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1.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 10, 2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, general and specialist Palliative Care (PC) plays an essential role in health care, contributing to symptom control, psycho-social support, and providing support in complex decision making. Numbers of COVID-19 related deaths have recently increased demanding more palliative care input. Also, the pandemic impacts on palliative care for non-COVID-19 patients. Strategies on the care for seriously ill and dying people in pandemic times are lacking. Therefore, the program 'Palliative care in Pandemics' (PallPan) aims to develop and consent a national pandemic plan for the care of seriously ill and dying adults and their informal carers in pandemics including (a) guidance for generalist and specialist palliative care of patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infections on the micro, meso and macro level, (b) collection and development of information material for an online platform, and (c) identification of variables and research questions on palliative care in pandemics for the national pandemic cohort network (NAPKON). METHODS: Mixed-methods project including ten work packages conducting (online) surveys and qualitative interviews to explore and describe i) experiences and burden of patients (with/without SARS-CoV-2 infection) and their relatives, ii) experiences, challenges and potential solutions of health care professionals, stakeholders and decision makers during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The work package results inform the development of a consensus-based guidance. In addition, best practice examples and relevant literature will be collected and variables for data collection identified. DISCUSSION: For a future "pandemic preparedness" national and international recommendations and concepts for the care of severely ill and dying people are necessary considering both generalist and specialist palliative care in the home care and inpatient setting.

2.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 2941-2949, 2021 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The advocated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target for vancomycin, AUC/MIC ≥ 400 mg·h/L, may not be reached with a conventional fixed starting dose of 1000 mg in critically ill patients, but increasing the dose may cause nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a weight-based loading dose of 25 mg/kg vancomycin on PK/PD target attainment in the first 24 h (AUC0-24) in critically ill patients and to evaluate whether this increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective observational before/after study was performed in ICU patients, comparing the percentage of vancomycin courses with AUC0-24 ≥ 400 mg·h/L and the incidence of AKI, defined as worsening of the risk, injury, failure, loss of kidney function and end-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) score. The conventional dose group received 1000 mg of vancomycin as initial dose; the loading dose group received a weight-based loading dose of 25 mg/kg. A population PK model developed using non-linear mixed-effects modelling was used to estimate AUC0-24 in all patients. RESULTS: One hundred and four courses from 82 patients were included. With a loading dose, the percentage of courses achieving AUC0-24 ≥ 400 mg·h/L increased significantly from 53.8% to 88.0% (P = 0.0006). The percentage of patients with new-onset AKI was not significantly higher when receiving a 25 mg/kg loading dose (28.6% versus 37.8%; P = 0.48). However, the risk of AKI was significantly higher in patients achieving AUC0-24 > 400 mg·h/L compared with patients achieving AUC < 400 mg·h/L (39.0% versus 14.8%; P = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: A weight-based loading dose of 25 mg/kg vancomycin led to significantly more patients achieving AUC0-24 ≥ 400 mg·h/L without increased risk of AKI. However, some harm cannot be ruled out since higher exposure was associated with increased risk of AKI.

3.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 128, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care phases (stable, unstable, deteriorating, terminal and bereavement) are routinely used in Australia and the UK to describe the clinical situation of patients and their families and to evaluate the associated care plan. In addition, it serves as a benchmark developed by the Australian Palliative Care Outcome Collaboration (PCOC) and is used nationwide for comparisons between services. In Germany, the concept is not used consistently due to various translations. Furthermore, there is no nationwide systematic approach to routinely assess clinical outcomes in palliative care. The study aims to develop a German version of the palliative care phase definitions by adapting them culturally, and to examine the inter-rater reliability of the adjusted definitions with healthcare professionals. METHODS: Mixed-methods approach: Cognitive interview study using 'think aloud' and verbal probing techniques and a consecutive multi-center cross-sectional study with two clinicians independently assigning the phase definitions. Interviewees/participants were selected through convenience and purposive sampling in specialist palliative care inpatient units, advisory and community services and in three specialist palliative care units with doctors, nursing staff and allied health professionals. RESULTS: Fifteen interviews were conducted. Identified difficulties were: Some translated terms were 1) not self-explanatory (e.g. 'family/carer' or 'care plan') and (2) too limited to the medical dimension neglecting the holistic approach of palliative care. (3) Problems of comprehension regarding the concept in general occurred, e.g. in differentiating between the 'unstable' and 'deteriorating' phase. Inter-rater reliability was moderate (kappa = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.39-0.52). The assignment of the phase 'deteriorating' has caused the most difficulties. CONCLUSION: Overall, the adapted palliative care phases are suitable to use in the German specialist palliative care setting. However, the concept of the phases is not self-explanatory. To implement it nationwide for outcome measurement/benchmarking, it requires further education, on-the-job training and experience as well as the involvement of healthcare professionals in implementation process. For the use of international concepts in different healthcare systems, a deeper discussion and cultural adaptation is necessary besides the formal translation.


