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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848210

RESUMO

Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple underlying inflammatory pathways and structural airway abnormalities that impact disease persistence and severity. Recent progress has been made in developing targeted asthma therapeutics, especially for subjects with eosinophilic asthma. However, there is an unmet need for new approaches to treat patients with severe and exacerbation prone asthma, who contribute disproportionately to disease burden. Extensive deep phenotyping has revealed the heterogeneous nature of severe asthma and identified distinct disease subtypes. A current challenge in the field is to translate new and emerging knowledge about different pathobiologic mechanisms in asthma into patient-specific therapies, with the ultimate goal of modifying the natural history of disease. Here we describe the Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation Prone Asthma (PrecISE) Network, a groundbreaking collaborative effort of asthma researchers and biostatisticians from around the U.S. The PrecISE Network was designed to conduct phase II/proof of concept clinical trials of precision interventions in the severe asthma population, and is supported by the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Using an innovative adaptive platform trial design, the Network will evaluate up to six interventions simultaneously in biomarker-defined subgroups of subjects. We review the development and organizational structure of the Network, and choice of interventions being studied. We hope that the PrecISE Network will enhance our understanding of asthma subtypes and accelerate the development of therapeutics for of severe asthma.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess predictors of subclinical rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) using quantitative lung densitometry (qLD). METHODS: RA patients underwent multi-detector row computed tomography scanning at baseline and after an average of 39 months. Scans were analyzed with qLD for the percentage of lung parenchyma with high attenuation areas (%HAA: the percentage of voxels of -600 to -250 Hounsfield units). Additionally, a pulmonary radiologist calculated an Expert Read Score (ERS) for RA-ILD features. Generalized linear models were used to identify indicators of baseline %HAA and predictors of %HAA change. RESULTS: Baseline %HAA was assessed in 193 RA patients and 106 had repeat qLD assessment. %HAA was correlated with ERS (Spearman's rho = 0.261; p< 0.001). Significant indicators of high baseline %HAA (>10% of lung parenchyma with high attenuation) included female sex, higher pack-years of smoking, higher body mass index, and anti-CCP ≥ 200 units, collectively contributing an area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC)=0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.95). Predictors of %HAA increase, occurring in 49% with repeat qLD, included higher baseline %HAA, presence of MUC5B minor allele, and absence of HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (AUC-ROC = 0.69; 95% CI 0.58-0.79). The association of the MUC5B minor allele with %HAA change was higher among men and those with higher cumulative smoking. Within the group with increased %HAA, anti-CCP level was significantly associated with a greater increase in %HAA. CONCLUSIONS: %HAA, assessed with qLD, was linked to several known risk factors for RA-ILD and may represent a more quantitative method to identify RA-ILD and track progression than expert radiologist interpretation.

3.
Chest ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small airways are known to be affected early in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, traditional spirometric indices may not accurately identify small airways disease. RESEARCH QUESTION: Can FEV3/FEV6 identify early airflow abnormalities and predict future clinically important respiratory-related outcomes, including development of COPD? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included eight hundred thirty-two current and former smokers with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ≥0.7 from the SPIROMICS cohort. Participants were classified as having a reduced pre-bronchodilator FEV3/FEV6 based on lower limit of normal (LLN) values. Repeatability analysis was performed for FEV3 and FEV6. Regression modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline FEV3/FEV6 and outcome measures including functional small airways disease on thoracic imaging and respiratory exacerbations. Interval censored analysis was used to assess progression to COPD. RESULTS: FEV3/FEV6

