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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.

2.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

4.
Environ Int ; 157: 106792, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposure has been linked to lung function in adolescents, but little is known about the relevance of specific PM components and ultrafine particles (UFP). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations of long-term exposure to PM elemental composition and UFP with lung function at age 16 years. METHODS: For 706 participants of a prospective Dutch birth cohort, we assessed associations of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at age 16 with average exposure to eight elemental components (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc) in PM2.5 and PM10, as well as UFP during the preceding years (age 13-16 years) estimated by land-use regression models. After assessing associations for each pollutant individually using linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounders, independence of associations with different pollutants was assessed in two-pollutant models with PM mass and NO2, for which associations with lung function have been reported previously. RESULTS: We observed that for most PM elemental components higher exposure was associated with lower FEV1, especially PM10 sulfur [e.g. adjusted difference -2.23% (95% confidence interval (CI) -3.70 to -0.74%) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM10 sulfur]. The association with PM10 sulfur remained after adjusting for PM10 mass. Negative associations of exposure to UFP with both FEV1 and FVC were observed [-1.06% (95% CI: -2.08 to -0.03%) and -0.65% (95% CI: -1.53 to 0.23%), respectively per IQR increase in UFP], but did not persist in two-pollutant models with NO2 or PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to sulfur in PM10 may result in lower FEV1 at age 16. There is no evidence for an independent effect of UFP exposure.

5.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111868, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated biomass combustion with (respiratory) morbidity and mortality, primarily in indoor settings. Barbecuing results in high outdoor air pollution exposures, but the health effects are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate short-term changes in respiratory health in healthy adults, associated with exposure to barbecue fumes. METHODS: 16 healthy, adult volunteers were exposed to barbecue smoke in outdoor air in rest during 1.5 h, using a repeated-measures design. Major air pollutants were monitored on-site, including particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particle number concentrations (PNC) and black- and brown carbon. At the same place and time-of-day, subjects participated in a control session, during which they were not exposed to barbecue smoke. Before and immediately after all sessions lung function was measured. Before, immediately after, 4- and 18 h post-sessions nasal expression levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) were determined in nasal swabs, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Associations between major air pollutants, lung function and inflammatory markers were assessed using mixed linear regression models. RESULTS: High PM2.5 levels and PNCs were observed during barbecue sessions, with averages ranging from 553 to 1062 µg/m3 and 109,000-463,000 pt/cm3, respectively. Average black- and brown carbon levels ranged between 4.1-13.0 and 5.0-16.2 µg/m3. A 1000 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with 2.37 (0.97, 4.67) and 2.21 (0.98, 5.00) times higher expression of IL8, immediately- and 18 h after exposure. No associations were found between air pollutants and lung function, or the expression of IL6 or TNFα. DISCUSSION: Short-term exposure to air pollutants emitted from barbecuing was associated with a mild respiratory response in healthy young adults, including prolonged increase in nasal IL8 without a change in lung function and other measured inflammatory markers. The results might indicate prolonged respiratory inflammation, due to short-term exposure to barbecue fumes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360070

RESUMO

Air pollution, noise, and green space are important environmental exposures, having been linked to a variety of specific health outcomes. However, there are few studies addressing overall early life development. To assess their effects, associations between developmental milestones for a large population of 0-4-year old children in The Netherlands and environmental exposures were explored. Developmental milestones and background characteristics were provided by Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) and supplemented with data from Statistics Netherlands. Milestones were summarized and standardized into an aggregate score measuring global development. Four age groups were selected. Environmental exposures were assigned to geocoded addresses using publicly available maps for PM2.5, PM10, PMcoarse, NO2, EC, road traffic noise, and green space. Associations were investigated using single and multiple-exposure logistic regression models. 43,916 PCHC visits by 29,524 children were available. No consistent associations were found for air pollution and road traffic noise. Green space was positively associated in single and multiple-exposure models although it was not significant in all age groups (OR 1.01 (0.95; 1.08) (1 year) to 1.07 (1.01; 1.14) (2 years)). No consistent associations were found between air pollution, road traffic noise, and global child development. A positive association of green space was indicated.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 521, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313867

