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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma genitalium is now recognised as an important bacterial sexually transmitted infection. We summarised data from studies of mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium to establish the prevalence of resistance. We also investigated temporal trends in resistance and aimed to establish the association between resistance and geographical location. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and MEDLINE for studies that included data for the prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide and fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium published in any language up to Jan 7, 2019. We defined prevalence as the proportion of M genitalium samples positive for key mutations associated with azithromycin resistance (23S rRNA gene, position 2058 or 2059) or moxifloxacin resistance (S83R, S83I, D87N, or D87Y in parC), or both, among all M genitalium samples that were successfully characterised. We used random-effects meta-analyses to calculate summary estimates of prevalence. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses by WHO region and time period were done. This study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016050370. RESULTS: Overall, 59 studies from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria for our study: 57 studies of macrolide resistance (8966 samples), 25 of fluoroquinolone resistance (4003 samples), and 22 of dual resistance to macrolides and fluoroquinolones (3280 samples). The summary prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide resistance among M genitalium samples was 35·5% (95% CI 28·8-42·5); prevalence increased from 10·0% (95% CI 2·6-20·1%) before 2010, to 51·4% (40·3-62·4%) in 2016-17 (p<0·0001). Prevalence of mutations associated with macrolide resistance was significantly greater in samples in the WHO Western Pacific and Americas regions than in those from the WHO European region. The overall prevalence of mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in M genitalium samples was 7·7% (95% CI 4·5-11·4%). Prevalence did not change significantly over time, but was significantly higher in the Western Pacific region than in the European region. Overall, the prevalence of both mutations associated with macrolide resistance and those associated with fluoroquinolone resistance among M genitalium samples was 2·8% (1·3-4·7%). The prevalence of dual resistance did not change significantly over time, and did not vary significantly by geographical region. INTERPRETATION: Global surveillance and measures to optimise the efficacy of treatments-including resistance-guided strategies, new antimicrobials, and antimicrobial combination approaches-are urgently needed to ensure cure in a high proportion of M genitalium infections and to prevent further spread of resistant strains. FUNDING: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569625

RESUMO

Progressive antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis has created a pressing need for treatment optimisations for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this Review, we aim to highlight urgent needs in global STI management, including: (1) improved surveillance to monitor antimicrobial resistance and clinical outcomes; (2) systematic pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluations to ensure resistance suppression and bacterial eradication at all sites of infection; (3) development of novel, affordable antimicrobials; and (4) advancements in new molecular and point-of-care tests to detect antimicrobial resistance determinants. Antimicrobial resistance among STIs is a global public health crisis. Continuous efforts to develop novel antimicrobials will be essential, in addition to other public health interventions to reduce the global STI burden. Apart from prevention through safer sexual practices, the development of STI vaccines to prevent transmission is a crucial research priority.

3.
Sex Health ; 17(3): 279-287, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571477

RESUMO

Background The kissing practices of heterosexual men are not well understood, despite the potential of kissing to be a significant risk factor for gonorrhoea transmission. This study aimed to explore kissing and sex practices among heterosexual men. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among heterosexual men attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2016-2017 was conducted. Men were asked to report their number of kissing-only (in the absence of sex), sex-only (in the absence of kissing) and kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. The mean number of each partner type was calculated, and multivariable negative binomial regression was used to investigate associations between the number of different types of partners and demographic characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 2351 heterosexual men, men reported a mean of 2.98 kissing-only, 0.54 sex-only and 2.64 kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. Younger men had a mean higher number of kissing-only partners than older men (4.52 partners among men aged ≤24 years compared with 1.75 partners among men ≥35 years, P < 0.001). Men born in Europe had the most kissing-only partners (mean: 5.16 partners) and men born in Asia had the fewest kissing-only partners (mean: 1.61 partners). Men recently arrived in Australia, including travellers from overseas, had significantly more kissing-only partners (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 1.53; 95% CI: 1.31-1.80) than local men. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel data about kissing practices of heterosexual men. Studies assessing oropharyngeal gonorrhoea should include measurements of kissing until studies can clarify its contribution to transmission risk.