4.
Pulm Circ ; 11(4): 20458940211056527, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820115

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension has multiple etiologies and so can be difficult to diagnose, prognose, and treat. Diagnosis is typically made via invasive hemodynamic measurements in the main pulmonary artery and is based on observed elevation of mean pulmonary artery pressure. This static mean pressure enables diagnosis, but does not easily allow assessment of the severity of pulmonary hypertension, nor the etiology of the disease, which may impact treatment. Assessment of the dynamic properties of pressure and flow data obtained from catheterization potentially allows more meaningful assessment of the strain on the right heart and may help to distinguish between disease phenotypes. However, mechanistic understanding of how the distribution of disease in the lung leading to pulmonary hypertension impacts the dynamics of blood flow in the main pulmonary artery and/or the pulmonary capillaries is lacking. We present a computational model of the pulmonary vasculature, parameterized to characteristic features of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension to help understand how the two conditions differ in terms of pulmonary vascular response to disease. Our model incorporates key features known to contribute to pulmonary vascular function in health and disease, including anatomical structure and multiple contributions from gravity. The model suggests that dynamic measurements obtained from catheterization potentially distinguish between distal and proximal vasculopathy typical of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, the model suggests a non-linear relationship between these data and vascular structural changes typical of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension which may impede analysis of these metrics to distinguish between cohorts.

5.
J Sleep Res ; : e13475, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498326

RESUMO

Impairment of the circadian rhythm promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis in pre-clinical models. We aimed to examine whether short and/or long sleep duration and other markers of sleep-wake patterns are associated with a greater burden of lung parenchymal abnormalities on computed tomography among adults. We cross-sectionally examined associations of sleep duration captured by actigraphy with interstitial lung abnormalities (n = 1111) and high attenuation areas (n = 1416) on computed tomography scan in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis at Exam 5 (2010-2013). We adjusted for potential confounders in logistic and linear regression models for interstitial lung abnormalities and high attenuation area, respectively. High attenuation area models were also adjusted for study site, lung volume imaged, radiation dose and stratified by body mass index. Secondary exposures were self-reported sleep duration, sleep fragmentation index, sleep midpoint and chronotype. The mean age of those with longer sleep duration (≥ 8 hr) was 70 years and the prevalence of interstitial lung abnormalities was 14%. Increasing actigraphy-based sleep duration among participants with ≥ 8 hr of sleep was associated with a higher adjusted odds of interstitial lung abnormalities (odds ratio of 2.66 per 1-hr increment, 95% confidence interval 1.42-4.99). Longer sleep duration and higher sleep fragmentation index were associated with greater high attenuation area on computed tomography among participants with a body mass index < 25 kg m-2 (p-value for interaction < 0.02). Self-reported sleep duration, later sleep midpoint and evening chronotype were not associated with outcomes. Actigraphy-based longer sleep duration and sleep fragmentation were associated with a greater burden of lung abnormalities on computed tomography scan.

6.
Front Physiol ; 12: 707119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393824

RESUMO

Rationale: Intratidal changes in regional lung aeration, as assessed with dynamic four-dimensional computed tomography (CT; 4DCT), may indicate the processes of recruitment and derecruitment, thus portending atelectrauma during mechanical ventilation. In this study, we characterized the time constants associated with deaeration during the expiratory phase of pressure-controlled ventilation in pigs before and after acute lung injury using respiratory-gated 4DCT and image registration. Methods: Eleven pigs were mechanically ventilated in pressure-controlled mode under baseline conditions and following an oleic acid model of acute lung injury. Dynamic 4DCT scans were acquired without interrupting ventilation. Automated segmentation of lung parenchyma was obtained by a convolutional neural network. Respiratory structures were aligned using 4D image registration. Exponential regression was performed on the time-varying CT density in each aligned voxel during exhalation, resulting in regional estimates of intratidal aeration change and deaeration time constants. Regressions were also performed for regional and total exhaled gas volume changes. Results: Normally and poorly aerated lung regions demonstrated the largest median intratidal aeration changes during exhalation, compared to minimal changes within hyper- and non-aerated regions. Following lung injury, median time constants throughout normally aerated regions within each subject were greater than respective values for poorly aerated regions. However, parametric response mapping revealed an association between larger intratidal aeration changes and slower time constants. Lower aeration and faster time constants were observed for the dependent lung regions in the supine position. Regional gas volume changes exhibited faster time constants compared to regional density time constants, as well as better correspondence to total exhaled volume time constants. Conclusion: Mechanical time constants based on exhaled gas volume underestimate regional aeration time constants. After lung injury, poorly aerated regions experience larger intratidal changes in aeration over shorter time scales compared to normally aerated regions. However, the largest intratidal aeration changes occur over the longest time scales within poorly aerated regions. These dynamic 4DCT imaging data provide supporting evidence for the susceptibility of poorly aerated regions to ventilator-induced lung injury, and for the functional benefits of short exhalation times during mechanical ventilation of injured lungs.

