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1.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e030078, 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited research has assessed the association between patterns of body mass index (BMI) change across adulthood and mortality. We aimed to identify groups of individuals who followed specific group-based BMI trajectories across adulthood, using weight collected on three occasions and recalled data from early adulthood, and to examine associations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (n=29 881) enrolled in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study, who were aged from 40 to 70 years between 1990 and 1994, and had BMI data for at least three time points. OUTCOME: Deaths from any cause before 31 March 2017 and deaths from obesity-related cancers, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and other causes before 31 December 2013. RESULTS: We identified six group-based BMI trajectories: lower-normal stable (TR1), higher-normal stable (TR2), normal to overweight (TR3), chronic borderline obesity (TR4), normal to class I obesity (TR5) and overweight to class II obesity (TR6). Generally, compared with maintaining lower-normal BMI throughout adulthood, the lowest mortality was experienced by participants who maintained higher-normal BMI (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97); obesity during midlife was associated with higher all-cause mortality even when BMI was normal in early adulthood (HR 1.09; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.21) and prolonged borderline obesity from early adulthood was also associated with elevated mortality (HR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33). These associations were stronger for never-smokers and for death due to obesity-related cancers. Being overweight in early adulthood and becoming class II obese was associated with higher CVD mortality relative to maintaining lower-normal BMI (HR 2.27; 95% CI 1.34 to 3.87). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of weight management throughout adulthood to reduce mortality.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276202

RESUMO

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all ptrend < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.

4.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(7): 2045-2070, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009935

RESUMO

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life.We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries.The four biological aging biomarkers were associated with education and different sets of risk factors independently, and the magnitude of the effects differed depending on the biomarker and the predictor. On average, the effect of low education on epigenetic aging was comparable with those of other lifestyle-related risk factors (obesity, alcohol intake), with the exception of smoking, which had a significantly stronger effect.Our study shows that low education is an independent predictor of accelerated biological (epigenetic) aging and that epigenetic clocks appear to be good candidates for disentangling the biological pathways underlying social inequalities in healthy aging and longevity.

5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(5): 900-908, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of vitamin D in cancer risk remains controversial, and limited data exist on associations between vitamin D and subtypes of specific cancers. We investigated associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancers, including subtypes. METHODS: A case-cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study included 547 colorectal, 634 breast, and 824 prostate cancers, and a sex-stratified random sample of participants (n = 2,996). Concentration of 25(OH)D in baseline-dried blood spots was measured using LC-MS/MS. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each cancer in relation to plasma-equivalent 25(OH)D concentration. Associations by stage and BRAF/KRAS status for colorectal cancer, estrogen receptor status for breast cancer, and aggressiveness for prostate cancer were examined in competing risks models. RESULTS: 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer [highest vs. lowest 25(OH)D quintile: HR, 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-0.98], which was limited to women (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.33-0.82). Circulating 25(OH)D was also inversely associated with BRAF V600E-positive colorectal cancer (per 25 nmol/L increment: HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-1.01). There were no inverse associations with breast cancer (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.70-1.36) or prostate cancer (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82-1.48). CONCLUSIONS: Circulating 25(OH)D concentration was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk for women, but not with risk of breast cancer or prostate cancer. IMPACT: Vitamin D might play a role in preventing colorectal cancer. Further studies are required to confirm whether vitamin D is associated with specific tumor subtypes.

6.
Nutr Cancer ; 71(4): 605-614, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873873

RESUMO

Dietary intakes of B vitamins and other components involved in one-carbon metabolism, which is necessary for DNA replication, DNA repair, and regulation of gene expression, may be associated with carcinogenesis. We investigated associations between intakes of 11 nutrients (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, folate, vitamin B12, methionine, choline, and betaine) and gastric cancer risk. A total of 159 incident gastric cancer cases were identified from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N = 41,513) and matched with 159 controls on year of birth, sex, and country of birth using incidence density sampling. Dietary intakes of nutrients were estimated at baseline (1990-1994) using a 121-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression models adjusting for Helicobacter pylori infection, and other potential confounders. We observed a positive association between intake of niacin and overall gastric cancer risk (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.01-1.75 per SD increment). For thiamine, heterogeneity by subtype (cardia and non-cardia) was found (Phet = 0.05), with weak evidence of an inverse association with cardia cancer risk. Our results do not support increasing intakes of B vitamins or other nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism to reduce gastric cancer risk in a well-nourished population.

