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1.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 961-964, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638507

RESUMO

Enmeshment of emergency trauma providers (ETPs) into the United States health-care fabric resulted in the establishment of a formalized surgical critical care fellowship and certification for emergency medicine trainees. The aim of this study was to compare trauma outcomes for surgery-trained providers (STPs) and ETPs at our institution, hypothesizing patient outcome equivalency. We performed an institutional review board-exempt institutional registry review (January 1, 2004 to August 1, 2018), comparing 74 STPs and 6 ETPs. Comparator variables included all-cause mortality, all-cause morbidity, CT imaging studies per provider, time in ED (min), hospital/ICU lengths of stay, ICU admissions, and functional outcomes on discharge. Statistical comparisons included chi-square test for categorical data and analysis of covariance for continuous data (adjustments made for patient age, Injury Severity Score, and trauma mechanism; all P < 0.20). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05, with an equivalence study design. A total of 33,577 trauma resuscitations were reviewed (32,299 STP-led and 1,278 ETP-led). Except for patient age (STP 50.2 ± 25.9 vs ETP 54.9 ± 25.3 years), Injury Severity Score (8.47 ± 8.14 vs 9.22 ± 8.40), and ICU admissions (16.1% vs 18.8%), we noted no significant intergroup differences. ETPs' performance was equivalent to that of STPs for all primary comparator variables (mortality, morbidity, CT utilization, time in the ED, lengths of stay, and functional outcomes). Incorporation of ETPs into our trauma center resulted in outcome parity between ETPs and STPs, while simultaneously expanding the expertise and experiential diversity within our multidisciplinary team. This study provides support for further incorporation of ETPs as equal partners across the growing network of United States regional trauma centers.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Cuidados Críticos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pennsylvania , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
2.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 45(2): 281-288, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330633

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between trauma volumes and patient outcomes continues to be controversial, with limited data available regarding the effect of month-to-month trauma volume variability on clinical results. This study examines the relationship between monthly trauma volume variations and patient mortality at seven Level I Trauma Centers located in the Eastern United States. We hypothesized that higher monthly trauma volumes may be associated with lower corresponding mortality. METHODS: Monthly patient volume data were collected from seven Level I Trauma Centers. Additional information retrieved included monthly mortality, demographics, mean monthly injury severity (ISS), and trauma mechanism (blunt versus penetrating). Mortality was utilized as the primary study outcome. Statistical corrections for mean age, gender distribution, ISS, and mechanism of injury were made using analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA). Center-specific, annually-adjusted median monthly volumes (CSAA-MMV) were calculated to standardize patient volume differences across participating institutions. Statistical significance was set at α < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 604 months of trauma admissions, encompassing 122,197 patients, were analyzed. Controlling for patient age, gender, ISS, and mechanism of injury, aggregate data suggested that monthly trauma volumes < 100 were associated with significantly greater mortality (3.9%) than months with volumes > 400 (mortality 2.9%, p < 0.01). To account for differences in monthly volumes between centers, as well as for temporal bias associated with potential differences over the entire study duration period, data were normalized using CSAA-MMV as a standardized reference point. Monthly volumes ≤ 33% of the CSAA-MMV were associated with adjusted mortality of 5.0% whereas monthly volumes ≥ 134% CSAA-MMV were associated with adjusted mortality of 2.7% (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This hypothesis-generating study suggests that greater monthly trauma volumes appear to be associated with lower mortality. In addition, our data also suggest that across all participating centers mortality may be a function of relative month-to-month volume variation. When normalized to institution-specific, annually-adjusted "median" monthly trauma contacts, we show that months with patient volumes ≤ 33% median may be associated with subtly but not negligibly (1.4-2.3%) higher mortality than months with patient volumes ≥ 134% median.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 435-443, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29787527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic trauma results in high morbidity and mortality, in part caused by the delay in diagnosis and subsequent organ dysfunction. Optimal operative management strategies remain unclear. We therefore sought to determine CT accuracy in diagnosing pancreatic injury and the morbidity and mortality associated with varying operative strategies. METHODS: We created a multicenter, pancreatic trauma registry from 18 Level 1 and 2 trauma centers. Adult, blunt or penetrating injured patients from 2005 to 2012 were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of CT scan identification of main pancreatic duct injury was calculated against operative findings. Independent predictors for mortality, adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and pancreatic fistula and/or pseudocyst were identified through multivariate regression analysis. The association between outcomes and operative management was measured. RESULTS: We identified 704 pancreatic injury patients of whom 584 (83%) underwent a pancreas-related procedure. CT grade modestly correlated with OR grade (r 0.39) missing 10 ductal injuries (9 grade III, 1 grade IV) providing 78.7% sensitivity and 61.6% specificity. Independent predictors of mortality were age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), lactate, and number of packed red blood cells transfused. Independent predictors of ARDS were ISS, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and pancreatic fistula (OR 5.2, 2.6-10.1). Among grade III injuries (n = 158, 22.4%), the risk of pancreatic fistula/pseudocyst was reduced when the end of the pancreas was stapled (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-0.9) compared with sewn and was not affected by duct stitch placement. Drainage alone in grades IV (n = 25) and V (n = 24) injuries carried increased risk of pancreatic fistula/pseudocyst (OR 8.3, 95% CI 2.2-32.9). CONCLUSION: CT is insufficiently sensitive to reliably identify pancreatic duct injury. Patients with grade III injuries should have their resection site stapled instead of sewn and a duct stitch is unnecessary. Further study is needed to determine if drainage alone should be employed in grades IV and V injuries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/Diagnostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Pâncreas/lesões , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/classificação , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pâncreas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pâncreas/patologia , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Ductos Pancreáticos/diagnóstico por imagem , Ductos Pancreáticos/lesões , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Ductos Pancreáticos/cirurgia , Fístula Pancreática/complicações , Pseudocisto Pancreático/complicações , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/efeitos adversos , Grampeamento Cirúrgico/métodos , Suturas/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Ferimentos Penetrantes/classificação , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes/patologia
5.
Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci ; 7(2): 91-100, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660162