RESUMO

Hospitals host vulnerable people with potentially enhanced sensitivity to air pollutants. We measured particulate matter (PM) including PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 with a portable device in a hospital, a nearby reference building, and ambient air in Shiraz, Iran. Indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio values were calculated to infer on the origin of size-fractioned PM. The mean hospital indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (4.7 and 38.7 µg/m3, respectively) but not PM1 were higher than in the reference building and lower than in ambient air. The highest hospital PM10 mean concentrations were found in the radiotherapy ward (77.5 µg/m3) and radiology ward (70.4 µg/m3) while the lowest were found in the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) ward (18.5 µg/m3) and cardiac surgery ward (19.8 µg/m3). The highest PM2.5 concentrations were found in the radiology (8.7 µg/m3) and orthopaedic wards (7.7 µg/m3) while the lowest were found in the BMT ward (2.8 µg/m3) and cardiac surgery ward (2.8 µg/m3). The I/O ratios and the timing of peak concentrations during the day (7 a.m. to 4 p.m.) indicated the main roles of outdoor air and human activity on the indoor levels. These suggest the need for mechanical ventilation with PM control for a better indoor air quality (IAQ) in the hospital.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitais Urbanos , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Environ Res ; 202: 111710, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate associations between annual average air pollution exposures and health, most epidemiological studies rely on estimated residential exposures because information on actual time-activity patterns can only be collected for small populations and short periods of time due to costs and logistic constraints. In the current study, we aim to compare exposure assessment methodologies that use data on time-activity patterns of children with residence-based exposure assessment. We compare estimated exposures and associations with lung function for residential exposures and exposures accounting for time activity patterns. METHODS: We compared four annual average air pollution exposure assessment methodologies; two rely on residential exposures only, the other two incorporate estimated time activity patterns. The time-activity patterns were based on assumptions about the activity space and make use of available external data sources for the duration of each activity. Mapping of multiple air pollutants (NO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance, PM10) at a fine resolution as input to exposure assessment was based on land use regression modelling. First, we assessed the correlations between the exposures from the four exposure methods. Second, we compared estimates of the cross-sectional associations between air pollution exposures and lung function at age 8 within the PIAMA birth cohort study for the four exposure assessment methodologies. RESULTS: The exposures derived from the four exposure assessment methodologies were highly correlated (R > 0.95) for all air pollutants. Similar statistically significant decreases in lung function were found for all four methods. For example, for NO2 the decrease in FEV1 was -1.40% (CI; -2.54, -0.24%) per IQR (9.14 µg/m3) for front door exposure, and -1.50% (CI; -2.68, -0.30%) for the methodology which incorporates time activity pattern and actual school addresses. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure estimates from methods based on the residential location only and methods including time activity patterns were highly correlated and associated with similar decreases in lung function. Our study illustrates that the annual average exposure to air pollution for 8-year-old children in the Netherlands is sufficiently captured by residential exposures.