4.
Sex Transm Dis ; 47(6): 389-394, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resumption of sexual activity shortly after commencing treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is poorly described despite contributing to onward transmission. With azithromycin remaining an option for rectal Chlamydia trachomatis, resuming sex too early after treatment may contribute to antimicrobial resistance because of exposure of newly acquired STIs to subinhibitory concentrations. METHODS: Clinical and sexual behavioral data were collected from men participating in a trial assessing treatment efficacy for rectal chlamydia. Data were collected at recruitment and weekly for 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Outcome measures were resumption of any sexual activity or condomless receptive anal sex within 1, 2, or 3 weeks after commencing treatment. Generalized linear regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) to identify associated factors. RESULTS: Almost 1 in 10 men (9.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2-12.1) resumed condomless receptive anal sex within 1 week of commencing treatment. This was associated with current preexposure prophylaxis use (aRR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.5-4.8]) and having 9 or more sexual partners in the last 3 months (aRR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.6-5.0). Most men (75.0%; 95% CI, 71.3-78.5) resumed any sexual activity within 3 weeks; this was associated with a greater number of sexual partners (4-8 partners; aRR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; ≥9 partners; aRR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7). CONCLUSIONS: Resuming condomless receptive anal sex early after treatment may facilitate onward transmission and promote antimicrobial resistance for STIs. Although azithromycin remains a treatment option, this analysis highlights the need for new health promotion messages regarding early resumption of sex and continued surveillance for antimicrobial resistance.

5.
Sex Health ; 17(2): 135-148, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228828

RESUMO

Background In Australia, men who have sex with men (MSM) have high rates sexually transmissible infections (STIs) and sex-on-premises venue (SOPV) patrons are at risk. This paper assesses Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), syphilis and HIV prevalence in men tested at Australian SOPVs and describes testing services. METHODS: EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and international conference proceedings were searched for articles reporting on-site SOPV testing between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2017. Meta-analysis calculated pooled prevalence estimates of STIs by anatomical site. RESULTS: Twelve cross-sectional studies were identified. Most (8/12) were local sexual health clinics (SHC) outreach services. Participants' mean age was 41.1 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 37.0-43.3; range 17 to 84 years). Testing included CT and NG (9/12), HIV (8/12) and syphilis (5/12). CT and NG prevalence overall summary estimates were 3.4% (95% CI 1.9-5.2%, I2 = 88.7%, P < 0.01) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.7-2.2%, I2 = 75.5%, P < 0.01) respectively. CT and NG prevalence was highest in the ano-rectum and oro-pharynx respectively. The HIV and syphilis pooled estimates were 2.3% (95% CI 1.6-2.9%, I2 = 93.1%, P < 0.01) and 3.2% (95% CI 1.8-4.6%, I2 = 72.8%, P < 0.01) respectively. Participation rate varied. CONCLUSION: This review examines HIV and STI testing in Australian SOPVs before HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Findings indicate a high prevalence of STIs. PrEP use and resultant condomless sex may influence STI prevalence. Further research is required to determine the effect of PrEP on the STI prevalence among SOPV patrons.