RESUMO

Organ procurement (OP) from donors after brain death and circulatory death represents the primary source of transplanted organs. Despite favorable laws and regulations, OP continues to face challenges for a number of reasons, including institutional, personal, and societal barriers. This focused review presents some of the key components of a successful OP program at a large, high-performing regional health network. This review focuses on effective team approaches, aggressive resuscitative strategies, optimal communication, family support, and community outreach efforts.

6.
Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci ; 7(1): 23-31, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28382256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advanced age has been traditionally associated with worse traumatic brain injury (TBI) outcomes. Although prompt neurosurgical intervention (NSI, craniotomy or craniectomy) may be life-saving in the older trauma patient, it does not guarantee survival and/or return to preinjury functional status. The aim of this study was to determine whether a simple score, based entirely on the initial cranial computed tomography (CCT) is predictive of the need for NSI and key outcome measures (e.g., morbidity and mortality) in the older (age 45+ years) TBI patient subset. We hypothesized that increasing number of categorical CCT findings is independently associated with NSI, morbidity, and mortality in older patients with severe TBI. METHODS: After IRB approval, a retrospective study of patients 45 years and older was performed using our Regional Level 1 Trauma Center registry data between June 2003 and December 2013. Collected variables included patient demographics, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Abbreviated Injury Scale Head (AISh), brain injury characteristics on CCT, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS), all-cause morbidity and mortality, functional independence scores, as well as discharge disposition. A novel CCT scoring tool (CCTST, scored from 1 to 8+) was devised, with one point given for each of the following findings: subdural hematoma, epidural hematoma, subarachnoid blood, intraventricular blood, cerebral contusion/intraparenchymal blood, skull fracture, pneumocephalus, brain edema/herniation, midline shift, and external (skin/face) trauma. Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses were conducted with 30-day mortality, in-hospital morbidity, and need for NSI as primary end-points. Secondary end-points included the length of stay in the ICU (ICULOS), step-down unit (SDLOS), and the hospital (HLOS) as well as patient functional outcomes, and postdischarge destination. Factors associated with the need for NSI were determined using matched NSI (n = 310) and non-NSI (n = 310) groups. All other analyses examined the combined patient sample (n = 620). Variables achieving a significance level of P < 0.20 were included in the logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves, with corresponding area under the curve (AUC) determinations, were also analyzed. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05. Data are presented as percentages, mean ± standard deviation, or adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). RESULTS: A total of 620 patients were analyzed, including 310 patients who underwent NSI and 310 age- and ISS-matched non-NSI controls. Average patient age was 72.8 ± 13.4 years (64.1% male, 99% blunt trauma, mean ISS 25.1 ± 8.68, and mean AISh/GCS of 4.63/10.9). CCTST was the only variable independently associated with NSI (AOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-1.42) and was inversely proportional to initial GCS and functional outcome scores on discharge. Increasing CCTST was associated with greater mortality, morbidity, HLOS, SDLOS, ICULOS, and ventilator days. On multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with mortality included AISh (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 1.21-6.00), initial GCS (AOR 1.14, 1.07-1.22), and CCTST (AOR 1.31, 1.09-1.58). Variables independently associated with in-hospital morbidity included CCTST (AOR 1.16, 1.02-1.34), GCS (AOR 1.05, 1.01-1.09), and NSI (AOR 2.62, 1.69-4.06). Multivariate models incorporating factors independently associated with each respective outcome displayed good overall predictive characteristics for mortality (AUC 0.787) and in-hospital morbidity (AUC 0.651). Finally, modified CCTST demonstrated good overall predictive ability for NSI (AUC 0.755). CONCLUSION: This study found that the number of discrete findings on CCT is independently associated with major TBI outcome measures, including 30-day mortality, in-hospital morbidity, and NSI. Of note, multivariate models with best predictive characteristics incorporate both CCTST and GCS. CCTST is easy to calculate, and this preliminary investigation of its predictive utility in older patients with TBI warrants further validation, focusing on exploring prognostic synergies between CCTST, GCS, and AISh. If independently confirmed to be predictive of clinical outcomes and the need for NSI, the approach described herein could lead to a shift in both operative and nonoperative management of patients with TBI.