9.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 82, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Everyday people are exposed to multiple environmental factors, such as surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise. These exposures are generally spatially correlated. Hence, when estimating associations of surrounding green, air pollution or traffic noise with health outcomes, the other exposures should be taken into account. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of long-term residential exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with mortality. METHODS: We followed approximately 10.5 million adults (aged ≥ 30 years) living in the Netherlands from 1 January 2013 until 31 December 2018. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate associations of residential surrounding green (including the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 300 and 1000 m), annual average ambient air pollutant concentrations [including particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and traffic noise with non-accidental and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In single-exposure models, surrounding green was negatively associated with all mortality outcomes, while air pollution was positively associated with all outcomes. In two-exposure models, associations of surrounding green and air pollution attenuated but remained. For respiratory mortality, in a two-exposure model with NO2 and NDVI 300 m, the HR of NO2 was 1.040 (95%CI: 1.022, 1.059) per IQR increase (8.3 µg/m3) and the HR of NDVI 300 m was 0.964 (95%CI: 0.952, 0.976) per IQR increase (0.14). Road-traffic noise was positively associated with lung cancer mortality only, also after adjustment for air pollution or surrounding green. CONCLUSIONS: Lower surrounding green and higher air pollution were associated with a higher risk of non-accidental and cause-specific mortality. Studies including only one of these correlated exposures may overestimate the associations with mortality of that exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Causas de Morte , Exposição Ambiental , Ruído dos Transportes , Plantas , Características de Residência , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Fazendas , Feminino , Florestas , Pradaria , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia
10.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(4): 47009, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inconsistent associations between long-term exposure to particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm [fine particulate matter (PM2.5)] components and mortality have been reported, partly related to challenges in exposure assessment. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to PM2.5 elemental components and mortality in a large pooled European cohort; to compare health effects of PM2.5 components estimated with two exposure modeling approaches, namely, supervised linear regression (SLR) and random forest (RF) algorithms. METHODS: We pooled data from eight European cohorts with 323,782 participants, average age 49 y at baseline (1985-2005). Residential exposure to 2010 annual average concentration of eight PM2.5 components [copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), nickel (Ni), sulfur (S), silicon (Si), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] was estimated with Europe-wide SLR and RF models at a 100×100 m scale. We applied Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations between components and natural and cause-specific mortality. In addition, two-pollutant analyses were conducted by adjusting each component for PM2.5 mass and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) separately. RESULTS: We observed 46,640 natural-cause deaths with 6,317,235 person-years and an average follow-up of 19.5 y. All SLR-modeled components were statistically significantly associated with natural-cause mortality in single-pollutant models with hazard ratios (HRs) from 1.05 to 1.27. Similar HRs were observed for RF-modeled Cu, Fe, K, S, V, and Zn with wider confidence intervals (CIs). HRs for SLR-modeled Ni, S, Si, V, and Zn remained above unity and (almost) significant after adjustment for both PM2.5 and NO2. HRs only remained (almost) significant for RF-modeled K and V in two-pollutant models. The HRs for V were 1.03 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.05) and 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.10) for SLR- and RF-modeled exposures, respectively, per 2 ng/m3, adjusting for PM2.5 mass. Associations with cause-specific mortality were less consistent in two-pollutant models. CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure to V in PM2.5 was most consistently associated with increased mortality. Associations for the other components were weaker for exposure modeled with RF than SLR in two-pollutant models. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8368.

12.
Environ Int ; 154: 106569, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large nation- and region-wide epidemiological studies have provided important insights into the health effects of long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution. Evidence from these studies for the long-term effects of ultrafine particles (UFP), however is lacking. Reason for this is the shortage of empirical UFP land use regression models spanning large geographical areas including cities with varying topographies, peri-urban and rural areas. The aim of this paper is to combine targeted mobile monitoring and long-term regional background monitoring to develop national UFP models. METHOD: We used an electric car to monitor UFP concentrations in selected cities and towns across the Netherlands over a 14-month period in 2016-2017. Routes were monitored 3 times and concentrations were averaged per road segment. In addition, we used kriging maps based on regional background monitoring (20 sites; 3 × 2 weeks) over the same period to assess annual average regional background concentrations. All road segments were used to model spatial variation of UFP with three different land-use (regression) approaches: supervised stepwise regression, LASSO and random forest. For each approach, we also tested a deconvolution method, which segregates the average concentration at each road segment into a local and background signal. Model performance was evaluated with short-term (400 sites across the Netherlands; 3 × 30 minutes) and external longer-term measurements (42 sites in two major cities; 3 × 24 hours). We also compared predictions of all six models at 1000 random addresses spread over the country. RESULTS: We found similar predictive performance for the six models, with validation R2 values from 0.25 to 0.35 for short-term measurements and 0.52 to 0.60 for longer-term external measurements. Models with and without deconvolution had similar predictive performance. All models based on the deconvolution method included a regional background kriging map as important predictor. Correlations between predictions at random addresses were high with Pearson correlations from 0.84 to 0.99. Models overestimated exposure at the short-term and long-term sites by about 20-30% in all cases, with small differences between regions and road types. CONCLUSION: We developed robust nation-wide models for long-term UFP exposure combining mobile monitoring with long-term regional background monitoring. Minor differences in predictive performance between different algorithms were found, but the deconvolution approach is considered more physically realistic. The models will be applied in Dutch nation-wide health studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Países Baixos , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Environ Int ; 152: 106470, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677244