8.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 8(3): 326-335, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197703

RESUMO

Secondary polycythemia has long been recognized as a consequence of chronic pulmonary disease and hypoxemia and is associated with lower mortality and fewer hospitalizations among individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-prescribed long-term oxygen therapy. This study investigates the association of polycythemia with COPD severity, phenotypic features, and respiratory exacerbations in a contemporary and representative sample of individuals with COPD. Current and former smokers with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] to forced vital capacity [FVC] ratio <70%) without a history of hematologic/oncologic disorders were selected from the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcomes Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS), a multi-center observational cohort. Participants with polycythemia (hemoglobin ≥15g/dL [females] or ≥17g/dL [males]), were compared to individuals without anemia (hemoglobin ≥12g/dL [females] or ≥13g/dL [males]). Cross-sectional outcomes including percent predicted FEV1, respiratory symptoms, quality of life, exercise tolerance, and percentage and distribution of emphysema (voxels<-950 Hounsfield units [HU] at total lung capacity) were evaluated using linear or logistic regression. Longitudinal acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) and severe AECOPD (requiring an emergency department visit or hospitalization) were assessed using zero-inflated negative binomial models. Among 1261 participants, 148 (11.7%) had polycythemia. Average follow-up was 4.2±1.7 years and did not differ by presence of polycythemia. In multivariate analysis, compared to participants with normal hemoglobin, polycythemia was associated with a reduced rate of severe AECOPD (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.57, 95% CI: 0.33-0.98), lower percent predicted FEV1, lower resting oxygen saturation, increased upper to lower lobe ratio of emphysema, and a greater degree of emphysema, though the latter was attenuated after adjusting for lung function. There were no significant differences in total AECOPD, patient-reported outcomes, or exercise tolerance. These findings suggest that polycythemia, while associated with less favorable physiologic parameters, is not independently associated with symptoms, and is associated with fewer severe exacerbations. Future studies should explore the potentially protective role of increased hemoglobin beyond the correction of anemia.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14923, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290275

RESUMO

Image registration-based local displacement analysis enables evaluation of respiratory motion between two computed tomography-captured lung volumes. The objective of this study was to compare diaphragm movement among emphysema, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and normal subjects. 29 normal, 50 emphysema, and 51 IPF subjects were included. A mass preserving image registration technique was used to compute displacement vectors of local lung regions at an acinar scale. Movement of the diaphragm was assumed to be equivalent to movement of the basal lung within 5 mm from the diaphragm. Magnitudes and directions of displacement vectors were compared between the groups. Three-dimensional (3D) and apico-basal displacements were smaller in emphysema than normal subjects (P = 0.003, P = 0.002). Low lung attenuation area on expiration scan showed significant correlations with decreased 3D and apico-basal displacements (r = - 0.546, P < 0.0001; r = - 0.521, P < 0.0001) in emphysema patients. Dorsal-ventral displacement was smaller in IPF than normal subjects (P < 0.0001). The standard deviation of the displacement angle was greater in both emphysema and IPF patients than normal subjects (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, apico-basal movement of the diaphragm is reduced in emphysema while dorsal-ventral movement is reduced in IPF. Image registration technique to multi-volume CT scans provides insight into the pathophysiology of limited diaphragmatic motion in emphysema and IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
IEEE Trans Med Imaging ; 40(12): 3652-3662, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224349

RESUMO

Pulmonary emphysema overlaps considerably with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is traditionally subcategorized into three subtypes previously identified on autopsy. Unsupervised learning of emphysema subtypes on computed tomography (CT) opens the way to new definitions of emphysema subtypes and eliminates the need of thorough manual labeling. However, CT-based emphysema subtypes have been limited to texture-based patterns without considering spatial location. In this work, we introduce a standardized spatial mapping of the lung for quantitative study of lung texture location and propose a novel framework for combining spatial and texture information to discover spatially-informed lung texture patterns (sLTPs) that represent novel emphysema subtype candidates. Exploiting two cohorts of full-lung CT scans from the MESA COPD (n = 317) and EMCAP (n = 22) studies, we first show that our spatial mapping enables population-wide study of emphysema spatial location. We then evaluate the characteristics of the sLTPs discovered on MESA COPD, and show that they are reproducible, able to encode standard emphysema subtypes, and associated with physiological symptoms.

