined in larger cohorts. However, the presence of spike-protein cross-reactive T cells in a considerable fraction of the general population may affect the dynamics of the current pandemic, and has important implications for the design and analysis of upcoming trials investigating COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus Humano 229E/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano NL63/imunologia , Coronavirus Humano OC43/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Cell Syst ; 11(1): 11-24.e4, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619549

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented global challenge, and point-of-care diagnostic classifiers are urgently required. Here, we present a platform for ultra-high-throughput serum and plasma proteomics that builds on ISO13485 standardization to facilitate simple implementation in regulated clinical laboratories. Our low-cost workflow handles up to 180 samples per day, enables high precision quantification, and reduces batch effects for large-scale and longitudinal studies. We use our platform on samples collected from a cohort of early hospitalized cases of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and identify 27 potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed depending on the WHO severity grade of COVID-19. They include complement factors, the coagulation system, inflammation modulators, and pro-inflammatory factors upstream and downstream of interleukin 6. All protocols and software for implementing our approach are freely available. In total, this work supports the development of routine proteomic assays to aid clinical decision making and generate hypotheses about potential COVID-19 therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Proteômica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/classificação , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infection ; 48(4): 619-626, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535877

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread worldwide causing a global health emergency. Pa-COVID-19 aims to provide comprehensive data on clinical course, pathophysiology, immunology and outcome of COVID-19, to identify prognostic biomarkers, clinical scores, and therapeutic targets for improved clinical management and preventive interventions. METHODS: Pa-COVID-19 is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection treated at Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. We collect data on epidemiology, demography, medical history, symptoms, clinical course, and pathogen testing and treatment. Systematic, serial blood sampling will allow deep molecular and immunological phenotyping, transcriptomic profiling, and comprehensive biobanking. Longitudinal data and sample collection during hospitalization will be supplemented by long-term follow-up. RESULTS: Outcome measures include the WHO clinical ordinal scale on day 15 and clinical, functional, and health-related quality-of-life assessments at discharge and during follow-up. We developed a scalable dataset to (i) suit national standards of care, (ii) facilitate comprehensive data collection in medical care facilities with varying resources, and (iii) allow for rapid implementation of interventional trials based on the standardized study design and data collection. We propose this scalable protocol as blueprint for harmonized data collection and deep phenotyping in COVID-19 in Germany. CONCLUSION: We established a basic platform for harmonized, scalable data collection, pathophysiological analysis, and deep phenotyping of COVID-19, which enables rapid generation of evidence for improved medical care and identification of candidate therapeutic and preventive strategies. The electronic database accredited for interventional trials allows fast trial implementation for candidate therapeutic agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German registry for clinical studies (DRKS00021688).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Registros , Berlim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pandemias , Fenótipo , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Nat Biotechnol ; 38(8): 970-979, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591762

RESUMO

To investigate the immune response and mechanisms associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we performed single-cell RNA sequencing on nasopharyngeal and bronchial samples from 19 clinically well-characterized patients with moderate or critical disease and from five healthy controls. We identified airway epithelial cell types and states vulnerable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In patients with COVID-19, epithelial cells showed an average three-fold increase in expression of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2, which correlated with interferon signals by immune cells. Compared to moderate cases, critical cases exhibited stronger interactions between epithelial and immune cells, as indicated by ligand-receptor expression profiles, and activated immune cells, including inflammatory macrophages expressing CCL2, CCL3, CCL20, CXCL1, CXCL3, CXCL10, IL8, IL1B and TNF. The transcriptional differences in critical cases compared to moderate cases likely contribute to clinical observations of heightened inflammatory tissue damage, lung injury and respiratory failure. Our data suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of the CCR1 and/or CCR5 pathways might suppress immune hyperactivation in critical COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Idoso , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/virologia , COVID-19 , Comunicação Celular , Diferenciação Celular , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/patologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 15(5): 373-379, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231271

RESUMO

Multivalent interactions at biological interfaces occur frequently in nature and mediate recognition and interactions in essential physiological processes such as cell-to-cell adhesion. Multivalency is also a key principle that allows tight binding between pathogens and host cells during the initial stages of infection. One promising approach to prevent infection is the design of synthetic or semisynthetic multivalent binders that interfere with pathogen adhesion1-4. Here, we present a multivalent binder that is based on a spatially defined arrangement of ligands for the viral spike protein haemagglutinin of the influenza A virus. Complementary experimental and theoretical approaches demonstrate that bacteriophage capsids, which carry host cell haemagglutinin ligands in an arrangement matching the geometry of binding sites of the spike protein, can bind to viruses in a defined multivalent mode. These capsids cover the entire virus envelope, thus preventing its binding to the host cell as visualized by cryo-electron tomography. As a consequence, virus infection can be inhibited in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Such highly functionalized capsids present an alternative to strategies that target virus entry by spike-inhibiting antibodies5 and peptides6 or that address late steps of the viral replication cycle7.


Assuntos
Allolevivirus/metabolismo , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Internalização do Vírus , Células A549 , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Cães , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Humanos , Influenza Humana/metabolismo , Influenza Humana/virologia , Ligantes , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Modelos Moleculares , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3820, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123277

RESUMO

In biomedical research, indirect immunofluorescence labelling by use of primary and secondary antibodies is central for revealing the spatial distribution of multiple cellular antigens. However, labelling is regularly restricted to few antigens since species variation of primary and corresponding secondary antibodies is limited bearing the risk of unspecific cross-labelling. Here, we introduce a novel microscopic procedure for leveraging undesirable cross-labelling effects among secondary antibodies thereby increasing the number of fluorophore channels. Under cross-labelling conditions, commonly used fluorophores change chemical-physical properties by 'Förster resonance energy transfer' leading to defined changes in spectral emission and lifetime decay. By use of spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and pattern-matching, we demonstrate precise separation of cross-labelled cellular antigens where conventional imaging completely fails. Consequently, this undesired effect serves for an innovative imaging procedure to separate critical antigens where antibody species variation is limited and allows for multi-target labelling by attribution of new fluorophore cross-labelling channels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Imunofluorescência , Células A549 , Humanos , Microscopia
20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(1): 013108, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012615

RESUMO

Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) and time tagging of individual photon detections are powerful tools in many quantum optical experiments and other areas of applied physics. Using TCSPC, e.g., for the purpose of fluorescence lifetime measurements, is often limited in speed due to dead-time losses and pileup. We show that this limitation can be lifted by reducing the dead-time of the timing electronics to the absolute minimum imposed by the speed of the detector signals while maintaining high temporal resolution. A complementing approach to speedy data acquisition is parallelization by means of simultaneous readout of many detector channels. This puts high demands on the data throughput of the TCSPC system, especially in time tagging of individual photon arrivals. Here, we present a new design approach, supporting up to 16 input channels, an extremely short dead-time of 650 ps, very high time tagging throughput, and a timing resolution of 80 ps. In order to facilitate remote synchronization of multiple such instruments with highest precision, the new TCSPC electronics provide an interface for White Rabbit fiber optic networks. Beside fundamental research in the field of astronomy, such remote synchronization tasks arise routinely in quantum communication networks with node to node distances on the order of tens of kilometers. In addition to showing design features and benchmark results of new TCSPC electronics, we present application results from spectrally resolved and high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging in medical research. We furthermore show how pulse-pileup occurring in the detector signals at high photon flux can be corrected for and how this data acquisition scheme performs in terms of accuracy and efficiency.

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