RESUMO

Several citizen science (CS) initiatives have been adopted in environmental science to monitor air and noise pollution, and water quality related to civic concerns. Nevertheless, CS projects in environmental epidemiology remain scarce. This is because little attention has been paid to evaluate associations of environmental exposures with health effects directly. This narrative review aims to promote the understanding and application of CS in environmental epidemiology. There are many commonalities between CS and other participatory approaches in environmental epidemiology. Yet, CS can foster the democratization of scientific governance and enhance the sustainability of research projects more effectively than other existing participatory approaches. This is especially the case in projects where citizens are invited to participate, engage and become involved throughout all the phases of a research project (co-created projects). This paper identifies various challenges and opportunities specific to the implementation of co-created CS projects in environmental epidemiology. The development of more locally relevant research designs, using local knowledge, obtaining medical ethical clearance, and co-analysing the association between exposure and health, are examples of opportunities and challenges that require epidemiologists to go beyond the traditional research framework and include more outreach activities. Continued efforts, particularly the sharing of information about projects' collaborative processes, are needed to make CS a more concrete and cohesive approach in environmental epidemiology.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Saúde Ambiental , Conhecimento
15.
Diabetologia ; 64(6): 1298-1308, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660006

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Physical activity may increase a person's inhalation of air pollutants and exacerbate the adverse health effects. This study aimed to investigate the combined associations of chronic exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and habitual physical activity with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. METHODS: We selected 156,314 non-diabetic adults (≥18 years old) who joined an ongoing longitudinal cohort between 2001 and 2016. Incident type 2 diabetes was identified at the follow-up medical examinations. Two-year mean PM2.5 exposure was estimated at each participant's address using a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. Information on physical activity and a wide range of covariates was collected using a standard self-administered questionnaire. We analysed the data using a Cox regression model with time-varying covariates. An interaction term between PM2.5 and physical activity was included to examine the overall interaction effects. RESULTS: Compared with high physical activity, moderate and inactive/low physical activity were associated with a higher risk of diabetes (HR [95% CI] 1.31 [1.22, 1.41] and 1.56 [1.46, 1.68], respectively). Participants with moderate/high PM2.5 had a higher risk of type 2 diabetes than the participants exposed to low PM2.5 (HR 1.31 [1.22, 1.40] and 1.94 [1.76, 2.14], respectively). The participants with high physical activity and low PM2.5 had a 64% lower risk of type 2 diabetes than those with inactive/low physical activity and high PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Higher physical activity and lower PM2.5 exposure are associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of diabetes regardless of the levels of PM2.5 exposure. Our results indicate that habitual physical activity is a safe diabetes prevention strategy for people residing in relatively polluted regions.