6.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(1): 76-78, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Using mathematical modelling, we have previously shown that the prevalence of infection with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is likely to increase in the general population in Australia with the transition from Pap smear-based cervical screening to human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing. Here we use the existing model to estimate the level of supplemental testing required to maintain TV control. METHODS: A compartmental mathematical model describing the transmission of TV in the general heterosexual population in Australia was used to evaluate the impact of a range of screening scenarios on TV prevalence over time following the transition to HPV DNA testing for cervical screening. Scenarios considered were the inclusion of a TV test with the HPV test and the addition of TV testing to routine chlamydia testing conducted in primary care. RESULTS: Our modelling suggests that with sufficient coverage, inclusion of TV testing with routine chlamydia screening in general practice, TV prevalence can be reduced over time, but at the current reported coverage will gradually increase following the transition to HPV testing. Inclusion of TV testing with HPV testing in the cervical screening programme is preferable to no supplemental testing but is considerably less effective in controlling TV. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the inclusion of TV testing with routine chlamydia testing of young people.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes de DNA para Papilomavírus Humano , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Papillomaviridae/classificação , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/parasitologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Sex Transm Infect ; 96(2): 131-136, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Key strategies to control chlamydia include testing, treatment, partner management and re-testing. We developed a diagnosis and care cascade for chlamydia to highlight gaps in control strategies nationally and to inform efforts to optimise control programmes. METHODS: The Australian Chlamydia Cascade was organised into four steps: (1) annual number of new chlamydia infections (including re-infections); (2) annual number of chlamydia diagnoses; (3) annual number of diagnoses treated; (4) annual number of diagnoses followed by a re-test for chlamydia within 42-180 days of diagnosis. For 2016, we estimated the number of infections among young men and women aged 15-29 years in each of these steps using a combination of mathematical modelling, national notification data, sentinel surveillance data and previous research studies. RESULTS: Among young people in Australia, there were an estimated 248 580 (range, 240 690-256 470) new chlamydia infections in 2016 (96 470 in women; 152 100 in men) of which 70 164 were diagnosed (28.2% overall: women 43.4%, men 18.6%). Of the chlamydia infections diagnosed, 65 490 (range, 59 640-70 160) were treated (93.3% across all populations), but only 11 330 (range, 7660-16 285) diagnoses were followed by a re-test within 42-180 days (17.3% overall: women 20.6%, men 12.5%) of diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The greatest gaps in the Australian Chlamydia Cascade for young people were in the diagnosis and re-testing steps, with 72% of infections undiagnosed and 83% of those diagnosed not re-tested: both were especially low among men. Treatment rates were also lower than recommended by guidelines. Our cascade highlights the need for enhanced strategies to improve treatment and re-testing coverage such as short message service reminders, point-of-care and postal test kits.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 221(3): 454-463, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is detected in women with and without bacterial vaginosis (BV). Identification of 4 G. vaginalis clades raised the possibility that pathogenic and commensal clades exist. We investigated the association of behavioral practices and Nugent Score with G. vaginalis clade distribution in women who have sex with women (WSW). METHODS: Longitudinal self-collected vaginal specimens were analyzed using established G. vaginalis species-specific and clade-typing polymerase chain reaction assays. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with detection of G. vaginalis clades, and multinomial regression assessed factors associated with number of clades. RESULTS: Clades 1, 2, and 3 and multiclade communities (<2 clades) were associated with Nugent-BV. Clade 1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-6.84) and multiclade communities (relative risk ratio [RRR], 9.51; 95% CI, 4.36-20.73) were also associated with Lactobacillus-deficient vaginal microbiota. Clade 4 was neither associated with Nugent-BV nor Lactobacillus-deficient microbiota (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.67-3.33). Specific clades were associated with differing behavioral practices. Clade 1 was associated with increasing number of recent sexual partners and smoking, whereas clade 2 was associated with penile-vaginal sex and sharing of sex toys with female partners. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that G. vaginalis clades have varying levels of pathogenicity in WSW, with acquisition occurring through sexual activity. These findings suggest that partner treatment may be an appropriate strategy to improve BV cure.