7.
World J Surg ; 39(8): 2068-75, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25809063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditional injury severity assessment is insufficient in estimating the morbidity and mortality risk for older (≥45 years) trauma patients. Commonly used tools involve complex calculations or tables, do not consider all comorbidities, and often rely on data that are not available early in the trauma patient's hospitalization. The comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS), a sum of all pre-injury medications and comorbidities, was found in previous studies to independently predict morbidity and mortality in this older patient population. However, these studies are limited by relatively small sample sizes. Consequently, we sought to validate previous research findings in a large, administrative dataset. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients ages≥45 years was performed using an administrative trauma database from St. Luke's University Hospital's Level I Trauma Center. The study period was from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013. Abstracted data included patient demographics, injury mechanism and severity [injury characteristics and severity score (ISS)], Glasgow coma scale (GCS), hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay (HLOS and ILOS, respectively), morbidity, post-discharge destination, and in-hospital mortality. Univariate analyses were conducted with mortality, all-cause morbidity, and discharge destination as primary end-points. Variables reaching statistical significance (p≤0.20) were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. Data are presented as adjusted odds ratios (AORs), with p<0.05 denoting statistical significance. RESULTS: A total of 5863 patient records were analyzed. Average patient age was 68.5±15.3 years (52% male, 89% blunt mechanism, mean GCS 14.3). Mean HLOS and ILOS increased significantly with increasing CPS (p<0.01). Independent predictors of mortality included age (AOR 1.05, p<0.01), CPS (per-unit AOR 1.08, p<0.02), GCS (AOR 1.43 per-unit decrease, p<0.01), and ISS (per-unit 1.08, p<0.01). Independent predictors of all-cause morbidity included age (AOR 1.02, p<0.01), GCS (AOR per-unit decrease 1.08, p<0.01), ISS (per-unit AOR 1.09, p<0.01), and CPS (per-unit AOR 1.04, p<0.01). CPS did not independently predict need for discharge to a facility. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that CPS is an independent predictor of all-cause morbidity and mortality in older trauma patients. However, CPS was not independently associated with need for discharge to a facility. Prospective multicenter studies are needed to evaluate the use of CPS as a predictive and interventional tool, with special focus on correlations between specific pre-existing conditions, pharmacologic interactions, and morbidity/mortality patterns.


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Polimedicação , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
8.
J Trauma Nurs ; 20(1): 31-4; quiz 35-6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23459429