7.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(4): 323-331, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer has one of the worst prognoses with 5-year survival below 10%. There is some evidence that alcohol consumption might increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. We examined associations of pre-diagnostic alcohol intake with (i) incidence of pancreatic cancer, and (ii) overall survival following pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Usual alcohol intake was estimated at recruitment in 1990-1994 for 38,472 participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific intake for 10-year periods from age 20. Pancreatic cancer incidence (C25 according to International Classification of Diseases for Oncology) and vital status were ascertained through to 30 September 2015. Cox regression was performed to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with lifetime, age 20-29, and baseline alcohol intakes. RESULTS: By the end of follow-up (average 20.2 years), 239 incident cases of pancreatic cancer were diagnosed, of which 228 had died. No evidence of an association was observed between alcohol intake and risk of pancreatic cancer. Higher lifetime alcohol intake was associated with lower overall survival following a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (mortality HR 1.09 per 10 g/day increment, 95% CI 1.00-1.19; p value = 0.04). A similar finding was observed for age 20-29 intake (HR 1.09 per 10 g/day increment, 95% CI 1.02-1.18; p value = 0.01) but not with baseline intake. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association between lower alcohol use from an early age and improved survival following pancreatic cancer, but this finding needs to be confirmed by other studies.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebidas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700025

RESUMO

Epidemiological evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased mortality, but it is unclear whether this is explained by reverse causation, and if there are specific causes of death for which vitamin D might be important. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies investigating associations between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in generally healthy populations. Relevant studies were identified using PubMed and EMBASE searches. After screening 722 unique records and removing those that were ineligible, 84 articles were included in this review. The vast majority of studies reported inverse associations between 25(OH)D concentration and all-cause mortality. This association appeared to be non-linear, with progressively lower mortality with increasing 25(OH)D up to a point, beyond which there was no further decrease. There is moderate evidence that vitamin D status is inversely associated with cancer mortality and death due to respiratory diseases, while for cardiovascular mortality, there is weak evidence of an association in observational studies, which is not supported by the data from intervention or Mendelian randomization studies. The relationship between vitamin D status and other causes of death remains uncertain due to limited data. Larger long-term studies are required to clarify these associations.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/mortalidade , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitaminas/sangue , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Vitamina D/sangue
9.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499135

RESUMO

Vitamin B supplementation can have side effects for human health, including cancer risk. We aimed to elucidate the role of vitamin B12 in lung cancer aetiology via direct measurements of pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin B12 concentrations in a nested case-control study, complemented with a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach in an independent case-control sample. We used pre-diagnostic biomarker data from 5,183 case-control pairs nested within 20 prospective cohorts, and genetic data from 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. Exposures included directly measured circulating vitamin B12 in pre-diagnostic blood samples from the nested case-control study, and 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with vitamin B12 concentrations in the MR study. Our main outcome of interest was increased risk for lung cancer, overall and by histological subtype, per increase in circulating vitamin B12 concentrations. We found circulating vitamin B12 to be positively associated with overall lung cancer risk in a dose response fashion (odds ratio for a doubling in B12 [ORlog2B12 ] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06-1.25). The MR analysis based on 8 genetic variants also indicated that genetically determined higher vitamin B12 concentrations were positively associated with overall lung cancer risk (OR per 150 pmol/L standard deviation increase in B12 [ORSD ]= 1.08, 95%CI= 1.00-1.16). Considering the consistency of these two independent and complementary analyses, these findings support the hypothesis that high vitamin B12 status increases the risk of lung cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 236, 2018 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591046

RESUMO

The original version of this paper [1] did not specify that a website was used in the final year of recruitment, in addition to the other stated recruitment methods.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30318764