9.
Vaccine ; 38(5): 1186-1193, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767467

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Australia has recently implemented major changes in cervical cancer prevention policies including introduction of primary human papillomavirus (HPV) screening starting at age 25, and replacement of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine with the nonavalent vaccine in the national school-based program. We assessed the feasibility and utility of conducting HPV testing in residual clinical specimens submitted for routine Chlamydia trachomatis screening, as a means of tracking HPV vaccine program impact among young sexually active women. METHODS: De-identified residual specimens from women aged 16-24 years submitted for chlamydia testing were collected from three pathology laboratories in Victoria and New South Wales. Limited demographic information, and chlamydia test results were also collected. Patient identifiers were sent directly from the laboratories to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register, to obtain HPV vaccination histories. Samples underwent HPV genotyping using Seegene Anyplex II HPV 28 assay. RESULTS: Between April and July 2018, 362 residual samples were collected, the majority (60.2%) of which were cervical swabs. Demographic data and vaccination histories were received for 357 (98.6%) women (mean age 21.8, SD 2.0). Overall, 65.6% of women were fully vaccinated, 9.8% partially, and 24.7% unvaccinated. The majority (86.0%) resided in a major city, 35.9% were classified in the upper quintile of socioeconomic advantage and chlamydia positivity was 7.8%.The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-targeted types (HPV6/11/16/18) was 2.8% (1.5-5.1%) overall with no differences by vaccination status (p = 0.729). The prevalence of additional nonavalent vaccine-targeted types (HPV31/33/45/52/58) was 19.3% (15.6-23.8%). One or more oncogenic HPV types were detected in 46.8% (95% CI 41.6-52.0%) of women. CONCLUSIONS: HPV testing of residual chlamydia specimens provides a simple, feasible method for monitoring circulating genotypes. Applied on a larger scale this method can be utilised to obtain a timely assessment of nonavalent vaccine impact among young women not yet eligible for cervical screening.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19749, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874964

RESUMO

Women-who-have-sex-with-women (WSW) are at increased risk of bacterial vaginosis (BV). We investigated the impact of practices and past BV on the vaginal microbiota within a two-year longitudinal cohort of Australian WSW. Self-collected vaginal swabs were used to characterise the vaginal microbiota using 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. Hierarchical clustering defined community state types (CSTs). Bacterial diversity was calculated using the Shannon diversity index and instability of the vaginal microbiota was assessed by change of CST and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity. Sex with a new partner increased the bacterial diversity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.21,0.60, p < 0.001) and instability of the vaginal microbiota, in terms of both change of CST (adjusted-odds-ratio = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.34,5.22, p = 0.005) and increased Bray-Curtis dissimilarity (adjusted-coefficient = 0.21, 95%CI: 0.11,0.31, p < 0.001). Women reporting sex with a new partner were more likely than women reporting no new partner to have a vaginal microbiota characterised by Gardnerella vaginalis (adjusted-relative-risk-ratio[aRRR] = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.42,8.41, p = 0.006) or anaerobic BV-associated bacteria (aRRR = 3.62, 95%CI: 1.43,9.14, p = 0.007) relative to a Lactobacillus crispatus dominated microbiota. Sex with a new partner altered the vaginal microbiota of WSW by increasing the diversity and abundance of BV-associated bacteria. These findings highlight the influence of practices on the development of a non-optimal vaginal microbiota and provide microbiological support for the sexual exchange of bacteria between women.

11.
Euro Surveill ; 24(44)2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690365

RESUMO

BackgroundInternational travel is considered a risk factor for acquiring Chlamydia trachomatis; however, there are little empirical data to support this.AimTo examine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infections among heterosexual international travellers (n = 28,786) attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC), Australia, compared to Australian residents (n = 20,614).MethodsWe conducted a repeated cross-sectional study and analysed sexual behaviours and chlamydia positivity among heterosexual males and females aged ≤ 30 attending MSHC for the first time between January 2007 and February 2017. 'Travellers' were defined as individuals born outside of Australia who had resided in the country < 2 years. Associations between patient characteristics and chlamydia positivity were examined.ResultsChlamydia positivity was higher among travellers (11.2%) compared with Australian residents (8.5%; p < 0.001). Male travellers had higher chlamydia positivity (12.1%) than Australian males (9.3%; p < 0.001), as did female travellers (10.4%) compared with Australian females (7.7%; p < 0.001). Travellers had a higher mean number of sexual partners than Australian residents among males (5.7 vs 4.7; p < 0.001) and females (3.6 vs 3.2; p < 0.001). Travellers from the United Kingdom, Europe, Ireland and New Zealand accounted for 29.6%, 21%, 8.5% and 5.8% of C. trachomatis infections, respectively. Chlamydia in males and females was associated with younger age (≤ 25), inconsistent condom use, a higher number of sexual partners (≥ 4 partners) and being a traveller (p < 0.001).ConclusionsWe found that international travel is an independent risk factor for chlamydia among young heterosexual travellers in Australia, who should therefore be a target group for chlamydia prevention.

