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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11087, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045569

RESUMO

Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) is a recently recognised and important sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). The role of oral sex, rimming, and kissing on M. genitalium transmission in MSM is unclear. We created four deterministic susceptible-infectious-susceptible epidemic models to examine the role that different sexual behaviours play in transmitting M. genitalium at the oropharynx, urethra anorectum among men who have sex with men in Australia. Our results suggest that oral and anal sex without other sexual practices (model 1) replicate well single site infection at the oropharynx, urethra and anorectum and also multi-site infection. If kissing or rimming are added to model 1 (i.e., model 2-4) no substantial improvements in the calibration of the models occur. Model 1 estimates that 3.4% of infections occur at the oropharynx, 34.8% at the urethra and 61.8% at the anorectum. Model 1 also estimates that the proportion of incident M. genitalium transmitted by anal sex was 82.4%, and by oral sex was about 17.6%. Our findings could provide an enhanced understanding of M. genitalium transmission in MSM, thus providing insights into what sexual practices contribute most to transmission.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anal infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 16 and 18 and anal cancer are overrepresented in men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated HPV prevalence in young MSM before and after the implementation of a school-based quadrivalent HPV (genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccination programme for boys in Australia in 2013. METHODS: In this repeated cross-sectional study, MSM aged 16-20 years were recruited from two successive birth cohorts via sexual health clinics and the community in Melbourne, Australia. The first cohort was before the implementation of gender-neutral vaccination (HYPER1 study, done in 2010-12, NCT01422356), and the second was the post-vaccination cohort (HYPER2 study, done in 2017-18, NCT03000933). Men who self-identified as being same-sex attracted were enrolled, and those recruited via the HYPER2 study had to be resident in Australia since 2013 to ensure eligibility. Study procedures were done in the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A clinician-collected anal swab and self-collected penile swab and oral rinse were tested for 28 HPV genotypes, and data on demographics and sexual health practices were collected via questionnaires. Only assessable samples were included in the analyses. We compared anatomical site-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes between cohorts by calculating the prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, circumcision, and sex with women. Herd protection was also assessed, by calculating the adjusted prevalence ratios by vaccination status. FINDINGS: 400 MSM, 200 per cohort, were included in the study. In both cohorts, the median number of lifetime male partners was ten (IQR 5-25). The prevalence of any anal quadrivalent vaccine-preventable HPV genotype was higher in the pre-vaccination cohort (54 [28%] of 193) than in the post-vaccination cohort (14 [7%] of 193; adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 0·24, 95% CI 0·14-0·42), largely driven by decreases in HPV6, followed by HPV11, 16, and 18. Nevertheless, there was also a significant reduction in anal HPV16 and 18 in the post-vaccination cohort from the pre-vaccination cohort (0·31, 0·14-0·68). The prevalence of any penile quadrivalent vaccine-preventable HPV genotype was also higher in the pre-vaccination cohort (21 [12%] of 177) than in the post-vaccination cohort (11 [6%] of 179; 0·48, 0·24-0·97), driven by decreases in HPV 6 and 11, but not by 16 and 18. The prevalence of any oral quadrivalent vaccine-preventable HPV genotype was higher in the pre-vaccination cohort (seven [4%] of 200) than in the post-vaccination cohort (one [1%] of 199; 0·10, 0·01-0·97); there were no cases of oral HPV6 or 11 detected in HYPER2. Comparing the pre-vaccinated cohort with the 149 confirmed vaccinated men from HYPER2 showed a reduction in any quadrivalent vaccine-preventable HPV genotype for anal (0·09, 0·03-0·25) and penile (0·18, 0·05-0·59) infection but not for oral infection (0·17, 0·03-1·08). INTERPRETATION: A reduction in anal, penile, and oral quadrivalent vaccine-targeted genotypes occurred in young MSM following the implementation of a school-based gender-neutral HPV vaccination programme. The fall in anal HPV16 and 18 may lead to a reduction in the incidence of anal cancer. FUNDING: Merck and the Australian Government Department of Health.

