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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427315

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii (T gondii) is a common parasite that shows affinity to neural tissue and may lead to the formation of cysts in the brain. Previous epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between glioma and increased prevalence of T gondii infection, but prospective studies are lacking. Therefore, we examined the association between prediagnostic T gondii antibodies and risk of glioma in two prospective cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Cases and matched controls were selected from the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPSII-NC) (n = 37 cases and 74 controls) and the Norwegian Cancer Registry's Janus Serum Bank (Janus) (n = 323 cases and 323 controls). Blood samples collected prior to diagnosis were analyzed for antibodies to two T gondii surface antigens (p22 and sag-1), with individuals considered seropositive if antibodies to either antigen were detected. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for each cohort. In both cohorts, a suggestive increase in glioma risk was observed among those infected with T gondii (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 0.96-7.62 for CPSII-NC; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.85-2.07 for Janus), particularly among participants with high antibody titers specific to the sag-1 antigen (CPSII-NC OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 0.99-11.38; Janus OR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.02-3.14). Our findings provide the first prospective evidence of an association between T gondii infection and risk of glioma. Further studies with larger case numbers are needed to confirm a potential etiologic role for T gondii in glioma.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 440-451, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Population-based estimates of the risk of breast cancer associated with germline pathogenic variants in cancer-predisposition genes are critically needed for risk assessment and management in women with inherited pathogenic variants. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study, we performed sequencing using a custom multigene amplicon-based panel to identify germline pathogenic variants in 28 cancer-predisposition genes among 32,247 women with breast cancer (case patients) and 32,544 unaffected women (controls) from population-based studies in the Cancer Risk Estimates Related to Susceptibility (CARRIERS) consortium. Associations between pathogenic variants in each gene and the risk of breast cancer were assessed. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in 12 established breast cancer-predisposition genes were detected in 5.03% of case patients and in 1.63% of controls. Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were associated with a high risk of breast cancer, with odds ratios of 7.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.33 to 11.27) and 5.23 (95% CI, 4.09 to 6.77), respectively. Pathogenic variants in PALB2 were associated with a moderate risk (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% CI, 2.68 to 5.63). Pathogenic variants in BARD1, RAD51C, and RAD51D were associated with increased risks of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer, whereas pathogenic variants in ATM, CDH1, and CHEK2 were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Pathogenic variants in 16 candidate breast cancer-predisposition genes, including the c.657_661del5 founder pathogenic variant in NBN, were not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides estimates of the prevalence and risk of breast cancer associated with pathogenic variants in known breast cancer-predisposition genes in the U.S. population. These estimates can inform cancer testing and screening and improve clinical management strategies for women in the general population with inherited pathogenic variants in these genes. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
3.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E78, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) has beneficial effects on hypertension, glucose homeostasis, and other health conditions; however, its association with mortality is not as well understood. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (data collection 1982-2014), a prospective US cohort that consisted of 72,462 men and women who were free of major chronic diseases; 18,034 of the cohort died during 13 years of follow-up (2001-2014). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling, controlling for various potential confounding factors, to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MSA (none, >0 to <1 h/wk, 1 to <2 h/wk, and ≥2 h/wk) in relation to mortality risk, independent of and in combination with aerobic physical activity. RESULTS: The association between MSA and mortality appeared to be nonlinear (quadratic trend P value, <.001). After multivariable adjustment and comparison with no MSA, engaging in less than 2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lowered all-cause mortality (>0 to <1 h/wk: HR = 0.88, 95% CI, 0.82-0.94; 1 to <2 h/wk: HR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), but engaging in 2 or more hours per week was not associated with reduced risk (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.92-1.09). Associations were similar but not significant for cancer mortality. Engaging in >0 to <1 hr/wk of MSA was associated with a 19% lower risk (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.71-0.92) of cardiovascular disease mortality, but more time spent in MSA was not associated with reduced risk (quadratic trend P value =.005). Associations did not vary by amount of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic physical activity. CONCLUSION: Engaging in ≥2 hours per week of MSA was associated with lower all-cause mortality, independent of aerobic activity. Reasons for the lack of association with higher amounts of MSA are unclear. Our findings support recommending muscle-strengthening activities for overall health.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 147(11): 3110-3118, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506449