RESUMO

Distracted driving, a significant public safety issue, is typically categorized as cell phone use and texting. The increase of distracted driving behavior (DDB) has resulted in an increase in injury and death. The purpose of this study was to identify the frequency and perception of DDB in adults. A 7-question SurveyMonkey questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of adults. Standard demographics included age, gender, and highest levels of education. Primary outcome questions were related to frequency of DDB, and overall perceptions specific to distracted driving. Results were compared on the basis of demographics. Chi-square testing and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance were applied, with statistical significance defined as P ≤ .05. There were 1857 respondents to the survey: 1721 were aged 23-64 years (93%); 1511 were women (81%); 1461 had high school education or greater (79%). A total of 168 respondents (9%) reported being involved in a car accident while distracted. The highest reported frequency of DDB included cell phone use (69%), eating/drinking (67%), and reaching for an object in the care (49%). Younger age (18-34 years) and higher level of education (bachelor's degree or greater) were statistically associated with these DDB; gender demonstrated no statistical significance. Text messaging was reported by 538 respondents (29%), with a statistically significant association with age (18-34 years), higher education (bachelor's degree or greater), and gender (males). A total of 1143 respondents (63%) believed that they could drive safely while distracted. This study demonstrates that DDB in adults is not restricted to reading and sending text messages. Moreover, these results indicated that people fail to perceive the dangers inherent in distracted driving. Prevention and outreach education should not be limited to texting and cell phone use but should target all forms of DDB. The age group 18-34 years should be the primary target in the adult population.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção , Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Mensagem de Texto , Ferimentos e Lesões/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Trauma Nurs ; 20(1): 51-5, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23459433

RESUMO

Because of multiple changes in the health care environment, the use of services of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in trauma and critical care has expanded. Appropriate training and ongoing professional development for these providers are essential to optimize clinical outcomes. This study offers a baseline assessment of the academic and professional needs of the contemporary trauma PAs/NPs in the United States. A 14-question electronic survey, using SurveyMonkey, was distributed to PAs/NPs at trauma centers identified through the American College of Surgeons Web site and other online resources. Demographic questions included trauma center level, provider type, level of education, and professional affiliations. Likert scale questions were incorporated to assess level of mentorship, comfort level with training, and individual perceived needs for academic and professional development. There were 120 survey respondents: 60 NPs and 60 PAs. Sixty-two respondents (52%) worked at level I trauma centers and 95 (79%) were hospital-employed. Nearly half (49%) reported working in trauma centers for 3 years or less. One hundred nineteen respondents (99%) acknowledged the importance of trauma-specific education; 98 (82%) were required by their institution to obtain such training. Thirty-five respondents (32%) reported receiving $1000 per year or less as a continuing medical education benefit. Insufficient mentorship, professional development, and academic development were identified by 22 (18%), 16 (13%), and 30 (25%) respondents, respectively. Opportunities to network with trauma PAs/NPs outside their home institution were identified as insufficient by 79 (66%). While PAs/NPs in trauma centers recognize the importance of continued contemporary trauma care and evidence-based practices, attending trauma-related education is not universally required by their employers. Financial restrictions may pose an additional impediment to academic development. Therefore, resource-efficient opportunities should be a prime consideration for advanced practitioners education, especially since half of the reported workforce has 3 years or less experience. The Eastern Association of Trauma and other organizations can provide an ideal venue for mentorship, academic development, and networking that is vital to PA/NP professional development and, ultimately, quality patient care.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Profissionais de Enfermagem/provisão & distribução , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Assistentes Médicos/provisão & distribução , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Coleta de Dados , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
10.