3.
Sex Health ; 18(2): 180-186, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832551

RESUMO

Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is under-diagnosed globally, particularly in primary care, and if untreated may cause reproductive complications. This paper investigates PID diagnosis by Australian general practitioners (GPs) and barriers to their conducting a pelvic examination. METHODS: An online survey investigating Australian GPs' chlamydia management, including PID diagnosis, was conducted in 2019. From 323 respondents, 85.8% (n = 277) answered multiple-choice questions about PID and 74.6% (n = 241) answered a free-text question about barriers to conducting pelvic examinations. Using multivariable logistic regression, we identified factors associated with conducting pelvic examinations. Barriers to performing pelvic examinations were explored using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most GPs indicated that they routinely ask female patients with a sexually transmissible infection about PID symptoms, including pelvic pain (86.2%), abnormal vaginal discharge (95.3%), abnormal vaginal bleeding (89.5%), and dyspareunia (79.6%). Over half reported routinely conducting speculum (69.0%) and bimanual pelvic (55.3%) examinations for women reporting pelvic pain. Female GPs were more likely to perform speculum [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.6; 95%CI: 2.6-8.2] and bimanual pelvic examinations (AOR 3.7; 95%CI: 2.1-6.5). GPs with additional sexual health training were more likely to routinely perform speculum (AOR 2.2; 95%CI: 1.1-4.2) and bimanual pelvic examinations (AOR 2.1; 95%CI: 1.2-3.7). Barriers to pelvic examinations were patient unwillingness and/or refusal, GP gender, patient health-related factors, time pressures, and GP reluctance. CONCLUSION: Although GPs typically ask about PID symptoms when managing patients with chlamydia, they are not consistently able or willing to perform pelvic examinations to support a diagnosis, potentially reducing capacity to diagnose PID.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 647-656, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To address the increasing incidence of gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance, we compared the efficacy of Listerine and Biotène mouthwashes for preventing gonorrhoea among men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: The OMEGA trial was a multicentre, parallel-group, double-blind randomised controlled trial among MSM, done at three urban sexual health clinics and one general practice clinic in Australia. Men were eligible if they were diagnosed with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) in the previous 30 days or were aged 16-24 years. They were randomly assigned to receive Listerine (intervention) or Biotène (control) via a computer-generated sequence (1:1 ratio, block size of four). Participants, clinicians, data collectors, data analysts, and outcome adjudicators were masked to the interventions after assignment. Participants were instructed to rinse and gargle with 20 mL of mouthwash for 60 s at least once daily for 12 weeks. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected by research nurses every 6 weeks, and participants provided saliva samples every 3 weeks, to be tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae with NAAT and quantitative PCR. The primary outcome was proportion of MSM diagnosed with oropharyngeal N gonorrhoeae infection at any point over the 12-week period, defined as a positive result for either oropharyngeal swabs or saliva samples by NAAT, and the cumulative incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea at the week 12 visit. A modified intention-to-treat analysis for the primary outcome was done that included men who provided at least one follow-up specimen over the 12-week study period. The trial was registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12616000247471). FINDINGS: Between March 30, 2016, and Oct 26, 2018, 786 MSM were screened and 256 were excluded. 264 MSM were randomly assigned to the Biotène group and 266 to the Listerine group. The analysis population included 227 (86%) men in the Biotène group and 219 (82%) in the Listerine group. Oropharyngeal gonorrhoea was detected in ten (4%) of 227 of MSM in the Biotène group and in 15 (7%) of 219 in the Listerine group (adjusted risk difference 2·5%, 95% CI -1·8 to 6·8). The cumulative incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea at the week 12 visit did not differ between the two mouthwash groups (adjusted risk difference 3·1%, 95% CI -1·4 to 7·7). INTERPRETATION: Listerine did not reduce the incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea compared with Biotène. However, previous research suggests that mouthwash might reduce the infectivity of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea; therefore, further studies of mouthwash examining its inhibitory effect on N gonorrhoeae are warranted to determine if it has a potential role for the prevention of transmission. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Gonorreia/prevenção & controle , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Austrália , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Glucose Oxidase , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Lactoperoxidase , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Muramidase , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/efeitos dos fármacos , Nova Zelândia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Salicilatos/uso terapêutico , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Inquéritos e Questionários , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium is increased after termination of pregnancy (TOP) and may be increased after insertion of intrauterine devices (IUDs). Screening prior to these procedures is recommended only for C. trachomatis. We examined C. trachomatis and M. genitalium prevalence and associated factors among women presenting to a pregnancy termination and contraception service over 10 years. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical data collected from 17 573 women aged 15-45 years in 2009-2019 and for 266 M. genitalium positive women tested for macrolide resistance-associated mutations in 2016-2019. RESULTS: C. trachomatis and M. genitalium prevalence was 3.7% and 3.4%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, shared risk factors were younger age (p<0.001, for both C. trachomatis and M. genitalium), socioeconomic disadvantage (p=0.045 and p=0.008, respectively) and coinfection (p<0.001, for both sexually transmitted infections), with 10.1% of C. trachomatis positive women also positive for M. genitalium. Additional risk factors were earlier year of visit (p=0.001) for C. trachomatis and for M. genitalium residing outside a major city (p=0.013). The proportion of M. genitalium infections tested between 2016 and 2019 with macrolide resistance-associated mutations was 32.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high level of antimicrobial resistance and the prevalence of coinfection, testing C. trachomatis positive women for M. genitalium could be considered in this setting to prevent further spread of resistant infections. Further research is required into the causal link between M. genitalium and pelvic inflammatory disease in women undergoing TOP and IUD insertion.