RESUMO

B-group vitamins, as components of the one carbon metabolism pathway, are involved in DNA synthesis, repair and methylation. Our aim was to investigate associations between circulating plasma levels of B vitamins and urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). We conducted a nested case-control study of UCC within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. B vitamins were measured in pre-diagnostic plasma samples. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for UCC risk associated with circulating B vitamins in 363 matched cases and controls. In a case-only analysis (N = 390), hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival associated with plasma B vitamins were estimated using Cox regression. There were no strong associations between UCC risk and pre-diagnostic levels of plasma B vitamins. No heterogeneity in UCC risk was observed by subtype (invasive or superficial), sex, smoking status or alcohol intake. There was no heterogeneity by country of birth for most B vitamins, except for folate (p-homogeneity = 0.03). In UCC cases, there were no strong associations between plasma B vitamins and overall survival. We found no associations between pre-diagnostic plasma concentrations of B-group vitamins and UCC risk or survival.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101351

RESUMO

Background: Folate and other one-carbon metabolism nutrients are essential to enable DNA methylation to occur, but the extent to which their dietary intake influences methylation in adulthood is unclear. Objective: We assessed associations between dietary intake of these nutrients and DNA methylation in peripheral blood, overall and at specific genomic locations. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional study using baseline data and samples from 5186 adult participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Nutrient intake was estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire. DNA methylation was measured by using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (HM450K). We assessed associations of intakes of folate, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, methionine, choline, and betaine with methylation at individual cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpGs), and with median (genome-wide) methylation across all CpGs, CpGs in gene bodies, and CpGs in gene promoters. We also assessed associations with methylation at long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE-1), satellite 2 (Sat2), and Arthrobacter luteus restriction endonuclease (Alu) repetitive elements for a subset of participants. We used linear mixed regression, adjusting for age, sex, country of birth, smoking, energy intake from food, alcohol intake, Mediterranean diet score, and batch effects to assess log-linear associations with dietary intake of each nutrient. In secondary analyses, we assessed associations with low or high intakes defined by extreme quintiles. Results: No evidence of log-linear association was observed at P < 10-7 between the intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and methylation at individual CpGs. Low intake of riboflavin was associated with higher methylation at CpG cg21230392 in the first exon of PROM1 (P = 5.0 × 10-8). No consistent evidence of association was observed with genome-wide or repetitive element measures of methylation. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that dietary intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients in adulthood, as measured by a food-frequency questionnaire, has little association with blood DNA methylation. An association with low intake of riboflavin requires replication in independent cohorts. This study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03227003.

13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(6): 1760-1771, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901778

RESUMO

Background: Self-reported smoking is the principal measure used to assess lung cancer risk in epidemiological studies. We evaluated if circulating cotinine-a nicotine metabolite and biomarker of recent tobacco exposure-provides additional information on lung cancer risk. Methods: The study was conducted in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3) involving 20 prospective cohort studies. Pre-diagnostic serum cotinine concentrations were measured in one laboratory on 5364 lung cancer cases and 5364 individually matched controls. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the association between circulating cotinine and lung cancer, and assessed if cotinine provided additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-reported smoking (smoking status, smoking intensity, smoking duration), using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: We observed a strong positive association between cotinine and lung cancer risk for current smokers [odds ratio (OR ) per 500 nmol/L increase in cotinine (OR500): 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-1.47]. Cotinine concentrations consistent with active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) were common in former smokers (cases: 14.6%; controls: 9.2%) and rare in never smokers (cases: 2.7%; controls: 0.8%). Former and never smokers with cotinine concentrations indicative of active smoking (≥115 nmol/L) also showed increased lung cancer risk. For current smokers, the risk-discriminative performance of cotinine combined with self-reported smoking (AUCintegrated: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.68-0.71) yielded a small improvement over self-reported smoking alone (AUCsmoke: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.64-0.68) (P = 1.5x10-9). Conclusions: Circulating cotinine concentrations are consistently associated with lung cancer risk for current smokers and provide additional risk-discriminative information compared with self-report smoking alone.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782935