16.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(3): e121-e134, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is a major environmental cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Cities are generally hotspots for air pollution and disease. However, the exact extent of the health effects of air pollution at the city level is still largely unknown. We aimed to estimate the proportion of annual preventable deaths due to air pollution in almost 1000 cities in Europe. METHODS: We did a quantitative health impact assessment for the year 2015 to estimate the effect of air pollution exposure (PM2·5 and NO2) on natural-cause mortality for adult residents (aged ≥20 years) in 969 cities and 47 greater cities in Europe. We retrieved the cities and greater cities from the Urban Audit 2018 dataset and did the analysis at a 250 m grid cell level for 2015 data based on the global human settlement layer residential population. We estimated the annual premature mortality burden preventable if the WHO recommended values (ie, 10 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2) were achieved and if air pollution concentrations were reduced to the lowest values measured in 2015 in European cities (ie, 3·7 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 3·5 µg/m3 for NO2). We clustered and ranked the cities on the basis of population and age-standardised mortality burden associated with air pollution exposure. In addition, we did several uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our estimates. FINDINGS: Compliance with WHO air pollution guidelines could prevent 51 213 (95% CI 34 036-68 682) deaths per year for PM2·5 exposure and 900 (0-2476) deaths per year for NO2 exposure. The reduction of air pollution to the lowest measured concentrations could prevent 124 729 (83 332-166 535) deaths per year for PM2·5 exposure and 79 435 (0-215 165) deaths per year for NO2 exposure. A great variability in the preventable mortality burden was observed by city, ranging from 0 to 202 deaths per 100 000 population for PM2·5 and from 0 to 73 deaths for NO2 per 100 000 population when the lowest measured concentrations were considered. The highest PM2·5 mortality burden was estimated for cities in the Po Valley (northern Italy), Poland, and Czech Republic. The highest NO2 mortality burden was estimated for large cities and capital cities in western and southern Europe. Sensitivity analyses showed that the results were particularly sensitive to the choice of the exposure response function, but less so to the choice of baseline mortality values and exposure assessment method. INTERPRETATION: A considerable proportion of premature deaths in European cities could be avoided annually by lowering air pollution concentrations, particularly below WHO guidelines. The mortality burden varied considerably between European cities, indicating where policy actions are more urgently needed to reduce air pollution and achieve sustainable, liveable, and healthy communities. Current guidelines should be revised and air pollution concentrations should be reduced further to achieve greater protection of health in cities. FUNDING: Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Internal ISGlobal fund.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Prematura , Saúde da População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/normas , Europa (Continente) , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 766: 144376, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421789

RESUMO

Higher temperatures are associated with morbidity and mortality. Most epidemiological studies use outdoor temperature data, however, people spend most of their time indoors. Indoor temperatures and determinants of indoor temperatures have rarely been studied on a large scale. We measured living room and bedroom temperature in 113 homes of elderly subjects, as well as outdoor temperatures, in two cities in the Netherlands. Linear regression was used to determine the influence of building characteristics on indoor living room and bedroom temperatures in the warm episode. During the warm episode, indoor temperatures were higher during the night and lower during the day than outdoor temperatures. Indoor temperatures on average exceeded outdoor temperatures. The weekly average indoor temperature in living rooms varied between 23.1 and 30.2 °C. Dwellings that warmed up easily, also cooled down more easily. Outdoor and indoor temperatures were moderately correlated (R2 = 0.36 and 0.34 for living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Building year before 1930 and rooms being located on the top floor were associated with higher indoor temperatures. Green in the vicinity was associated with lower temperatures in bedrooms. This study shows that indoor temperatures vary widely between dwellings, and are determined by outdoor temperatures and building characteristics. As most people, especially the elderly, spend most of the time indoor, indoor temperature is a more exact predictor of heat exposure than outdoor temperature. The importance of mitigating high indoor temperatures will be more important in the future because of higher temperatures due to climate change.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Temperatura Alta , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Cidades , Habitação , Humanos , Países Baixos , Temperatura
18.
Environ Int ; 146: 106306, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To characterize air pollution exposure at a fine spatial scale, different exposure assessment methods have been applied. Comparison of associations with health from different exposure methods are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of air pollution based on hybrid, land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models with natural cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: We followed a Dutch national cohort of approximately 10.5 million adults aged 29+ years from 2008 until 2012. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as underlying time scale and adjusted for several potential individual and area-level socio-economic status confounders to evaluate associations of annual average residential NO2, PM2.5 and BC exposure estimates based on two stochastic models (Dutch LUR, European-wide hybrid) and deterministic Dutch dispersion models. RESULTS: Spatial variability of PM2.5 and BC exposure was smaller for LUR compared to hybrid and dispersion models. NO2 exposure variability was similar for the three methods. Pearson correlations between hybrid, LUR and dispersion modeled NO2 and BC ranged from 0.72 to 0.83; correlations for PM2.5 were slightly lower (0.61-0.72). In general, all three models showed stronger associations of air pollutants with respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality than with natural cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Associations of air pollutants estimated by LUR were generally weaker compared to associations of air pollutants estimated by hybrid and dispersion models. For natural cause mortality, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.030 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.019, 1.041) per 10 µg/m3 for hybrid modeled NO2, a HR of 1.003 (95% CI: 0.993, 1.013) per 10 µg/m3 for LUR modeled NO2 and a HR of 1.015 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.024) per 10 µg/m3 for dispersion modeled NO2. CONCLUSION: Air pollution was positively associated with natural cause and cause-specific mortality, but the strength of the associations differed between the three exposure models. Our study documents that the selected exposure model may contribute to heterogeneity in effect estimates of associations between air pollution and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Doenças Respiratórias , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
19.
Environ Int ; 147: 106371, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated methods for the analysis of multi-level survival data using a pooled dataset of 14 cohorts participating in the ELAPSE project investigating associations between residential exposure to low levels of air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and health (natural-cause mortality and cerebrovascular, coronary and lung cancer incidence). METHODS: We applied five approaches in a multivariable Cox model to account for the first level of clustering corresponding to cohort specification: (1) not accounting for the cohort or using (2) indicator variables, (3) strata, (4) a frailty term in frailty Cox models, (5) a random intercept under a mixed Cox, for cohort identification. We accounted for the second level of clustering due to common characteristics in the residential area by (1) a random intercept per small area or (2) applying variance correction. We assessed the stratified, frailty and mixed Cox approach through simulations under different scenarios for heterogeneity in the underlying hazards and the air pollution effects. RESULTS: Effect estimates were stable under approaches used to adjust for cohort but substantially differed when no adjustment was applied. Further adjustment for the small area grouping increased the effect estimates' standard errors. Simulations confirmed identical results between the stratified and frailty models. In ELAPSE we selected a stratified multivariable Cox model to account for between-cohort heterogeneity without adjustment for small area level, due to the small number of subjects and events in the latter. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the need to account for between-cohort heterogeneity in multi-center collaborations using pooled individual level data.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Environ Res ; 194: 110579, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285152