11.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 131(2): 454-463, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166081

RESUMO

This study reports systematic longitudinal pathophysiology of lung parenchymal and vascular effects of asymptomatic COVID-19 pneumonia in a young, healthy never-smoking male. Inspiratory and expiratory noncontrast along with contrast dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scans of the chest were performed at baseline on the day of acute COVID-19 diagnosis (day 0), and across a 90-day period. Despite normal vital signs and pulmonary function tests on the day of diagnosis, the CT scans and corresponding quantification metrics detected abnormalities in parenchymal expansion based on image registration, ground-glass (GGO) texture (inflammation) as well as DECT-derived pulmonary blood volume (PBV). Follow-up scans on day 30 showed improvement in the lung parenchymal mechanics as well as reduced GGO and improved PBV distribution. Improvements in lung PBV continued until day 90. However, the heterogeneity of parenchymal mechanics and texture-derived GGO increased on days 60 and 90. We highlight that even asymptomatic COVID-19 infection with unremarkable vital signs and pulmonary function tests can have measurable effects on lung parenchymal mechanics and vascular pathophysiology, which may follow apparently different clinical courses. For this asymptomatic subject, post COVID-19 regional mechanics demonstrated persistent increased heterogeneity concomitant with return of elevated GGOs, despite early improvements in vascular derangement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We characterized the temporal changes of lung parenchyma and microvascular pathophysiology from COVID-19 infection in an asymptomatic young, healthy nonsmoking male using dual-energy CT. Lung parenchymal mechanics and microvascular disease followed different clinical courses. Heterogeneous perfused blood volume became more uniform on follow-up visits up to 90 days. However, post COVID-19 mechanical heterogeneity of the lung parenchyma increased after apparent improvements in vascular abnormalities, even with normal spirometric indices.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12686, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135418

RESUMO

Side experiments are performed on radiomics models to improve their reproducibility. We measure the impact of myocardial masks, radiomic side experiments and data augmentation for information transfer (DAFIT) approach to differentiate patients with and without pulmonary hypertension (PH) using cardiac MRI (CMRI) derived radiomics. Feature extraction was performed from the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) myocardial masks using CMRI in 82 patients (42 PH and 40 controls). Various side study experiments were evaluated: Original data without and with intraclass correlation (ICC) feature-filtering and DAFIT approach (without and with ICC feature-filtering). Multiple machine learning and feature selection strategies were evaluated. Primary analysis included all PH patients with subgroup analysis including PH patients with preserved LVEF (≥ 50%). For both primary and subgroup analysis, DAFIT approach without feature-filtering was the highest performer (AUC 0.957-0.958). ICC approaches showed poor performance compared to DAFIT approach. The performance of combined LV and RV masks was superior to individual masks alone. There was variation in top performing models across all approaches (AUC 0.862-0.958). DAFIT approach with features from combined LV and RV masks provide superior performance with poor performance of feature filtering approaches. Model performance varies based upon the feature selection and model combination.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(6): 692-702, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170795

RESUMO

Rationale: Although it is clear that cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease begins at a very young age, the early and subsequent steps in disease pathogenesis and the relative contribution of infection, mucus, and inflammation are not well understood. Objectives: As one approach to assessing the early contribution of infection, we tested the hypothesis that early and continuous antibiotics would decrease the airway bacterial burden. We believed that, if they do, this might reveal aspects of the disease that are more or less sensitive to decreasing infection. Methods: Three groups of pigs were studied from birth until ∼3 weeks of age: 1) wild-type, 2) CF, and 3) CF pigs treated continuously with broad-spectrum antibiotics from birth until study completion. Disease was assessed with chest computed tomography, histopathology, microbiology, and BAL. Measurements and Main Results: Disease was present by 3 weeks of age in CF pigs. Continuous antibiotics from birth improved chest computed tomography imaging abnormalities and airway mucus accumulation but not airway inflammation in the CF pig model. However, reducing bacterial infection did not improve two disease features already present at birth in CF pigs: air trapping and submucosal gland duct plugging. In the CF sinuses, antibiotics did not prevent the development of infection or disease or the number of bacteria but did alter the bacterial species. Conclusions: These findings suggest that CF airway disease begins immediately after birth and that early and continuous antibiotics impact some, but not all, aspects of CF lung disease development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Mucosa Respiratória/microbiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia , Suínos
14.
JBMR Plus ; 5(5): e10484, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977202