RESUMO

AIMS: Inverse associations between vitamin D status and risk of type 2 diabetes observed in epidemiological studies could be biased by confounding and reverse causality. We investigated the prospective association between vitamin D status and type 2 diabetes and the possible role of reverse causality. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), including a random sample of 628 participants who developed diabetes and a sex-stratified random sample of the cohort (n=1,884). Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in samples collected at recruitment. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of type 2 diabetes for quartiles of 25(OH)D relative to the lowest quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D, adjusting for confounding variables. RESULTS: The ORs for the highest versus lowest 25(OH)D quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.60 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.81) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92; p=0.004), respectively. In participants who reported being in good/very good/excellent health approximately four years after recruitment, ORs for the highest versus lowest 25(OH)D quartile and per 25 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D were 0.46 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.72) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.89; p=0.003), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of middle-aged Australians, vitamin D status was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes, and this association did not appear to be explained by reverse causality.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 143(2): 298-306, 2018 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446079

RESUMO

Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism may play a role in carcinogenesis through DNA replication, repair and methylation mechanisms. Most studies on urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have focused on folate. We sought to examine the association between B-group vitamins and methionine intake and UCC risk, overall and by subtype, and to test whether these associations are different for population subgroups whose nutritional status may be compromised. We followed participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (N = 41,513) for over 20 years and observed 500 UCC cases (89% originating in the bladder; superficial: 279, invasive: 221). Energy-adjusted dietary intakes of B vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B8, B9 and B12) and methionine were estimated from a 121-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline (1990-1994), using the residuals method. We used Cox regression models to compute hazard ratios (HRs) of UCC risk per standard deviation (SD) of log-transformed nutrient intakes and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for potential confounders. We investigated associations by tumor subtype, and tested interactions with sex, country of birth, smoking and alcohol drinking. The risk of UCC appeared not to be associated with intake of B-group vitamins or methionine, and findings were consistent across tumor subtypes and across demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. A potential interaction between vitamin B1 and alcohol drinking was observed (all participants: HR per 1 SD = 0.99 (0.91-1.09), never drinkers: HR = 0.81 (0.69-0.97), p-interaction = 0.02), which needs to be confirmed by other studies. Our findings do not indicate that dietary intake of nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with UCC risk.

16.
Public Health Nutr ; 21(9): 1618-1626, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29463332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed. SETTING: The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40-69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003-2007. SUBJECTS: Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis. RESULTS: Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. 1/d v. <1/month=1·00; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·27; P-trend=0·61). CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the justification to minimise intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 142(2): 238-250, 2018 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28921583

RESUMO

The influence of lifestyle factors on survival following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is not well established. We examined associations between lifestyle factors measured before diagnosis and CRC survival. The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study collected data on alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and physical activity, and body measurements at baseline (1990-1994) and wave 2 (2003-2007). We included participants diagnosed to 31 August 2015 with incident stages I-III CRC within 10-years post exposure assessment. Information on tumor characteristics and vital status was obtained. Tumor DNA was tested for microsatellite instability (MSI) and somatic mutations in oncogenes BRAF (V600E) and KRAS. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for associations between lifestyle factors and overall and CRC-specific mortality using Cox regression. Of 724 eligible CRC cases, 339 died (170 from CRC) during follow-up (average 9.0 years). Exercise (non-occupational/leisure-time) was associated with higher CRC-specific survival for stage II (HR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.10-0.60) but not stages I/III disease (p for interaction = 0.01), and possibly for colon and KRAS wild-type tumors. Waist circumference was inversely associated with CRC-specific survival (HR = 1.25 per 10 cm increment, 95% CI: 1.08-1.44), independent of stage, anatomic site and tumor molecular status. Cigarette smoking was associated with lower overall survival, with suggestive evidence of worse survival for BRAF mutated CRC, but not with CRC-specific survival. Alcohol intake was not associated with survival. Survival did not differ by MSI status. We have identified pre-diagnostic predictors of survival following CRC that may have clinical and public health relevance.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Exercício , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/classificação , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(1)2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922778