6.
Sex Health ; 18(2): 140-146, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685581

RESUMO

Background Rectal chlamydia treatment failures up to 22% with azithromycin 1 g have been reported, but low tissue concentrations are unlikely to be the cause. Anecdotally, low rectal pH could reduce rectal azithromycin concentrations, with in vitro studies reporting higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with lower pHs for antibiotics used to treat sexually transmissible infections (STIs). Leucocytes arising from an inflammatory immune response could also lower pH and efficacy. We examined factors that may alter rectal pH and potentially influence treatment outcomes. METHODS: We recruited consecutive men who have sex with men (MSM) from a Dutch STI clinic between October 2016 and July 2018 who had not used antibiotics in the past fortnight. Rectal mucus collected under anoscopy using a cotton swab was used to wet a pH indicator strip. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of pH <8.0 to demographic, dietary, sexual health and behaviour data, recent medication use and STI diagnosis. RESULTS: In total, 112 MSM were recruited (median age 37 years). It was found that 45% and 39% of men were HIV positive or had a rectal infection, respectively. And 50% had a rectal pH <8.0, with 27% reporting a pH between 6.0 and 6.5 where treatment failure is thought to occur for azithromycin. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of a pH <8.0 showed that being aged 36-45 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI: 1.9-23.4) or having high rectal leucocytes in a Gram smear (OR 0.3; 95%CI: 0.1-0.7) were significantly associated with a low and high rectal pH, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lower rectal pH among MSM is associated with older age and could influence the rectal pharmacokinetics of azithromycin and other drugs influenced by pH and may therefore affect treatment outcomes.