Assuntos
Cognição , Cuidados Paliativos , Austrália , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e042266, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078632

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Over the last decades, patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have been developed to better understand the patient's perspective and enable patient-centred care. In palliative care, the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale (IPOS) is recommended as a PRO tool. Its implementation in specialised palliative home care (SPHC) would benefit from an electronic version validated for the setting.Following the Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance, the study Palli-MONITOR is developing (phase 1) and testing the feasibility (phase 2) of implementing the electronic version of IPOS (eIPOS) in the SPHC setting to inform a cluster-randomised phase 3 trial. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Palli-MONITOR is a multicentre, sequential mixed-methods, two-phase development and feasibility study. The study consists of four substudies. In phase 1 (MRC development phase), qualitative patient interviews and focus groups with SPHC professionals are used to identify barriers and facilitators of eIPOS (substudy I). Substudy II tests the equivalence of eIPOS and IPOS in a crossover randomised controlled trial. Phase 2 (MRC feasibility/piloting phase) includes a quasi-experimental study with two control groups (substudy III), and qualitative interviews as well as focus groups to explore the feasibility and acceptability of the developed intervention (substudy IV).Qualitative data will be analysed with thematic analysis following the framework approach. Quantitative analysis uses a two-way intraclass correlation coefficients model for the equivalence testing. Quantitative analysis of the quasi-experimental study will focus on the primary outcomes, recruitment rates and completeness of eIPOS. Secondary outcomes will include intraindividual change in palliative symptoms and concerns, quality of life and symptom burden. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Approval of the ethics committee of the Ludwig Maximilian University Munich was received for all study parts. Results and experiences will be presented at congresses and in written form. Additionally, participating SPHC teams will receive summarised results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03879668.


Assuntos
Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Cuidados Paliativos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Eletrônica , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063815

RESUMO

Altered pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydrophilic antibiotics in critically ill patients is common, with possible consequences for efficacy and resistance. We aimed to describe ceftazidime population PK in critically ill patients with a proven or suspected Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and to establish optimal dosing. Blood samples were collected for ceftazidime concentration measurement. A population PK model was constructed, and probability of target attainment (PTA) was assessed for targets 100% T > MIC and 100% T > 4 × MIC in the first 24 h. Ninety-six patients yielded 368 ceftazidime concentrations. In a one-compartment model, variability in ceftazidime clearance (CL) showed association with CVVH. For patients not receiving CVVH, variability in ceftazidime CL was 103.4% and showed positive associations with creatinine clearance and with the comorbidities hematologic malignancy, trauma or head injury, explaining 65.2% of variability. For patients treated for at least 24 h and assuming a worst-case MIC of 8 mg/L, PTA was 77% for 100% T > MIC and 14% for 100% T > 4 × MIC. Patients receiving loading doses before continuous infusion demonstrated higher PTA than patients who did not (100% T > MIC: 95% (n = 65) vs. 13% (n = 15); p < 0.001 and 100% T > 4 × MIC: 20% vs. 0%; p = 0.058). The considerable IIV in ceftazidime PK in ICU patients could largely be explained by renal function, CVVH use and several comorbidities. Critically ill patients are at risk for underexposure to ceftazidime when empirically aiming for the breakpoint MIC for P. aeruginosa. A loading dose is recommended.