J Pediatr Surg ; 47(3): 467-72, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22424339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occult pneumothorax (OPTX) represents air within the pleural space not visible on conventional chest radiographs. Increased use of computed tomography has led to a rise in the detection of OPTX. Optimal management remains undefined. METHODS: A pediatric subgroup analysis (age <18 years) from a multicenter, observational study evaluating OPTX management. Data analyzed were pneumothorax size, management outcome, and associated risk factors to characterize those that may be safely observed. RESULTS: Fifty-two OPTX (7.3 ± 6.2 mm) in 51 patients were identified. None were greater than 27 mm; all those under 16.5 mm (n = 48) were successfully managed without intervention. Two patients underwent initial tube thoracostomy (one [21 mm] and the other with bilateral OPTX [24 mm, 27 mm]). Among patients under observation (n = 49), OPTX size progressed in 2; one (6.4mm) required no treatment, while one (16.5 mm) received elective intervention. Respiratory distress occurred in one patient (10.7 mm) who did not require tube thoracostomy. Nine received positive pressure ventilation; 8 did not have a tube thoracostomy. Twenty-four patients (51%) had one or more rib fractures; 3 required tube thoracostomy. CONCLUSION: No pediatric OPTX initially observed developed a tension pneumothorax or adverse event related to observation. Pediatric patients with OPTX less than 16 mm may be safely observed. Neither the presence of rib fractures nor need for PPV alone necessitates intervention.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/terapia , Toracostomia , Conduta Expectante , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumotórax/etiologia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
JAAPA ; 24(7): 34, 40-3, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21748957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study analyzes the impact of midlevel practitioners (MLPs) on patient care and resource utilization at a level I trauma center. METHODS: A retrospective review of trauma patients admitted during two periods was performed: PRE-MLP, during which limited MLP coverage was available; and POST-MLP, when MLP coverage was expanded. Demographics, injury severity scores (ISS), and preexisting medical conditions (PEC) were recorded. Trauma service activity was measured by daily admissions, inpatient census, and daily discharges. Outcome variables included hospital mortality, total length of stay (HLOS), ICU length of stay (ICU-LOS), and incidence of the three most prevalent complications: deep vein thrombosis (DVT), major arrhythmia (MA), urinary tract infection (UTI). RESULTS: PRE-MLP and POST-MLP groups were similar with respect to age, gender, and ISS. Mean daily admissions were 3.05 during the PRE-MLP period and 4.01 during the POST-MLP period (P = .0001). Reduced incidence of UTI was demonstrated in the POST-MLP period: 0.9% versus 2.6% (P = .0001). Incidence of DVT and MA were unchanged. HLOS decreased from 5.09 days to 4.84 days (P = .092). ICU-LOS was reduced from 4.08 days to 3.28 days (P = .019). CONCLUSION: Use of MLPs led to a significant reduction in ICU-LOS with no increased incidence of complications. MLPs offer a clinically effective and resource-efficient alternative to residents on a trauma service.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Adulto , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Trauma ; 70(5): 1019-23; discussion 1023-5, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21610419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An occult pneumothorax (OPTX) is found incidentally in 2% to 10% of all blunt trauma patients. Indications for intervention remain controversial. We sought to determine which factors predicted failed observation in blunt trauma patients. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicenter study was undertaken to identify patients with OPTX. Successfully observed patients and patients who failed observation were compared. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of failure of observation. OPTX size was calculated by measuring the largest air collection along a line perpendicular from the chest wall to the lung or mediastinum. RESULTS: Sixteen trauma centers identified 588 OPTXs in 569 blunt trauma patients. One hundred twenty-one patients (21%) underwent immediate tube thoracostomy and 448 (79%) were observed. Twenty-seven patients (6%) failed observation and required tube thoracostomy for OPTX progression, respiratory distress, or subsequent hemothorax. Fourteen percent (10 of 73) failed observation during positive pressure ventilation. Hospital and intensive care unit lengths of stay, and ventilator days were longer in the failed observation group. OPTX progression and respiratory distress were significant predictors of failed observation. Most patient deaths were from traumatic brain injury. Fifteen percentage of patients in the failed observation group developed complications. No patient who failed observation developed a tension PTX, or experienced adverse events by delaying tube thoracostomy. CONCLUSION: Most blunt trauma patients with OPTX can be carefully monitored without tube thoracostomy; however, OPTX progression and respiratory distress are independently associated with observation failure.