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead are persistent environmental toxins that are known or probable carcinogens, based on evidence for causality for nonhematologic cancers. Associations of these metals with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM) are unknown but biologically plausible. To examine the associations of circulating levels of lead and cadmium exposure with risk of B-cell NHL (B-NHL) and multiple myeloma, we conducted a nested case-control study among 299 incident B-cell NHLs and 76 MM cases within the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort (CPS-II NC). Each case was incidence-density matched to two eligible controls on age, race, sex and blood draw date. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lymphoid malignancies overall and stratified by subtype. We observed a significant positive association between high erythrocyte lead concentration and risk of lymphoid malignancies overall (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.33 per 17.6 µg/L (1 standard deviation [SD])) and follicular lymphoma in particular (RR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.80 per SD). In contrast, there was no association between erythrocyte cadmium and risk of B-NHL (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.75-1.06 per 0.37 µg/L [1 SD]), or any B-NHL subtypes; but a strong inverse association with MM risk (RR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, per SD). Results from our study suggest a positive association between erythrocyte lead level and risk of lymphoid malignancies and a possible inverse association between cadmium and myeloma. Additional research is needed to confirm and further explore these findings.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and weight are commonly used metrics in epidemiologic studies to calculate body mass index. Large cohort studies generally assess height and weight by self-report rather than by measurement. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported height and weight in the Cancer Prevention Study-3 (CPS-3), a large, nationwide cohort recruited by the American Cancer Society between 2006-2013. METHODS: In a subset of CPS-3 participants (n = 2,643), weight and height were assessed at the same time via self-report and in-person measurement. BMI was calculated and classified underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-<25 kg/m2), overweight (25-<30 kg/m2), or obese (≥30 kg/m2). Self-reported and measured height, weight, and BMI were compared using mean differences and Bland-Altman plots and examined by sex, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, age group, and BMI category. RESULTS: Men and women slightly overreported height and underreported weight. BMI calculated from self-reported data was lower than for measured data for men and women. In analyses stratified by race/ethnicity, age, education, and marital status, older women and women with less than a college degree overreported height. Approximately 13% of men and 7% of women were misclassified into a lower self-reported BMI category, with misclassification of BMI being greatest in obese men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, height, weight, and BMI were well-reported, and this study further suggests that BMI computed from self-reported weight and height is a valid measure in men and women across different socio-demographic groups.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
6.
Int J Cancer ; 144(5): 1010-1016, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30117163

RESUMO

Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy) and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts. Metal levels were measured in stored erythrocytes from 1,435 cases and 1,433 controls using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models with each study result weighted by the within- and between-study variances. I2 values were calculated to estimate proportion of between study variation. Using common cut-points, cadmium levels were not associated with breast cancer risk in the CPS-II cohort (continuous RR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.76-1.34), but were inversely associated with risk in the EPIC- Italy (continuous RR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.61-1.03) and NSHDS cohorts (continuous RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.54-0.97). The inverse association was also evident in the meta-analysis (continuous RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.69-1.01) with low between-study heterogeneity. Large differences in lead level distributions precluded a meta-analysis of their association with breast cancer risk; no associations were found in the three studies. Adult cadmium and lead levels were not associated with higher risk of breast cancer in our large meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Cádmio/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Suécia
7.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(1): 113-115, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29284671

RESUMO

Background: The glycemic potential and energy density (ED) of diet may influence endometrial cancer risk. Although glycemic load (GL) is considered a probable risk factor for endometrial cancer, no studies have evaluated the association of total dietary ED with risk.Methods: We evaluated associations of ED, GL, and glycemic index (GI) with postmenopausal endometrial cancer incidence. Analyses included 30,997 postmenopausal women from the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with no previous history of cancer or diabetes, who provided information on diet, lifestyle, and medical history in 1999 and were followed for cancer incidence through June 2013. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for quartiles (Q) of total dietary ED, GL, and GI in relation to endometrial cancer incidence using Cox proportional hazards regression models.Results: During a median follow-up time of 13.6 years, 425 endometrial cancer cases were identified. Median dietary ED was 1.5 kcal/g [interquartile range (IQR) = 1.3-1.7 kcal/g]. Median (IQR) GL and GI were 113.7 (100.5-126.8) and 52.5 (50.4-54.5), respectively. After adjustment for age, use of hormone replacement therapy, physical activity, and body mass index (kg/m2), neither ED, GL, nor GI were associated with endometrial cancer risk.Conclusions: We found no associations of ED, GL, or GI with endometrial cancer risk.Impact: These results do not support an association between total dietary ED, GL, or GI and risk of postmenopausal endometrial cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(1); 113-5. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Idoso , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(21): 12509-15, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25314642

RESUMO

Household water treatment (HWT) provides a means for vulnerable populations to take charge of their own drinking water quality as they patiently wait for the pipe to finally reach them. In many low-income countries, however, promoters have not succeeded in scaling up the intervention among the target population or securing its consistent and sustained use. Carbon financing can provide the funding for reaching targeted populations with effective HWT solutions and the incentives to ensure their long-term uptake. Nevertheless, programs have been criticized because they do not actually reduce carbon emissions. We summarize the background and operation of carbon financing of HWT interventions, including the controversial construct of "suppressed demand". We agree that these programs have limited potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and that their characterization of trading "carbon for water" is misleading. Nevertheless, we show that the Kyoto Protocol expressly encouraged the use of suppressed demand as a means of allowing low-income countries to benefit from carbon financing provided it is used to advance development priorities such as health. We conclude by recommending changes to existing criteria for eligible HWT programs that will help ensure that they meet the conditions of microbiological effectiveness and actual use that will improve their potential for health gains.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Água Potável , Características da Família , Purificação da Água/economia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Humanos , Pobreza , Qualidade da Água/normas
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