12.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(1)2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694973

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine whether Chlamydia trachomatis could be detected in saliva and if infection is specific to an anatomical site in the oropharynx. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal chlamydia at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre in 2017-2018 were invited to participate upon returning for treatment. Swabs at the tonsillar fossae and posterior oropharynx and a saliva sample were collected. Throat samples were tested for C. trachomatis by the Aptima Combo 2 assay. The bacterial loads of C. trachomatis in all samples were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) detecting the ompA gene. We calculated the positivity and bacterial load of C. trachomatis for all samples. Forty-two MSM were included. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24 to 33 years). Thirty-two participants (76.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 60.5% to 87.9%) had C. trachomatis detected by qPCR at both the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx, followed by 9.5% (n = 4; 95% CI, 2.7% to 22.6%) positive at the posterior oropharynx only and 4.8% (n = 2; 95% CI, 0.58% to 16.2%) positive at the tonsillar fossae only. Twenty-nine MSM had C. trachomatis detected in saliva (69.0%; 95% CI, 52.9% to 82.3%). The median C. trachomatis load in saliva was 446 copies/ml (IQR, 204 to 1,390 copies/ml), that in the tonsillar fossae was 893 copies/swab (IQR, 390 to 13,224 copies/ml), and that in the posterior oropharynx was 1,204 copies/swab (IQR, 330 to 16,211). There was no significant difference in C. trachomatis load between the tonsillar fossae and the posterior oropharynx (P = 0.119). Among MSM with oropharyngeal chlamydia, nearly three-quarters had chlamydia DNA detected in saliva, although the viability and implications for transmission are unknown.

13.
Vaccine ; 37(46): 6907-6914, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australia introduced a school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program for females aged 12-13 years in 2007, with a three-year catch-up to age 26; and for boys aged 12-13 from 2013, with a two-year catch-up to age 15. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of penile HPV between teenage heterosexual males in cohorts eligible or non-eligible for the school-based male vaccination program. METHODS: Between 2014 and 2017, sexually active heterosexual males aged 17-19 were recruited from sexual health centres and community sources across Australia. Males provided a self-collected penile swab for 37 HPV genotypes using Roche Linear Array and completed a questionnaire. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of HPV between males in two periods: 2014-2015 (preceding implementation of school-based male vaccination) and 2016-2017 (eligible for school-based male vaccination). Self-reported vaccine doses were confirmed with doses reported to the National HPV Vaccination Program Register. RESULTS: Overall, 152 males were recruited in 2014-2015 and 146 in 2016-2017. Numbers of female sex partners and condom use did not differ between the two periods. The prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable [4vHPV] genotypes (6/11/16/18) was low in both periods (2.6% [2014-15] versus 0.7% [2016-17]; p = 0.371; aPR 0.28 [95% CI: 0.03-2.62]). Compared with men in 2014-2015, men in 2016-2017 had a lower prevalence of any of the 37 HPV genotypes tested (21.7% versus 11.6%; aPR 0.62 [95% CI: 0.36-1.07]) and any of the 13 high-risk genotypes tested (15.8% versus 7.5%; aPR 0.59 [95% CI: 0.30-1.19]). Prevalence of low-risk HPV genotypes did not differ between the two periods. Of the males recruited in 2016-2017, 55% had received ≥1 vaccine dose. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of 4vHPV genotypes among teenage heterosexual males in both cohorts was low, presumably due to herd protection from the female-only vaccination program. Further studies are required to determine the impact of universal HPV vaccination on HPV prevalence in males.