7.
Sex Transm Dis ; 48(3): 195-199, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most research focuses on individual selling sex but very few on paying for sex. This study aimed to determine the proportion of males and females who paid for sex and associated factors. METHODS: We conducted a short survey at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre between March and April 2019, which included a question on whether they had paid for sex in the past 3 months. The proportion of individuals who had paid for sex was calculated by sex and sexual orientation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to identify individual's factors (e.g., demographics, sexual orientation, and HIV/sexually transmitted infection [STI] positivity) associated with paying for sex in the past 3 months. RESULTS: The proportion who reported paying for sex in the past 3 months was 12.2% (42/345) among heterosexual males, followed by 6.4% (23/357) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and 0.2% (1/430) among females. HIV status, preexposure prophylaxis use, and sexual orientation were not associated with paying for sex among MSM. No MSM living with HIV reported paying for sex in the past 3 months. There was a significant association between paying for sex and gonorrhea (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-7.71; P = 0.041) but not HIV, syphilis, and chlamydia among MSM. HIV/STI was not associated with paying for sex among heterosexual males. CONCLUSIONS: Paying for sex was more commonly reported among heterosexual males, followed by MSM. Females were very unlikely to pay for sex. There was a limited association between HIV/STI diagnosis and paying for sex among males.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615946

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Australia introduced 'lockdown' measures to control COVID-19 on 22 March 2020 which continued for a period of two months. We aimed to investigate the impact this had on sexual and reproductive health (SRH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Australians aged 18+ were eligible to participate in an online survey from 23 April to 11 May 2020. We report on the experiences of 518 female participants aged <50 years. Pregnancy intentions and contraceptive use were analysed using descriptive statistics. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to investigate difficulty accessing SRH products and services. Qualitative data were analysed using conventional content analysis. RESULTS: Most participants were aged 18-24 years, and indicated they were trying to avoid pregnancy. The oral contraceptive pill was the most common single method used however nearly 20% reported they were not using contraception. Women who were employed had less trouble accessing contraception during lockdown. Participants reported delaying childbearing or deciding to remain childfree due to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 lockdown impacted the SRH of Australian women. Findings highlight the importance of continued access to SRH services and products during global emergencies.

9.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(4): 256-260, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) is a method for providing antibiotic treatment for the sexual partners of an index patient with an STI by means of a prescription or medication that the index patient gives to their sexual partner(s). Qualitative research regarding barriers and enablers to PDPT has largely focused on the views of healthcare providers. In this study, we sought to investigate the views of young people (as potential health consumers) regarding PDPT for chlamydia. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with young Australian men and women. Participants were asked to provide their views regarding PDPT from the perspective of both an index patient and partner. Purposive and snowball sampling was used. Data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: We interviewed 22 people (13 women, 9 men) aged 18-30 years, 15 of whom had previously been tested for chlamydia. Despite none having previous knowledge of or experience using PDPT, all viewed it positively and thought it should be widely available. Participants reported that they would be willing to give PDPT to their sexual partners in situations where trust and comfort had been established, regardless of the relationship type. Protecting their partners' privacy was essential, with participants expressing reluctance to provide their partners' contact details to a doctor without consent. Beyond logistical benefits, PDPT was viewed as a facilitator to partner notification conversations by offering partners a potential solution. However, most interviewees indicated a preference to consult with a healthcare provider (GP or pharmacist) before taking PDPT medication. Participants indicated that legitimacy of information when navigating a chlamydia diagnosis was crucial and was preferably offered by healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: Though PDPT is unlikely to fully replace partners' interactions with healthcare providers, it may facilitate partner notification conversations and provide partners greater choice on how, when and where they are treated.

10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 153-156, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A second wave of COVID-19 began in late June in Victoria, Australia. Stage 3 then Stage 4 restrictions were introduced in July-August. This study aimed to compare the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and sexual practices among men who have sex with men taking PrEP between May-June (post-first lockdown) and July-August (second lockdown). METHODS: This was an online survey conducted among men who have sex with men who had their PrEP managed at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. A short message service with a link to the survey was sent to 503 PrEP clients who provided consent to receive a short message service from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in August 2020. RESULTS: Of the 192 participants completed the survey, 153 (80%) did not change how they took PrEP. Of the 136 daily PrEP users, 111 (82%) continued to take daily PrEP, 3 (2%) switched to on-demand PrEP, and 22 (16%) stopped PrEP in July-August. Men generally reported that they had no partners or decreased sexual activities during second lockdown compared with post-first lockdown; the number of casual sex partners (43% decreased vs. 3% increased) and the number of kissing partners (36% decreased vs. 3% increased). Most men reported no chemsex (79%) or group sex (77%) in May-August. 10% (13/127) of men had ever worn face masks during sex in May-August. CONCLUSION: During the second wave of COVID-19 in Victoria, most men did not change the way they used PrEP but the majority had no risks or reduced sexual practices while one in 10 men wore a face mask during sex.