RESUMO

Osteoporosis causes fragile bone, and bone microstructural quality is a critical determinant of bone strength and fracture risk. This study pursues technical validation of novel CT-based methods for assessment of peripheral bone microstructure together with a human pilot study examining relationships between bone microstructure and vertebral fractures in smokers. To examine the accuracy and reproducibility of the methods, repeat ultra-high-resolution (UHR) CT and micro-CT scans of cadaveric ankle specimens were acquired. Thirty smokers from the University of Iowa COPDGene cohort were recruited at their 5-year follow-up visits. Chest CT scans, collected under the parent study, were used to assess vertebral fractures. UHR CT scans of distal tibia were acquired for this pilot study to obtain peripheral cortical and trabecular bone (Cb and Tb) measures. UHR CT-derived Tb measures, including volumetric bone mineral density (BMD), network area, transverse trabecular density, and mean plate width, showed high correlation (r > 0.901) with their micro-CT-derived values over small regions of interest (ROIs). Both Cb and Tb measures showed high reproducibility-intra-class correlation (ICC) was greater than 0.99 for all Tb measures except erosion index and greater than 0.97 for all Cb measures. Female sex was associated with lower transverse Tb density (p < 0.1), higher Tb spacing (p < 0.05), and lower cortical thickness (p < 0.001). Participants with vertebral fractures had significantly degenerated values (p < 0.05) for all Tb measures except thickness. There were no statistically significant differences for Cb measures between non-fracture and fracture groups. Vertebral fracture-group differences of Tb measures remained significant after adjustment with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) status. Although current smokers at baseline had more fractures-81.8% versus 63.2% for former smokers-the difference was not statistically significant. This pilot cross-sectional human study demonstrates CT-based peripheral bone microstructural differences among smokers with and without vertebral fractures. © 2021 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2021 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

15.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 49(9): 2377-2388, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948747

RESUMO

Enhanced intrapulmonary gas transport enables oscillatory ventilation modalities to support gas exchange using extremely low tidal volumes at high frequencies. However, it is unknown whether gas transport rates can be improved by combining multiple frequencies of oscillation simultaneously. The goal of this study was to investigate distributed gas transport in vivo during multi-frequency oscillatory ventilation (MFOV) as compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV). We hypothesized that MFOV would result in more uniform rates of gas transport compared to HFOV, measured using contrast-enhanced CT imaging during wash-in of xenon gas. In 13 pigs, xenon wash-in equilibration rates were comparable between CMV and MFOV, but 21 to 39% slower for HFOV. By contrast, the root-mean-square delivered volume was lowest for MFOV, increased by 70% during HFOV and 365% during CMV. Overall gas transport heterogeneity was similar across all modalities, but gravitational gradients and regional patchiness of specific ventilation contributed to regional ventilation heterogeneity, depending on ventilator modality. We conclude that MFOV combines benefits of low lung stretch, similar to HFOV, but with fast rates of gas transport, similar to CMV.