Assuntos
Pneumotórax/etiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Toracostomia/métodos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Torácicos/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia
14.
J Trauma ; 69(1): 211-4, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20622592

RESUMO

Trauma during pregnancy has presented very unique challenges over the centuries. From the first report of Ambrose Pare of a gunshot wound to the uterus in the 1600s to the present, there have existed controversies and inconsistencies in diagnosis, management, prognostics, and outcome. Anxiety is heightened by the addition of another, smaller patient. Trauma affects 7% of all pregnancies and requires admission in 4 of 1000 pregnancies. The incidence increases with advancing gestational age. Just over half of trauma during pregnancy occurs in the third trimester. Motor vehicle crashes comprise 50% of these traumas, and falls and assaults account for 22% each. These data were considered to be underestimates because many injured pregnant patients are not seen at trauma centers. Trauma during pregnancy is the leading cause of nonobstetric death and has an overall 6% to 7% maternal mortality. Fetal mortality has been quoted as high as 61% in major trauma and 80% if maternal shock is present. The anatomy and physiology of pregnancy make diagnosis and treatment difficult.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Cesárea , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
17.
Crit Care Med ; 37(12): 3124-57, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19773646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinical practice guideline for red blood cell transfusion in adult trauma and critical care. DESIGN: Meetings, teleconferences and electronic-based communication to achieve grading of the published evidence, discussion and consensus among the entire committee members. METHODS: This practice management guideline was developed by a joint taskforce of EAST (Eastern Association for Surgery of Trauma) and the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) of the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM). We performed a comprehensive literature review of the topic and graded the evidence using scientific assessment methods employed by the Canadian and U.S. Preventive Task Force (Grading of Evidence, Class I, II, III; Grading of Recommendations, Level I, II, III). A list of guideline recommendations was compiled by the members of the guidelines committees for the two societies. Following an extensive review process by external reviewers, the final guideline manuscript was reviewed and approved by the EAST Board of Directors, the Board of Regents of the ACCM and the Council of SCCM. RESULTS: Key recommendations are listed by category, including (A) Indications for RBC transfusion in the general critically ill patient; (B) RBC transfusion in sepsis; (C) RBC transfusion in patients at risk for or with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome; (D) RBC transfusion in patients with neurologic injury and diseases; (E) RBC transfusion risks; (F) Alternatives to RBC transfusion; and (G) Strategies to reduce RBC transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of RBC transfusion in adult trauma and critical care will provide important information to critical care practitioners.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Humanos
18.
J Trauma ; 63(5): 979-85; discussion 985-6, 2007 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17993939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The autopsy remains the gold standard for evaluating traumatic deaths. The number of autopsies performed has declined dramatically. This study examines whether postmortem computed tomography ("CATopsy") can be used to determine cause of death in trauma patients. METHODS: Patients who presented to the trauma service and subsequently died within the first 24 hours of their hospitalization were prospectively enrolled. Any patient who underwent a major invasive procedure within this time frame was excluded. After pronouncement of death, each patient had a CATopsy performed, which was a noncontrast whole body scan. The patient then underwent an autopsy. These results were compared with those generated by the CATopsy. RESULTS: There were 12 patients enrolled in the study; average Injury Severity Scores was 33.5 +/- 19.0. In 10 of the 12 cases (83%), the CATopsy successfully indicated cause of death when compared with the autopsy. Seven of the 12 (58%) CATopsies demonstrated air in various parts of the circulatory system, including the heart in four cases. Five of the 12 (42%) patients had clinically significant findings (including the presence of an esophageal intubation) noted on the CATopsy not previously identified on any radiographic studies or on the autopsy. These findings were addressed as part of our performance improvement process. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that a postmortem imaging test, a CATopsy, can be used to determine cause of death in trauma patients. Beyond offering a noninvasive alternative to autopsy, it provides similar information to that provided in postmortem examination and may be used in trauma performance improvement activities.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Trauma ; 62(1): 17-24; discussion 24-5, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17215729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to describe practice patterns and outcomes of posttraumatic retrievable inferior vena caval filters (R-IVCF). METHODS: A retrospective review of R-IVCFs placed during 2004 at 21 participating centers with follow up to July 1, 2005 was performed. Primary outcomes included major complications (migration, pulmonary embolism [PE], and symptomatic caval occlusion) and reasons for failure to retrieve. RESULTS: Of 446 patients (69% male, 92% blunt trauma) receiving R-IVCFs, 76% for prophylactic indications and 79% were placed by interventional radiology. Excluding 33 deaths, 152 were Gunter-Tulip (G-T), 224 Recovery (R), and 37 Optease (Opt). Placement occurred 6 +/- 8 days after admission and retrieval at 50 +/- 61 days. Follow up after discharge (5.7 +/- 4.3 months) was reported in 51%. Only 22% of R-IVCFs were retrieved. Of 115 patients in whom retrieval was attempted, retrieval failed as a result of technical issues in 15 patients (10% of G-T, 14% of R, 27% of Opt) and because of significant residual thrombus within the filter in 10 patients (6% of G-T, 4% of R, 46% Opt). The primary reason R-IVCFs were not removed was because of loss to follow up (31%), which was sixfold higher (6% to 44%, p = 0.001) when the service placing the R-IVCF was not directly responsible for follow up. Complications did not correlate with mechanism, injury severity, service placing the R-IVCF, trauma volume, use of anticoagulation, age, or sex. Three cases of migration were recorded (all among R, 1.3%), two breakthrough PE (G-T 0.6% and R 0.4%) and six symptomatic caval occlusions (G-T 0, R 1%, Opt 11%) (p < 0.05 Opt versus both G-T and R). CONCLUSION: Most R-IVCFs are not retrieved. The service placing the R-IVCF should be responsible for follow up. The Optease was associated with the greatest incidence of residual thrombus and symptomatic caval occlusion. The practice patterns of R-IVCF placement and retrieval should be re-examined.


Assuntos
Remoção de Dispositivo , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Filtros de Veia Cava , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Filtros de Veia Cava/efeitos adversos , Filtros de Veia Cava/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
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