Assuntos
Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Austrália , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041782, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33419912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the frequency of mouthwash use and its association to oral sex practice in heterosexuals. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data obtained from a sexual health clinic in Victoria, Australia, between March 2019 and April 2019. PARTICIPANTS: Heterosexual men and women attending the sexual health clinic answered a survey using computer-assisted self-interview. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine the association between frequent mouthwash use (ie, daily or weekly mouthwash use) and oral sex practices (including tongue kissing, fellatio, cunnilingus and insertive rimming). RESULTS: There were 681 heterosexuals included in the analysis: 315 (46.3%) men and 366 (53.7%) women. Of participants, 302 (44.3%) used mouthwash frequently, 173 (25.4%) used mouthwash infrequently and 206 (30.2%) never used mouthwash. There was no significant difference in the proportion of frequent mouthwash users between men and women (46.4% of men vs 42.6% of women; p=0.329). The proportion of frequent mouthwash users increased with increasing age groups (39.3% in ≤24 years, 45.2% in 25-34 years and 52.8% in ≥35 years or older; ptrend=0.039) with those aged ≥35 years having a 1.80 times (95% CI: 1.12 to 2.89) higher odds of being a frequent mouthwash user than those aged ≤24 years. There were no significant associations between frequent mouthwash users had sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk after adjusting for age and country of birth. CONCLUSION: Older heterosexuals are more likely to use mouthwash. Given the high proportion and associations of mouthwash use in heterosexuals, future investigations related to oral STIs in this group should include mouthwash use.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais , Comportamento Sexual , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are common sexually transmitted infections that infect the oropharynx, anorectum and urethra in men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to examine the pattern of infection at more than one site (multisite) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea among MSM. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of MSM attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre for the first time between 2018 and 2019. We included MSM aged ≥16 years who had tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis at all three sites (oropharynx, anorectum and urethra). We compared infections that occurred at a single site (termed single-site infection) and those that occurred at more than one site (termed multisite infections). RESULTS: Of the 3938 men who were tested for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, 498/3938 men (12.6%, 95% CI 11.5% to 13.6%) had chlamydia at any site, of whom 400/498 (80.3%, 95% CI 78.9% to 81.2%) had single-site chlamydia infection, and 98/498 (19.7%, 95% CI 16.2% to 23.1%) had multisite infections. A similar proportion of men had gonorrhoea at any site (447/3938, 11.4%, 95% CI 10.3% to 12.2%), but among these 447 men, single-site infection was less common (256/447, 57.3%, 95% CI 52.6% to 61.7%, p<0.001) and multisite infection (191/447, 42.7%, 95% CI 38.2% to 47.3%, p<0.001) was more common than chlamydia. There were also marked differences by anatomical site. Urethral infection commonly occurred as single sites (75/122, 61.5%, 95% CI 52.8% to 70.1%) for chlamydia but uncommonly occurred for gonorrhoea (12/100, 12.0%, 95% CI 5.6% to 18.3%, p<0.001). In contrast, anorectal infection uncommonly occurred as multisite infection for chlamydia (98/394, 24.9%, 95% CI 20.6% to 29.1%) but was common (184/309, 59.5%, 95% CI 54.0% to 64.9%, p<0.001) for gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: The markedly different pattern of site-specific infection for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infections among the same MSM suggests significant differences in the transmissibility between anatomical sites and the duration of each infection at each site.