14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 567, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) peoples face major health disadvantage across many conditions. Recording of patients' Indigenous status in general practice records supports equitable delivery of effective clinical services. National policy and accreditation standards mandate recording of Indigenous status in patient records, however for a large proportion of general practice patient records it remains incomplete. We assessed the completeness of Indigenous status in general practice patient records, and compared the patient self-reported Indigenous status to general practice medical records. METHODS: A cross sectional analysis of Indigenous status recorded at 95 Australian general practices, participating in the Australian Chlamydia Control Effectiveness Pilot (ACCEPt) in 2011. Demographic data were collected from medical records and patient surveys from 16 to 29 year old patients at general practices, and population composition from the 2011 Australian census. General practitioners (GPs) at the same practices were also surveyed. Completeness of Indigenous status in general practice patient records was measured with a 75% benchmark used in accreditation standards. Indigenous population composition from a patient self-reported survey was compared to Indigenous population composition in general practice records, and Australian census data. RESULTS: Indigenous status was complete in 56% (median 60%, IQR 7-81%) of general practice records for 109,970 patients aged 16-29 years, and Indigenous status was complete for 92.5% of the 3355 patients aged 16-29 years who completed the survey at the same clinics. The median proportion per clinic of patients identified as Indigenous was 0.9%, lower than the 1.8% from the patient surveys and the 1.7% in clinic postcodes (ABS). Correlations between the proportion of Indigenous people self-reporting in the patient survey (5.2%) compared to status recorded in all patient records (2.1%) showed a fair association (r = 0.6468; p < 0.01). After excluding unknown /missing data, correlations weakened. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete Indigenous status records may under-estimate the true proportion of Indigenous people attending clinics but have higher association with self-reported status than estimates which exclude missing/unknown data. The reasons for incomplete Indigenous status recording in general practice should be explored so efforts to improve recording can be targeted and strengthened. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12610000297022 . Registered 13th April 2010.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Registro Médico Coordenado , Registros Médicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(10): e360-e366, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324517

RESUMO

This Personal View argues for a new framework of gonorrhoea transmission in men who have sex with men in which the oropharynx plays a major role in transmitting gonorrhoea to, or acquiring gonorrhoea from, their partner's oropharynx, penis, or anorectum through either direct contact or via saliva. To avoid preconceived notions of transmission dynamics, we ask readers to imagine that they are investigating a new sexually transmitted infection. On the basis of the existing clinical and epidemiological data for gonorrhoea at the penis, oropharynx, and anorectum site, we develop two models for transmission: the so-called penile model and the so-called oropharyngeal model. We argue that the existing epidemiological data and behavioural data best fit the oropharyngeal model. Our argument rests on the observation that, at the population level, the prevalence of urethral gonorrhoea is too rare to explain the high incidence of oropharynx and anorectum infection. We describe studies of gonorrhoea detection in saliva, saliva use during sex, epidemiological studies of kissing and oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, as well as studies aided by mathematical models. Finally, we argue that the correlation between sexual acts (eg, kissing, oral sex, anal sex, and saliva use) is so high that any epidemiological study that does not measure these factors will be prone to confounding.

16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(8): 833-842, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea represents a global public health threat, and new therapies are needed. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of solithromycin, a fourth generation macrolide, with ceftriaxone plus azithromycin for the treatment of gonorrhoea. METHODS: We did an open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority trial of patients aged 15 years or older with uncomplicated untreated genital gonorrhoea at two sites in Australia and one site in the USA. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive single dose oral solithromycin 1000 mg or intramuscular ceftriaxone 500 mg plus oral azithromycin 1000 mg. Neisseria gonorrhoeae cultures were obtained at baseline and test of cure (day 7 ±â€ˆ2). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with eradication of genital N gonorrhoeae based on culture at test of cure, assessed in the microbiological intention-to-treat (mITT) population, which included all randomly assigned patients who received any dose of study drug and had a positive genital culture for N gonorrhoeae at baseline. Non-inferiority of solithromycin was to be concluded if the lower limit of the 95% CI for the between-group differences was greater than -10%. Safety was analysed in all patients who received any dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02210325. FINDINGS: Between Sept 3, 2014, and Aug 27, 2015, 262 patients were randomly assigned and 261 received treatment (130 in the solithromycin group and 131 in the ceftriaxone plus azithromycin group). In the mITT population, 99 (80%) of 123 patients in the solithromycin group and 109 (84%) of 129 patients in the ceftriaxone plus azithromycin group had N gonorrhoeae eradication at test of cure (difference -4·0%, 95% CI -13·6 to 5·5), thus solithromycin did not meet the criterion for non-inferiority at the prespecified -10% margin. The frequency of adverse events was higher in the solithromycin group than the ceftriaxone plus azithromycin group (69 [53%] of 130 patients vs 45 [34%] of 131 patients), the most common of which were diarrhoea (31 [24%] of 130 patients vs 20 [15%] of 131 patients), and nausea (27 [21%] of 130 patients vs 15 [11%] of 131 patients). INTERPRETATION: Solithromycin as a single 1000 mg dose is not a suitable alternative to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin as first-line treatment for gonorrhoea. If insufficient duration of solithromycin exposure at the infection site in a subset of individuals was the reason for treatment failures, this might be adequately addressed with dose adjustment. However, any further trials with longer dosing need to consider the potential risk of gastrointestinal effects and liver enzyme elevations. FUNDING: Cempra Pharmaceuticals.