7.
Palliat Med ; 35(5): 962-971, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a life-limiting disease with high symptom burden. The Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Scale for Dementia (IPOS-Dem) is the first comprehensive person-centered measure to identify and measure palliative care needs of people with dementia. However, such a measure is missing in the German health care system. AIM: To develop a culturally adapted German version of the IPOS-Dem and determine its content validity as a foundation for comprehensive psychometric testing. DESIGN: Cognitive interview study with intermittent analysis and questionnaire adaptation. Interview guide and coding frame followed thematic analysis according to Willis complemented by Tourangeau's model of cognitive aspects of survey methodology: comprehension, retrieval, judgment, response. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample with professionals (n = 29) and family carers (n = 6) of people with advanced dementia in seven nursing homes and person's own home care in four interview rounds (n = 11; 10; 7; 7). RESULTS: IPOS-Dem was regarded as comprehensive and accessible. Cultural adaption pertained to issues of comprehension and judgment. Comprehension challenges referred to the person-centered concept of "being affected by" used in the POS-measures. Judgment problems related to persons with limited communication causing challenges in assessment. CONCLUSION: Most issues of cultural adaptation could be addressed by questionnaire modifications. However, interviews unveiled fundamental challenges for using proxy reported person-centered assessments. Continuous training on how to use the instrument is imperative to integrate the person-centered approach of palliative care into nursing homes as a key provider of generalist palliative care for people with dementia. The refined version is ready for psychometric testing.


Assuntos
Demência , Cuidados Paliativos , Cognição , Humanos , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 11(2): 180-187, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The use of drugs beyond their marketing authorisation, that is, off-label use, is common practice in palliative care with over 70% of off-label use having little or no scientific support. The lack of evidence makes recommendations for off-label use essential, in order to increase the safety of drug therapy and thus patient safety. The aim of this study was to develop a guide for preparing and consenting drug-specific recommendations for off-label use in palliative care. METHODS: Group Delphi Study with three rounds and a prior online survey to identify topics of dissent. Participants represented professional groups working in palliative care involved in direct patient care and/or drug management and various care settings. Furthermore, representatives of relevant professional associations, experts with academic, non-clinical background and experts with international expertise were invited. RESULTS: 18/20 invited professionals participated in the prior online-survey. 15 experts participated in the Group Delphi process. Six domains, including identification of drugs, drug uses, assessment of evidence, formulation, consensus and updating of recommendations were generated and respective statements were included in the Group Delphi process. The consensus process resulted in 28 statements forming the guide for recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: The resultant systematic approach for preparing and consenting drug-specific recommendations for off-label use will allow the development of recommendations with transparent and reproducible monographs. This will help to increase treatment quality and patient safety as well as security of decision-making in palliative care. The developed guide is part of a larger project aiming to provide therapy recommendations for areas that have little or no scientific evidence.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem de Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/normas , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso Off-Label/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidados Paliativos/normas , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(12): 1979, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965578

RESUMO

This article originally published with all author names incorrectly listed. All author names have now been transposed and appear correctly above.

10.
Eur J Pediatr ; 179(12): 1969-1977, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621136

RESUMO

Central nervous system (CNS) infections are potentially life threatening in neonates and can lead to the ill-defined diagnosis of ventriculitis. With this study we aimed to explore and describe ventriculitis regarding clinical, microbiological and ultrasonographic characteristics. We performed a retrospective cohort study including all neonates with a culture-proven CNS infection admitted to our tertiary NICU over a 12-year period (2004-2016). For each case clinical data was gathered, and three timed cranial ultrasounds were anonymized and retrospectively reviewed and assessed for signs of ventriculitis. Forty-five patients were included with 9 (20%) diagnosed with ventriculitis. Mortality in both ventriculitis and non-ventriculitis cases was one-third. Patients with pre-existing conditions as post-haemorrhagic hydrocephalus are at risk of developing ventriculitis. Most common pathogens were gram negative bacteria (68.9%). Ultrasonographic signs of ventriculitis developed over time, and interrater agreement was substantial.Conclusion: Neonatal ventriculitis is a serious entity in the continuum of meningitis. Early and correct diagnoses of ventriculitis are both important because of possible persisting or newly developing hydrocephalus or seizures. Sequential imaging should be performed. What is Known: • CNS infections in neonates lead to high mortality and morbidity. • Ventriculitis is a severe complication of meningitis. What is New: • High morbidity; the majority of ventriculitis patients have pre-existing PHVD and develop seizures and hydrocephalus. • Interrater agreement is good; bedside CUS is a useful tool for reaching a sustainable diagnosis of ventriculitis.