13.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e037608, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In the 2010s, there has been an increase in sexually transmitted infections (STI) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Australia, and since 2015 also in urban heterosexuals. Men who have sex with both men and women (MSMW) have characteristics that may differ from both men who have sex with men only (MSMO) and heterosexual men. We aimed to compare the sexual practices and the trends in HIV/STI positivity between MSMO and MSMW. DESIGN: Repeated cross-sectional study. SETTING: A sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: MSM aged 18 years and above who attended the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre for the first time between 2011 and 2018. This includes 12 795 MSMO and 1979 MSMW. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic characterics, sexual practices and HIV/STI positivity. RESULTS: Compared with MSMW, MSMO were more likely to practice anal sex and to have condomless receptive anal sex with casual male partners, and less likely to have a current regular relationship. Over the 8-year period, there was an increase in condomless receptive anal sex with casual male partners for both groups (MSMO: from 46.2% to 63.3%, ptrend <0.001; MSMW: from 41.3% to 57.9%, ptrend=0.011). Syphilis positivity increased in MSMO (from 5.5% to 7.9%, ptrend=0.012) and MSMW (from 0.9% to 6.4%, ptrend=0.004) and HIV remained stable. Gonorrhoea increased among MSMO from 2011 to 2014 (from 6.7% to 9.6%, ptrend=0.002), and remained stable from 2015 to 2018. MSMO had higher odds of testing positive for gonorrhoea (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.36, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.64), chlamydia (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.67), syphilis (aOR 1.74, 95% CI 1.37 to 2.22) and HIV (aOR 4.60, 95% CI 2.43 to 8.70) than MSMW. CONCLUSIONS: MSMW have overall lower condomless sex and lower HIV/STI positivity. In the last years, changes in sexual practices in MSM have affected both MSMW and MSMO leading to an increased STI risk.

14.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 326, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been presumed that Chlamydia trachomatis is transmitted between men only through anal or oral sex, but no mathematical models have tested this presumption. METHODS: To test this presumption, we created 20 compartmental mathematical models of different sexual practices that included both oral and anal sex and calibrated these models to the observed rates of Chlamydia trachomatis infection at three anatomical sites from 4888 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Melbourne Sexual Health Centre during 2018-2019. RESULTS: A model that included only oral and anal sex could replicate the observed rates of single-site infection at the oropharynx, urethra and rectum alone, but could not replicate infection at more than one of these sites (multisite). However, if we included transmission from sexual practices that followed one another in the same sexual episode (e.g. saliva contamination of the penis from oral sex transmitting chlamydia to the rectum by anal sex), we significantly improved the calibration of multisite infection rates substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Our modelling study suggests that transmission routes other than just oral and anal sex are necessary to explain the high rate of Chlamydia trachomatis infection at more than one site.

15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Australia recorded its first case of COVID-19 in late January 2020. On 22P March 2020, amid increasing daily case numbers, the Australian Government implemented lockdown restrictions to help 'flatten the curve'. Our study aimed to understand the impact of lockdown restrictions on sexual and reproductive health. Here we focus on sexual practices. METHODS: An online survey was open from the 23PP April 2020 to 11P May 2020. Participants were recruited online via social media and other networks and were asked to report on their sexual practices in 2019 and during lockdown. Logistic regression was used to calculate the difference (diff) (including 95% CIs) in the proportion of sex practices between time periods. RESULTS: Of the 1187 who commenced the survey, 965 (81.3%) completed it. Overall, 70% were female and 66.3% were aged 18-29 years. Most (53.5%) reported less sex during lockdown than in 2019. Compared with 2019, participants were more likely to report sex with a spouse (35.3% vs 41.7%; diff=6.4%; 95% CI 3.6 to 9.2) and less likely to report sex with a girl/boyfriend (45.1% vs 41.8%; diff=-3.3%; 95% CI -7.0 to -0.4) or with casual hook-up (31.4% vs 7.8%; 95% CI -26.9 to -19.8). Solo sex activities increased; 14.6% (123/840) reported using sex toys more often and 26.0% (218/838) reported masturbating more often. Dating app use decreased during lockdown compared with 2019 (42.1% vs 27.3%; diff= -14.8%; 95% CI -17.6 to -11.9). Using dating apps for chatting/texting (89.8% vs 94.5%; diff=4.7%; 95% CI 1.0 to 8.5) and for setting up virtual dates (2.6% vs 17.2%; diff=14.6%; 95% CI 10.1 to 19.2) increased during lockdown. CONCLUSION: Although significant declines in sexual activity during lockdown were reported, people did not completely stop engaging in sexual activities, highlighting the importance of ensuring availability of normal sexual and reproductive health services during global emergencies.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19386, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168910