17.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(5): 361-367, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There has been considerable discussion about anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in women, with some calling for anorectal CT screening, but little about anorectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). Given that urogenital NG is more strongly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, this is an evidence gap. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the associations between anorectal CT in women and CT positivity at other sites (urogenital/oropharyngeal) and with anal intercourse, and compares these with anorectal NG within the same study populations. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for English-language studies published to October 2018 using the following terms: ("Chlamydia" OR "Chlamydia trachomatis") AND (("anal" OR "rect*" OR "anorect*") OR ("extra?genital" OR "multi?site")). Studies were included if anorectal NG data were available. Random-effects meta-analyses calculated pooled estimates; heterogeneity was investigated using meta-regression. RESULTS: 25 studies were eligible. Anorectal CT positivity ranged from 0% to 17.5%, with a summary estimate of 8.0% (95% CI 7.0 to 9.1; I2=88.5%). Anorectal NG positivity ranged from 0% to 17.0%, with a summary estimate of 2.1% (95% CI 1.6 to 2.8; I2=92.7%). The association between urogenital and anorectal positivity was stronger for NG than CT (summary prevalence ratio (PR)=89.3 (95% CI 53.1 to 150.3; I2=80.1%), PR=32.2 (95% CI 25.6 to 40.7; I2=70.3%), respectively), and between oropharyngeal and anorectal positivity it was stronger for NG than CT (PR=34.8 (95% CI 10.2 to 118.2; I2=89.9%), PR=8.8 (95% CI 6.8 to 11.5; I2=58.1%), respectively). Anal intercourse was associated with anorectal NG (PR=4.3; 95% CI 2.2 to 8.6; I2=0.0%) but not with anorectal CT (PR=1.0; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.4; I2=0.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Anorectal CT is more common than anorectal NG, but anorectal NG is more strongly associated with anal intercourse, urogenital and oropharyngeal NG, suggesting that ongoing discussion about anorectal CT should also include NG. Longitudinal data are required to further understanding of the aetiology of anorectal STIs and assess whether anorectal screening is needed in women. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42df017080188.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Reto/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/psicologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/classificação , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Feminino , Gonorreia/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Mulheres/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(7): 516-521, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A mathematical model suggested that a significant proportion of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea cases are acquired via oropharynx-to-oropharynx transmission (ie, tongue-kissing), but to date, no empirical study has investigated this. This study aimed to examine the association between kissing and oropharyngeal gonorrhoea among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM). METHODS: MSM attending a public sexual health centre in Melbourne, Australia, between March 2016 and February 2017 were invited to participate in a brief survey that collected data on their number of male partners in the last 3 months, in three distinct categories: kissing-only (ie, no sex including no oral and/or anal sex), sex-only (ie, any sex without kissing), and kissing-with-sex (ie, kissing with any sex). Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between oropharyngeal gonorrhoea positivity by nucleic acid amplification tests and the three distinct partner categories. RESULTS: A total of 3677 men completed the survey and were tested for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Their median age was 30 (IQR 25-37) and 6.2% (n=229) had oropharyngeal gonorrhoea. Men had a mean number of 4.3 kissing-only, 1.4 sex-only, and 5.0 kissing-with-sex partners in the last 3 months. Kissing-only and kissing-with-sex were associated with oropharyngeal gonorrhoea, but sex-only was not. The adjusted odds for having oropharyngeal gonorrhoea were 1.46-fold (95% CI 1.04 to 2.06) for men with ≥4 kissing-only partners and 1.81-fold (95% CI 1.17 to 2.79) for men with ≥4 kissing-with-sex partners. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that kissing may be associated with transmission of oropharyngeal gonorrhoea in MSM, irrespective of whether sex also occurs.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Gonorreia/transmissão , Orofaringe/patologia , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sex Health ; 16(3): 247-253, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940330