Assuntos
Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central , Ventriculite Cerebral , Encefalite , Meningites Bacterianas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ventriculite Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventriculite Cerebral/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Resuscitation ; 148: 227-233, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032651

RESUMO

AIMS: Infectious complications frequently occur in intensive care unit patients admitted after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. There is debate on the effects of temperature management on the incidence of infections, as well as on the efficacy and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis. In this substudy of the targeted temperature management (TTM) trial, we describe the microbiological profile of infectious complications in patients with cardiac arrest and examined the impact of TTM at 33 °C compared to TTM at 36 °C. Furthermore we aimed to determine the association between antibiotic prophylaxis and the incidence of infections. METHODS: This is a posthoc analysis of the TTM cohort. Microbiological data was retrospectively collected for the first 14-days of ICU-admission. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between antibiotic prophylaxis and pneumonia adjusted for mortality. RESULTS: Of 696 patients included in this analysis, 158 (23%) developed pneumonia and 28 (4%) had bacteremia with a clinically relevant pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common pathogen isolated in patients with pneumonia (23%) and in patients with bacteremia (24%). Gram-negative pathogens were most common overall. TTM did not have an impact on the microbiological profile. The use of antibiotic prophylaxis was significantly associated with a reduced risk of infection (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.43-0.79, p = 0.0005). This association remained significant after correcting for confounders (OR 0.64, 95%CI 0.46-0.90; p = 0.01). The association is not present in a model after correction for clustering within centers (aOR 0.55, 95%CI 0.20-1.47, p = 0.22). Adjustment for mortality did not influence the outcome. CONCLUSION: Gram-negative pathogens are the most common causes of nosocomial infections following cardiac arrest. TTM does not impact the microbiological profile. It remains unclear whether patients in ICUs using antibiotic prophylaxis have a reduced risk of pneumonia and bacteremia that is unrelated to center effects.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Hipotermia Induzida , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(11): 5185-5193, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060707