16.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 204(5): 536-545, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971109

RESUMO

Rationale: Racial residential segregation has been associated with worse health outcomes, but the link with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) morbidity has not been established.Objectives: To investigate whether racial residential segregation is associated with COPD morbidity among urban Black adults with or at risk of COPD.Methods: Racial residential segregation was assessed using isolation index, based on 2010 decennial census and baseline address, for Black former and current smokers in the multicenter SPIROMICS (Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study), a study of adults with or at risk for COPD. We tested the association between isolation index and respiratory symptoms, physiologic outcomes, imaging parameters, and exacerbation risk among urban Black residents, adjusting for established COPD risk factors, including smoking. Additional mediation analyses were conducted for factors that could lie on the pathway between segregation and COPD outcomes, including individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, comorbidity burden, depression/anxiety, and ambient pollution.Measurements and Main Results: Among 515 Black participants, those residing in segregated neighborhoods (i.e., isolation index ⩾0.6) had worse COPD Assessment Test score (ß = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 4.0), dyspnea (modified Medical Research Council scale; ß = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.47), quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire; ß = 6.1; 95% CI, 2.3 to 9.9), and cough and sputum (ß = 0.8; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.5); lower FEV1% predicted (ß = -7.3; 95% CI, -10.9 to -3.6); higher rate of any and severe exacerbations; and higher percentage emphysema (ß = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.7 to 3.9) and air trapping (ß = 3.8; 95% CI, 0.6 to 7.1). Adverse associations attenuated with adjustment for potential mediators but remained robust for several outcomes, including dyspnea, FEV1% predicted, percentage emphysema, and air trapping.Conclusions: Racial residential segregation was adversely associated with COPD morbidity among urban Black participants and supports the hypothesis that racial segregation plays a role in explaining health inequities affecting Black communities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etnologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Segregação Social , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/etnologia
17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(11): 1241-1254, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously described the contributions of increased total airway mucin concentrations to the pathogenesis and diagnosis of the chronic bronchitic component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we investigated the relative contribution of each of the major airway gel-forming mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B, to the initiation, progression, and early diagnosis of airways disease in COPD. METHODS: SPIROMICS was a multicentre, observational study in patients aged 40-80 years recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA. In this analysis, MUC5AC and MUC5B were quantitated by stable isotope-labelled mass spectrometry in induced sputum samples from healthy never-smokers, ever-smokers at risk for COPD, and ever-smokers with COPD. Participants were extensively characterised using results from questionnaires, such as the COPD assessment test (CAT) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire; quantitative CT, such as residual volume/total lung capacity ratio (RV/TLC) and parametric response mapping-functional small airway disease (PRM-fSAD); and pulmonary function tests, such as FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (FEF25-75%). Absolute concentrations of both MUC5AC and MUC5B were related to cross-sectional (baseline, initial visit) and 3-year follow-up longitudinal data, including lung function, small airways obstruction, prospective acute exacerbations, and smoking status as primary outcomes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). FINDINGS: This analysis included 331 participants (mean age 63 years [SEM 9·40]), of whom 40 were healthy never-smokers, 90 were at-risk ever-smokers, and 201 were ever-smokers with COPD. Increased MUC5AC concentrations were more reliably associated with manifestations of COPD than were MUC5B concentrations, including decreased FEV1 and FEF25-75%, and increased prospective exacerbation frequency, RV/TLC, PRM-fSAD, and COPD assessment scores. MUC5AC concentrations were more reactive to cigarette smoke exposure than were MUC5B concentrations. Longitudinal data from 3-year follow-up visits generated a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for two or more exacerbations of 1·24 (95% CI 1·04-1·47, p=0·015) for individuals with high baseline MUC5AC concentration. Increased MUC5AC, but not MUC5B, concentration at baseline was a significant predictor of FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, and CAT score decline during the 3-year follow-up. Moreover, current smokers in the at-risk group showed raised MUC5AC concentrations at initial visits and decreased lung function over 3 years. By contrast, former smokers in the at-risk group showed normal MUC5AC concentrations at the initial visit and preserved lung function over 3 years. INTERPRETATION: These data indicate that increased MUC5AC concentration in the airways might contribute to COPD initiation, progression, exacerbation risk, and overall pathogenesis. Compared with MUC5B, greater relative changes in MUC5AC concentrations were observed as a function of COPD severity, and MUC5AC concentration seems to be an objective biomarker to detect disease in at-risk and pre-COPD individuals. These data suggest that MUC5AC-producing pathways could be potential targets for future therapeutic strategies. Thus, MUC5AC could be a novel biomarker for COPD prognosis and for testing the efficacy of therapeutic agents. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