RESUMO

New treatments for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea are required to address rising antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to examine the efficacy of a 14-day course of mouthwash twice daily compared to standard treatment (antibiotic) for the treatment of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. The OMEGA2 trial was a parallel-group and open-labelled randomised controlled trial among men with untreated oropharyngeal gonorrhoea that was conducted between September 2018 and February 2020 at Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in Australia. Men were randomised to the intervention (rinsing, gargling and spraying mouthwash twice daily for 14 days) or control (standard treatment) arm and followed for 28 days. Participants in both arms were advised to abstain from sex and kissing with anyone for 14 days after enrolment. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline, Day 14 and Day 28 and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and culture. The primary outcome was the detection of oropharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae by NAAT at Day 14 after treatment. This trial was registered on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618001380280). This trial stopped early due to a high failure rate in the mouthwash arm. Twelve men were randomly assigned to either mouthwash (n = 6) or standard treatment (n = 6). Of the 11 men who returned at Day 14, the cure rate for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in the mouthwash arm was 20% (95% CI 1-72%; 1/5) and in the standard treatment arm was 100% (95% CI 54-100%; 6/6). A 14-day course of mouthwash failed to cure a high proportion of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea cases.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 834, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is estimated to affect 1 in 3 women globally and is associated with obstetric and gynaecological sequelae. Current recommended therapies have good short-term efficacy but 1 in 2 women experience BV recurrence within 6 months of treatment. Evidence of male carriage of BV-organisms suggests that male partners may be reinfecting women with BV-associated bacteria (henceforth referred to as BV-organisms) and impacting on the efficacy of treatment approaches solely directed to women. This trial aims to determine the effect of concurrent male partner treatment for preventing BV recurrence compared to current standard of care. METHODS: StepUp is an open-label, multicentre, parallel group randomised controlled trial for women diagnosed with BV and their male partner. Women with clinical-BV defined using current gold standard diagnosis methods (≥3 Amsel criteria and Nugent score (NS) = 4-10) and with a regular male partner will be assessed for eligibility, and couples will then be consented. All women will be prescribed oral metronidazole 400 mg twice daily (BID) for 7 days, or if contraindicated, a 7-day regimen of topical vaginal 2% clindamycin. Couples will be randomised 1:1 to either current standard of care (female treatment only), or female treatment and concurrent male partner treatment (7 days of combined antibiotics - oral metronidazole tablets 400 mg BID and 2% clindamycin cream applied topically to the glans penis and upper shaft [under the foreskin if uncircumcised] BID). Couples will be followed for up to 12 weeks to assess BV status in women, and assess the adherence, tolerability and acceptability of male partner treatment. The primary outcome is BV recurrence defined as ≥3 Amsel criteria and NS = 4-10 within 12 weeks of enrolment. The estimated sample size is 342 couples, to detect a 40% reduction in BV recurrence rates from 40% in the control group to 24% in the intervention group within 12 weeks. DISCUSSION: Current treatments directed solely to women result in unacceptably high rates of BV recurrence. If proven to be effective the findings from this trial will directly inform the development of new treatment strategies to impact on BV recurrence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered on 12 February 2019 on the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12619000196145, Universal Trial Number: U1111-1228-0106, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376883&isReview=true ).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Parceiros Sexuais , Vaginose Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravaginal , Administração Oral , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Austrália , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Nova Zelândia , Pênis/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
18.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This prospective cohort study aimed to determine the natural history and incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea and chlamydia among a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) over a 12-week period, and to examine risk factors associated with incident oropharyngeal infections. METHODS: MSM either aged ≥18 years and had a diagnosis of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) in the past 3 months or aged 18-35 years who were HIV-negative taking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) were eligible for this study. Enrolled men were followed up for 12 weeks. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected at week 0 (baseline) and week 12 (end of study). Between these time points, weekly saliva specimens and the number of tongue kissing, penile-oral and insertive rimming partners were collected by post. Oropharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens were tested by NAAT for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Poisson regression was performed to examine the risk factors (weekly number of partners) associated with incident oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. RESULTS: A total of 100 MSM were recruited. The incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea and chlamydia was 62 (95% CI 37 to 105) and 9 (95% CI 2 to 35)/100 person-years, respectively. The median duration of incident oropharyngeal infection with gonorrhoea was 28 days (IQR=21-36, n=7). The incidence rate ratio (IRR) for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea increased with an increased number of kissing partners (IRR=1.08; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) an increased number of penile-oral sex partners (IRR=1.07, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.14) but not with an increased number of insertive rimming partners (IRR=1.11, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.29) or other demographic factors. The IRR and duration of incident oropharyngeal chlamydia were not calculated due to the small number of cases (n=2). CONCLUSIONS: MSM have a high incidence of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea and the median duration of infection was less than 3 months.