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several validated outcome measures, among them the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI), are valid for measuring caregiver burden in advanced cancer and dementia. However, they have not been validated for a wider palliative care (PC) setting with non-cancer disease. The purpose was to validate ZBI-1 (ultra-short version and proxy rating) and ZBI-7 short versions for PC. METHODS: In a prospective, cross-sectional study with informal caregivers of patients in inpatient (PC unit, hospital palliative support team) and outpatient (home care team) PC settings of a large university hospital, content validity and acceptability of the ZBI and its structural validity (via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis) were tested. Reliability assessment used internal consistency and inter-rater reliability and construct validity used known-group comparisons and a priori hypotheses on correlations with Brief Symptom Inventory, Short Form-12, and Distress Thermometer. RESULTS: Eighty-four participants (63.1% women; mean age 59.8, SD 14.4) were included. Structural validity assessment confirmed the unidimensional structure of ZBI-7 both in CFA and Rasch analysis. The item on overall burden was the best item for the ultra-short version ZBI-1. Higher burden was recorded for women and those with poorer physical health. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.83). Inter-rater reliability was moderate as proxy ratings estimated caregivers' burden higher than self-ratings (average measures ICC = 0.51; CI = 0.23-.69; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: The ZBI-7 is a valid instrument for measuring caregiver burden in PC. The ultra-short ZBI-1 can be used as a quick and proxy assessment, with the caveat of overestimating burden.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Psicometria/normas , Adaptação Psicológica , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(2): 295-301, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetic (PK) data of ganciclovir (GCV), a first-line antiviral treatment for cytomegalovirus infections, in critically ill patients are limited. This study aimed at characterizing GCV population PK and interindividual variability (IIV) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Secondary objectives were to identify patient characteristics responsible for IIV and simulate GCV exposure for different dosing regimens. METHOD: In this retrospective observational study, clinical data and serum GCV levels were collected from ICU patients on intravenous GCV. PK modeling, covariate analyses, and explorative Monte Carlo dosing simulations (MCS) were performed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Bootstrap and visual predictive checks were used to determine model adequacy. RESULTS: In total, 128 GCV measurements were obtained from 34 patients. GCV PK conformed to a 1-compartment model with first-order elimination. After multivariate analyses, only the estimated glomerular filtration rate calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula (P < 0.001) was included as a covariate. In the final model, the estimated clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V1) were 2.3 L/h and 42 L, respectively, for a patient with the median CKD-EPI of the population (65 mL/min per 1.73 m). The association between CKD-EPI and CL decreased the residual variability from 0.56 to 0.43 and V1-IIV from 114% to 80%, whereas CL-IIV changed from 43% to 47%. MCS revealed that a substantial number of patients may not achieve the GCV PK/pharmacodynamic target trough level (>1.5 mg/L) when administering the label-recommended dose reductions for patients with CKD-EPI <50 mL/min. CONCLUSIONS: A large IIV was observed in GCV PK among ICU patients. CKD-EPI could partially explain the IIV, although a large part of the variability remains unclear. MCS suggested that recommended dose reductions for CKD-EPI <50 mL/min may lead to subtherapeutic plasma GCV levels in these patients.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacocinética , Estado Terminal , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Ganciclovir/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Ganciclovir/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método de Monte Carlo , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The experience of caregiving may affect carers' well-being into bereavement. We explored associations between mental well-being and previous experience of bereavement of, and caring for, someone close at the end-of-life. METHODS: An end-of-life set of questions was included in population-based household survey administered to adults (age 16 years and above). We used univariable regression to explore the cross-sectional relationship between our primary outcome (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS)) and possible explanatory variables: sociodemographic; death and bereavement including ability to continue with their life; disease and carer characteristics; service use and caregiving experience. RESULTS: The analysis dataset included 7606 of whom 5849 (77%) were not bereaved, 1174 (15%) were bereaved but provided no care and 583 (8%) were bereaved carers. WEMWBS was lower in the oldest age class (85 years and above) in both bereaved groups compared with not bereaved (p<0.001). The worst WEMWBS scores were seen in the 'bereaved but no care' group who had bad/very bad health self-assessed general health (39.8 (10.1)) vs 41.6 (9.5)) in those not bereaved and 46.4 (10.7) in bereaved carers. Among the bereaved groups, those who would not be willing to care again had lower WEMWBS scores than those who would (48.3 (8.3) vs 51.4 (8.4), p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Mental well-being in bereavement was worse in people with self-reported poor/very poor general health and those with a worse caregiving experience. Although causality cannot be assumed, interventions to help people with worse mental and physical health to care, so that their experience is as positive as possible, should be explored prospectively.

15.
Palliat Med ; 33(8): 1045-1057, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few measures capture the complex symptoms and concerns of those receiving palliative care. AIM: To validate the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale, a measure underpinned by extensive psychometric development, by evaluating its validity, reliability and responsiveness to change. DESIGN: Concurrent, cross-cultural validation study of the Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale - both (1) patient self-report and (2) staff proxy-report versions. We tested construct validity (factor analysis, known-group comparisons, and correlational analysis), reliability (internal consistency, agreement, and test-retest reliability), and responsiveness (through longitudinal evaluation of change). SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: In all, 376 adults receiving palliative care, and 161 clinicians, from a range of settings in the United Kingdom and Germany. RESULTS: We confirm a three-factor structure (Physical Symptoms, Emotional Symptoms and Communication/Practical Issues). Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale shows strong ability to distinguish between clinically relevant groups; total Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale and Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale subscale scores were higher - reflecting more problems - in those patients with 'unstable' or 'deteriorating' versus 'stable' Phase of Illness (F = 15.1, p < 0.001). Good convergent and discriminant validity to hypothesised items and subscales of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General is demonstrated. The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale shows good internal consistency (α = 0.77) and acceptable to good test-retest reliability (60% of items kw > 0.60). Longitudinal validity in form of responsiveness to change is good. CONCLUSION: The Integrated Palliative care Outcome Scale is a valid and reliable outcome measure, both in patient self-report and staff proxy-report versions. It can assess and monitor symptoms and concerns in advanced illness, determine the impact of healthcare interventions, and demonstrate quality of care. This represents a major step forward internationally for palliative care outcome measurement.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Procurador , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Reino Unido
16.
J Palliat Med ; 22(11): 1378-1385, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210558