RESUMO

Background: Circulating concentrations of B vitamins and factors related to one-carbon metabolism have been found to be strongly inversely associated with lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The extent to which these associations are present in other study populations is unknown. Methods: Within 20 prospective cohorts from the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium, a nested case-control study was designed including 5364 incident lung cancer case patients and 5364 control subjects who were individually matched to case patients by age, sex, cohort, and smoking status. Centralized biochemical analyses were performed to measure circulating concentrations of vitamin B6, folate, and methionine, as well as cotinine as an indicator of recent tobacco exposure. The association between these biomarkers and lung cancer risk was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models. Results: Participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 and folate had a modestly decreased risk of lung cancer risk overall, the odds ratios when comparing the top and bottom fourths (OR 4vs1 ) being 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78 to 1.00) and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.74 to 0.99), respectively. We found stronger associations among men (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.89; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.93) and ever smokers (vitamin B6: OR 4vs1 = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91; folate: OR 4vs1 = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.73 to 1.03). We further noted that the association of folate was restricted to Europe/Australia and Asia, whereas no clear association was observed for the United States. Circulating concentrations of methionine were not associated with lung cancer risk overall or in important subgroups. Conclusions: Although confounding by tobacco exposure or reverse causation cannot be ruled out, these study results are compatible with a small decrease in lung cancer risk in ever smokers who avoid low concentrations of circulating folate and vitamin B6.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Metionina/sangue , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cotinina/sangue , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Int J Cancer ; 142(8): 1611-1619, 2018 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197076

RESUMO

The association between aging and cancer is complex. Recent studies have developed measures of biological aging based on DNA methylation and called them "age acceleration." We aimed to assess the associations of age acceleration with risk of and survival from seven common cancers. Seven case-control studies of DNA methylation and colorectal, gastric, kidney, lung, prostate and urothelial cancer and B-cell lymphoma nested in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study were conducted. Cancer cases, vital status and cause of death were ascertained through linkage with cancer and death registries. Conditional logistic regression and Cox models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations of five age acceleration measures derived from the Human Methylation 450 K Beadchip assay with cancer risk (N = 3,216 cases) and survival (N = 1,726 deaths), respectively. Epigenetic aging was associated with increased cancer risk, ranging from 4% to 9% per five-year age acceleration for the 5 measures considered. Heterogeneity by study was observed, with stronger associations for risk of kidney cancer and B-cell lymphoma. An associated increased risk of death following cancer diagnosis ranged from 2% to 6% per five-year age acceleration, with no evidence of heterogeneity by cancer site. Cancer risk and mortality were increased by 15-30% for the fourth versus first quartile of age acceleration. DNA methylation-based measures of biological aging are associated with increased cancer risk and shorter cancer survival, independently of major health risk factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Heart ; 104(13): 1076-1085, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269380

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most studies investigating the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and mortality have focused on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and measured RHR at only one time point. We aimed to assess associations of RHR and changes in RHR over approximately a decade with overall and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We used data from participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study with RHR measures at baseline (1990-1994; n=41 386; 9846 deaths) and at follow-up (2003-2007; n=21 692; 2818 deaths). RHR measures were taken by trained staff, using Dinamap monitors. Cox models were used to estimate HR and 95% CI for the associations between RHR and mortality. Vital status and cause of death were ascertained until August 2015 and December 2013, respectively. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, including blood pressure and known medical conditions but not arrhythmias or atrial fibrillation, RHR was associated with a higher risk of death of similar magnitude for CVD (HR per 10 beats per minute (bpm)=1.11, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16), cancer (HR=1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.13) and other causes (HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.25). Higher mortality was observed for most cancer sites, including breast (HR=1.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.31), colorectal (HR=1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.29), kidney (HR=1.27, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.57) and lung cancer (HR=1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.29). Temporal increases in RHR were associated with higher mortality, particularly for individuals whose RHR increased by more than 15 bpm. CONCLUSIONS: RHR and changes in RHR over a decade are associated with mortality risk, including from causes other than CVD such as breast, colorectal or lung cancer. Monitoring of RHR may have utility in identifying individuals at higher mortality risk.

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