18.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 66, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33883027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The large airway epithelial barrier provides one of the first lines of defense against respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19. Substantial inter-individual variability in individual disease courses is hypothesized to be partially mediated by the differential regulation of the genes that interact with the SARS-CoV-2 virus or are involved in the subsequent host response. Here, we comprehensively investigated non-genetic and genetic factors influencing COVID-19-relevant bronchial epithelial gene expression. METHODS: We analyzed RNA-sequencing data from bronchial epithelial brushings obtained from uninfected individuals. We related ACE2 gene expression to host and environmental factors in the SPIROMICS cohort of smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and replicated these associations in two asthma cohorts, SARP and MAST. To identify airway biology beyond ACE2 binding that may contribute to increased susceptibility, we used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if gene expression changes indicative of a suppressed airway immune response observed early in SARS-CoV-2 infection are also observed in association with host factors. To identify host genetic variants affecting COVID-19 susceptibility in SPIROMICS, we performed expression quantitative trait (eQTL) mapping and investigated the phenotypic associations of the eQTL variants. RESULTS: We found that ACE2 expression was higher in relation to active smoking, obesity, and hypertension that are known risk factors of COVID-19 severity, while an association with interferon-related inflammation was driven by the truncated, non-binding ACE2 isoform. We discovered that expression patterns of a suppressed airway immune response to early SARS-CoV-2 infection, compared to other viruses, are similar to patterns associated with obesity, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, which may thus contribute to a COVID-19-susceptible airway environment. eQTL mapping identified regulatory variants for genes implicated in COVID-19, some of which had pheWAS evidence for their potential role in respiratory infections. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide evidence that clinically relevant variation in the expression of COVID-19-related genes is associated with host factors, environmental exposures, and likely host genetic variation.


Assuntos
Brônquios , COVID-19/genética , Mucosa Respiratória , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Asma/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/imunologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
19.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918838

RESUMO

Accurate phenotyping of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an integral part of informing disease classification, treatment, and prognosis. The impact of lung disease on PH outcomes and response to treatment remains a challenging area with limited progress. Imaging with computed tomography (CT) plays an important role in patients with suspected PH when assessing for parenchymal lung disease, however, current assessments are limited by their semi-qualitative nature. Quantitative chest-CT (QCT) allows numerical quantification of lung parenchymal disease beyond subjective visual assessment. This has facilitated advances in radiological assessment and clinical correlation of a range of lung diseases including emphysema, interstitial lung disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Artificial Intelligence approaches have the potential to facilitate rapid quantitative assessments. Benefits of cross-sectional imaging include ease and speed of scan acquisition, repeatability and the potential for novel insights beyond visual assessment alone. Potential clinical benefits include improved phenotyping and prediction of treatment response and survival. Artificial intelligence approaches also have the potential to aid more focused study of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) therapies by identifying more homogeneous subgroups of patients with lung disease. This state-of-the-art review summarizes recent QCT developments and potential applications in patients with PH with a focus on lung disease.

20.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925262

RESUMO

The role of reliable, non-invasive imaging-based recognition of pulmonary hypertension (PH) remains a diagnostic challenge. The aim of the current pilot radiomics study was to assess the diagnostic performance of cardiac MRI (cMRI)-based texture features to accurately predict PH. The study involved IRB-approved retrospective analysis of cMRIs from 72 patients (42 PH and 30 healthy controls) for the primary analysis. A subgroup analysis was performed including patients from the PH group with left ventricle ejection fraction ≥ 50%. Texture features were generated from mid-left ventricle myocardium using balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cine short-axis imaging. Forty-five different combinations of classifier models and feature selection techniques were evaluated. Model performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. A multilayer perceptron model fitting using full feature sets was the best classifier model for both the primary analysis (AUC 0.862, accuracy 78%) and the subgroup analysis (AUC 0.918, accuracy 80%). Model performance demonstrated considerable variation between the models (AUC 0.523-0.918) based on the chosen model-feature selection combination. Cardiac MRI-based radiomics recognition of PH using texture features is feasible, even with preserved left ventricular ejection fractions.

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