RESUMO

Context: Internationally, a variety of reimbursement systems exists for palliative care (PC). In Germany, PC units (PCUs) may choose between per-diem rates and diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). Both systems are controversially discussed. Objectives: To explore the experiences and views of German PCU clinicians and experts for PCU financing regarding per-diem rates and DRGs as reimbursement systems with a focus on (1) cost coverage, (2) strengths and weaknesses of both financing systems, and (3) options for further development of funding PCUs. Design: Qualitative semistructured interviews with PCU clinicians and experts for PCU financing, analyzed by thematic analysis using the Framework approach. Setting/Subjects/Measurements: Ten clinicians and 13 experts for financing were interviewed June-October 2015 on both reimbursement systems for PCU. Results: Interviewees had divergent experiences with both reimbursement systems regarding cost coverage. A described strength of per-diem rates was the perceived possibility of individual care without direct financial pressure. The nationwide variation of per-diem rates and the lack of quality standards were named as weaknesses. DRGs were criticized for incentives perceived as perverse and inadequate representation of PC-specific procedures. However, the quality standards for PCUs required within the German DRG system were described as important strength. Suggestions for improvement of the funding system pointed toward a combination of per-diem rates with a grading according to disease severity/complexity of care. Conclusions: Expert opinions suggest that neither current DRGs nor per-diem rates are ideal for funding of PCUs. Suggested improvements regarding adequate funding of PCUs resemble and supplement international developments.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/economia , Mecanismo de Reembolso , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados/economia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 157, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of complexity is used in palliative care (PC) to describe the nature of patients' situations and the extent of resulting needs and care demands. However, the term or concept is not clearly defined and operationalised with respect to its particular application in PC. As a complex problem, a care situation in PC is characterized by reciprocal, nonlinear relations and uncertainties. Dealing with complex problems necessitates problem-solving methods tailored to specific situations. The theory of complex adaptive systems (CAS) provides a framework for locating problems and solutions. This study aims to describe criteria contributing to complexity of PC situations from the professionals' view and to develop a conceptual framework to improve understanding of the concept of "complexity" and related elements of a PC situation by locating the complex problem "PC situation" in a CAS. METHODS: Qualitative interview study with 42 semi-structured expert (clinical/economical/political) interviews. Data was analysed using the framework method. The thematic framework was developed inductively. Categories were reviewed, subsumed and connected considering CAS theory. RESULTS: The CAS of a PC situation consists of three subsystems: patient, social system, and team. Agents in the "system patient" are allocated to further subsystems on patient level: physical, psycho-spiritual, and socio-cultural. The "social system" and the "system team" are composed of social agents, who affect the CAS as carriers of characteristics, roles, and relationships. Environmental factors interact with the care situation from outside the system. Agents within subsystems and subsystems themselves interact on all hierarchical system levels and shape the system behaviour of a PC situation. CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides a conceptual framework and comprehensive understanding of complexity in PC. The systemic view can help to understand and shape situations and dynamics of individual care situations; on higher hierarchical level, it can support an understanding and framework for the development of care structures and concepts. The framework provides a foundation for the development of a model to differentiate PC situations by complexity of patients and care needs. To enable an operationalisation and classification of complexity, relevant outcome measures mirroring the identified system elements should be identified and implemented in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Cultura , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espiritualidade
18.
Cost Eff Resour Alloc ; 16: 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349423

RESUMO

Background: Specialist palliative care in the hospital addresses a heterogeneous patient population with complex care needs. In Germany, palliative care patients are classified based on their primary diagnosis to determine reimbursement despite findings that other factors describe patient needs better. To facilitate adequate resource allocation in this setting, in Australia and in the UK important steps have been undertaken towards identifying drivers of palliative care resource use and classifying patients accordingly. We aimed to pioneer patient classification based on determinants of resource use relevant to specialist palliative care in Germany first, by calculating the patient-level cost of specialist palliative care from the hospital's perspective, based on the recorded resource use and, subsequently, by analysing influencing factors. Methods: Cross-sectional study of consecutive patients who had an episode of specialist palliative care in Munich University Hospital between 20 June and 4 August, 2016. To accurately reflect personnel intensity of specialist palliative care, aside from administrative data, we recorded actual use of all involved health professionals' labour time at patient level. Factors influencing episode costs were assessed using generalized linear regression and LASSO variable selection. Results: The study included 144 patients. Mean costs of specialist palliative care per palliative care unit episode were 6542€ (median: 5789€, SE: 715€) and 823€ (median: 702€, SE: 31€) per consultation episode. Based on multivariate models that considered both variables recorded at beginning and at the end of episode, we identified factors explaining episode cost including phase of illness, Karnofsky performance score, and type of discharge. Conclusions: This study is an important step towards patient classification in specialist palliative care in Germany as it provides a feasible patient-level costing method and identifies possible starting points for classification. Application to a larger sample will allow for meaningful classification of palliative patients.