19.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spectrum of sexual practices that transmit Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men who have sex with men (MSM) is controversial. No studies have modelled potential Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission when one sexual practice follows another in the same sexual encounter ('sequential sexual practices'). Our aim was to test what sequential practices were necessary to replicate the high proportion of MSM who have more than one anatomical site infected with gonorrhoea ('multisite infection'). METHODS: To test our aim, we developed eight compartmental models. We first used a baseline model (model 1) that included no sequential sexual practices. We then added three possible sequential transmission routes to model 1: (1) oral sex followed by anal sex (or vice versa) (model 2); (2) using saliva as a lubricant for penile-anal sex (model 3) and (3) oral sex followed by oral-anal sex (rimming) or vice versa (model 4). The next four models (models 5-8) used combinations of the three transmission routes. RESULTS: The baseline model could only replicate infection at the single anatomical site and underestimated multisite infection. When we added the three transmission routes to the baseline model, oral sex, followed by anal sex or vice versa, could replicate the prevalence of multisite infection. The other two transmission routes alone or together could not replicate multisite infection without the inclusion of oral sex followed by anal sex or vice versa. CONCLUSIONS: Our gonorrhoea model suggests sexual practices that involve oral followed by anal sex (or vice versa) may be important for explaining the high proportion of multisite infection.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33093332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Group sex has been commonly reported among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (GBMSM), however there are limited studies on the factors associated with participating in group sex. SETTING: A cross-sectional study among GBMSM attending a sexual health clinic in Melbourne, Australia. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine the association between GBMSM participating in group sex in the previous three months and their demographic characteristics, including age, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, HIV status, any STI (gonorrhoea, chlamydia, syphilis) diagnosis on the day and method of seeking partners. RESULTS: There were 357 GBMSM who participated in the survey and their mean age was 32.9 years (SD=10.9). Almost a third (n=115; 32.2%) had participated in group sex in the previous three months. GBMSM who sought sex partners at sex on premises venues (aOR 5.83; 95% CI: 3.23 - 10.53) had the highest odds of group sex participation after adjusting for other potential confounders. Compared with GBMSM not living with HIV and not taking PrEP, GBMSM taking PrEP had higher odds of group sex participation (aOR 2.09; 95% CI: 1.05 - 4.15) but GBMSM living with HIV did not (aOR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.23 - 3.68).Recent group sex participation was not associated with being diagnosed with any STI (chlamydia, syphilis or gonorrhoea) on the day in the adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: PrEP users and MSM attending SOPVs are more likely to participate in group sex. SOPV could be important venues for future public health campaigns.

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