RESUMO

Background A 2006 Australian sexual health clinic audit of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) diagnosis rates found variability between doctors. Doctors were given audit feedback towards increasing diagnosis and reducing variability. The clinic implemented other improvements to increase capacity. This study investigated PID diagnosis time trends before and after feedback. METHODS: Yearly PID diagnosis rates for women aged 16-49 years attending the clinic (2002-16) were calculated. Using multivariable generalised linear mixed models, adjusted for patient risk and lower genital infection (any of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, Mycoplasma genitalium, bacterial vaginosis) and stratified by before (2002-June 2007) and after (July 2007-2016) feedback, we assessed if PID rates changed over time, accounting for between-doctor variability. RESULTS: During 2002-16, 144 doctors undertook 84476 female consultations and diagnosed 1755 (2.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-2.2) with PID. Comparing 2002-03 to 2015-16, the yearly PID rate increased; 0.8% (37/4836) to 2.9% (209/7088). Comparing before and after feedback more women reported any symptoms at triage (35.1%-47.2%) or had a lower genital infection diagnosed (10.1%-14.9%). After feedback, PID rates increased by 8% yearly (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.08, 95% CI 1.06-1.11), but were unchanged (adjusted IRR (aIRR) 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.03) after adjustment for patient characteristics. Factors associated with PID were self-reported symptoms, younger age and a lower genital infection. Lower variability in doctor-specific rates was observed after feedback. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing PID diagnosis rates appeared to be driven by a greater female patient risk profile, influenced by increased capacity following service improvements.

20.
Sex Transm Infect ; 95(6): 437-442, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996106

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gonorrhoea transmission between men is currently thought to occur primarily to and from the urethra. Transmission without urethral involvement, from throat-to-throat and throat-to-anus, is considered to be uncommon. Using gonorrhoea results from male couples, we aimed to investigate the transmission dynamics of gonorrhoea. If current medical consensus is correct, then most throat and anal infections should be explained by the partner's urethral infection. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of gonorrhoea diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification tests in both partners in male couples who attended Melbourne Sexual Health Centre together between March 2015 and June 2017. Isolates obtained from culture-positive infections underwent whole genome sequencing to assess phylogenetic relatedness between partners. RESULTS: In all 60 couples (120 men) at least one partner had gonorrhoea, and isolates had very high phylogenetic relatedness between partners. After excluding men with urethral gonorrhoea, among 32 men with anal gonorrhoea, 34% (95% CI 19% to 53 %) had a partner with throat gonorrhoea. After excluding couples where either man had urethral gonorrhoea, among 48 couples in which at least one man had throat gonorrhoea, in 23% (95% CI 12% to 37 %) of couples both men had throat gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: The observed gonorrhoea positivity when urethral infection is absent supports a new paradigm of gonorrhoea transmission, where the throat is a major source of gonorrhoea transmission between men, through tongue kissing, oroanal sex and saliva use as anal lubricant. Public health messages may need to address the risk of saliva exposure during sex.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/microbiologia , Gonorreia/transmissão , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Uretra/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Gonorreia/microbiologia , Gonorreia/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/classificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/fisiologia , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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