19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(10): 782-792, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis typically occurs in an immunocompromised host. For almost a century, influenza has been known to set up for bacterial superinfections, but recently patients with severe influenza were also reported to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We aimed to measure the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis over several seasons in patients with influenza pneumonia in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to assess whether influenza was an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. METHODS: We did a retrospective multicentre cohort study. Data were collected from adult patients with severe influenza admitted to seven ICUs across Belgium and The Netherlands during seven influenza seasons. Patients were older than 18 years, were admitted to the ICU for more than 24 h with acute respiratory failure, had pulmonary infiltrates on imaging, and a confirmed influenza infection based on a positive airway PCR test (influenza cohort). We used logistic regression analyses to determine if influenza was independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in non-immunocompromised (ie, no European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group [EORTC/MSG] host factor) influenza-positive patients (influenza case group) compared with non-immunocompromised patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia who had a negative airway influenza PCR test (control group). FINDINGS: Data were collected from patients admitted to the ICU between Jan 1, 2009, and June 30, 2016. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed in 83 (19%) of 432 patients admitted with influenza (influenza cohort), a median of 3 days after admission to the ICU. The incidence was similar for influenza A and B. For patients with influenza who were immunocompromised, incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was as high as 32% (38 of 117 patients), whereas in the non-immunocompromised influenza case group, incidence was 14% (45 of 315 patients). Conversely, only 16 (5%) of 315 patients in the control group developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The 90-day mortality was 51% in patients in the influenza cohort with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and 28% in the influenza cohort without invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (p=0·0001). In this study, influenza was found to be independently associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (adjusted odds ratio 5·19; 95% CI 2·63-10·26; p<0·0001), along with a higher APACHE II score, male sex, and use of corticosteroids. INTERPRETATION: Influenza was identified as an independent risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and is associated with high mortality. Future studies should assess whether a faster diagnosis or antifungal prophylaxis could improve the outcome of influenza-associated aspergillosis. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Vírus da Influenza A , Vírus da Influenza B , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/epidemiologia , APACHE , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 52(2): 218-225, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29704547

RESUMO

External validation of population pharmacokinetic (PK) models is warranted before they can be clinically applied to aid in antibiotic dose selection. The primary objective of this study was to assess the predictive performance of a gentamicin population PK model in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in two independent western populations of critically ill patients. METHODS: Data were collected from the ICU where the model was developed (Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam [AMC]) and from the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nîmes (CHU Nîmes). Primary endpoints were bias and accuracy. The model was regarded as valid if bias was not significantly different from 0 and accuracy was equal to or less than 2.5 mg/L. Non-linear mixed-effects modelling (NONMEM) was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The AMC validation dataset consisted of 192 samples from 66 ICU patients and the CHU Nîmes dataset of 230 gentamicin samples from 50 ICU patients. The structural model predicted the gentamicin plasma concentrations in the AMC population with a non-significant bias (0.35, 95%CI: -0.11-0.81) and a sufficient accuracy of 2.5 mg/L (95%CI: 2.3-2.8). The gentamicin plasma concentrations were overpredicted in the CHU Nîmes population with a significant bias of 4.8 mg/L (95%CI: 4.00-5.62) and an accuracy of 5.5 mg/L (95%CI: 4.7-6.2). CONCLUSION: The model is valid for use in the AMC ICU population but not in the CHU Nîmes ICU population. This illustrates that caution is needed when using a population PK model in an external population.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Antibacterianos/sangue , Gentamicinas/sangue , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Estado Terminal , Esquema de Medicação , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , Gentamicinas/farmacocinética , Hemodiafiltração/instrumentação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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