RESUMO

Studies reporting on associations between short-term exposure to outdoor fine (PM2.5), and ultrafine particles (UFP) and blood pressure and lung function have been inconsistent. Few studies have characterized exposure by personal monitoring, which especially for UFP may have resulted in substantial exposure measurement error. We investigated the association between 24-h average personal UFP, PM2.5, and soot exposure and dose and the health parameters blood pressure and lung function. We further assessed the short-term associations between outdoor concentrations measured at a central monitoring site and near the residences and these health outcomes. We performed three 24-h personal exposure measurements for UFP, PM2.5, and soot in 132 healthy adults from Basel (Switzerland), Amsterdam and Utrecht (the Netherlands), and Turin (Italy). Monitoring of each subject was conducted in different seasons in a one-year study period. Subject's activity levels and associated ventilation rates were measured using actigraphy to calculate the inhaled dose. After each 24-h monitoring session, blood pressure and lung function were measured. Contemporaneously with personal measurements, UFP, PM2.5 and soot were measured outdoor at the subject's residential address and at a central site in the research area. Associations between short-term personal and outdoor exposure and dose to UFP, PM2.5, and soot and health outcomes were tested using linear mixed effect models. The 24-h mean personal, residential and central site outdoor UFP exposures were not associated with blood pressure or lung function. UFP mean exposures in the 2-h prior to the health test was also not associated with blood pressure and lung function. Personal, central site and residential PM2.5 exposure were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (about 1.4 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). Personal soot exposure and dose were positively associated with diastolic blood pressure (1.2 and 0.9 mmHg increase per Interquartile range). No consistent associations between PM2.5 or soot exposure and lung function were observed. Short-term personal, residential outdoor or central site exposure to UFP was not associated with blood pressure or lung function. Short-term personal PM2.5 and soot exposures were associated with blood pressure, but not lung function.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Itália , Pulmão/química , Países Baixos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Suíça
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