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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 134, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970501

RESUMO

Healthcare-acquired infections (HAIs) contribute to maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Deficient environmental health (EH) conditions and infection prevention and control (IPC) practices in healthcare facilities (HCFs) contribute to the spread of HAIs, but microbial sampling of sources of contamination is rarely conducted nor reported in low-resource settings. The purpose of this study was to assess EH conditions and IPC practices in Malawian HCFs and evaluate how EH deficiencies contribute to pathogen exposures and HAIs, and to provide recommendations to inform improvements in EH conditions using a mixed-methods approach. Thirty-one maternity wards in government-run HCFs were surveyed in the three regions of Malawi. Questionnaires were administered in parallel with structured observations of EH conditions and IPC practices and microbial testing of water sources and facility surfaces. Results indicated significant associations between IPC practices and microbial contamination. Facilities where separate wards were not available for mothers and newborns with infections and where linens were not used for patients during healthcare services were more likely to have delivery tables with surface contamination (relative risk = 2.23; 1.49, 3.34). E. coli was detected in water samples from seven (23%) HCFs. Our results suggest that Malawian maternity wards could reduce microbial contamination, and potentially reduce the occurrence of HAIs, by improving EH conditions and IPC practices. HCF staff can use the simple, low-cost EH monitoring methods used in this study to incorporate microbial monitoring of EH conditions and IPC practices in HCFs in low-resource settings.

2.
Vaccine ; 38(4): 897-906, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine in a subset of children identified as HIV-infected during a large phase III randomized controlled trial conducted in seven sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS: Infants 6-12 weeks and children 5-17 months old were randomized to receive 4 RTS,S/AS01 doses (R3R group), 3 RTS,S/AS01 doses plus 1 comparator vaccine dose (R3C group), or 4 comparator vaccine doses (C3C group) at study months 0, 1, 2 and 20. Infants and children with WHO stage III/IV HIV disease were excluded but HIV testing was not routinely performed on all participants; our analyses included children identified as HIV-infected based on medical history or clinical suspicion and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or antibody testing. Serious adverse events (SAEs) and anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibodies were assessed. RESULTS: Of 15459 children enrolled in the trial, at least 1953 were tested for HIV and 153 were confirmed as HIV-infected (R3R: 51; R3C: 54; C3C: 48). Among these children, SAEs were reported for 92.2% (95% CI: 81.1-97.8) in the R3R, 85.2% (72.9-93.4) in the R3C and 87.5% (74.8-95.3) in the C3C group over a median follow-up of 39.3, 39.4 and 38.3 months, respectively. Fifteen HIV-infected participants in each group (R3R: 29.4%, R3C: 27.8%, C3C: 31.3%) died during the study. No deaths were considered vaccination-related. In a matched case-control analysis, 1 month post dose 3 anti-CS geometric mean antibody concentrations were 193.3 EU/mL in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated HIV-infected children and 491.5 EU/mL in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated immunogenicity controls with unknown or negative HIV status (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The safety profile of RTS,S/AS01 in HIV-infected children was comparable to that of the comparator (meningococcal or rabies) vaccines. RTS,S/AS01 was immunogenic in HIV-infected children but antibody concentrations were lower than in children with an unknown or negative HIV status. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00866619.

3.
AIDS Care ; 32(2): 170-174, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238717

RESUMO

Adherence self-efficacy, belief in one's ability to adhere to daily medication, is strongly associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. Couple-based interventions could enhance self-efficacy and adherence. We assessed the relationship between couple HIV testing and counseling (cHTC) and adherence self-efficacy using a 100-point culturally-adapted adherence self-efficacy scale (ASES). Secondarily, we explored the relationship between ASES and ART adherence. Ninety HIV-positive pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi were enrolled in an observational cohort study. They were assessed with ASES immediately before and one month after receiving cHTC. Median ASES scores were 100 (IQR 95, 100) before and 100 (IQR 99, 100) after cHTC; there was a significant median difference (p = 0.02) for participants before and after cHTC. This change in ASES scores was associated with the odds of self-reported ART adherence in the full population (OR 1.1, p = 0.01), and there was a trend in the same direction for participants with imperfect baseline ASES scores (OR 1.1, p = 0.2). In our population, adherence self-efficacy and ART adherence were both quite high, and those who had room to improve in self-efficacy may have benefited from cHTC, which in turn could impact ART adherence and ultimately mother-to-child transmission.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 074 evaluated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID) in Indonesia, Ukraine, and Vietnam. Study interventions included support for HIV infection and substance use treatment. The study enrolled index participants living with HIV and injection partners who were not living with HIV. Seven partners acquired HIV infection during the study (seroconverters). We analyzed the phylogenetic relatedness between HIV strains in the cohort and the multiplicity of infection in seroconverters. METHODS: Pol region consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis. Data from next-generation sequencing (NGS, env region) were used to evaluate genetic linkage of HIV from the 7 seroconverters and the corresponding index participants (index-partner pairs), to analyze HIV from index participants in pol sequence clusters, and to analyze multiplicity of HIV infection. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences from 445 index participants and 7 seroconverters identified 18 sequence clusters (2 index-partner pairs, 1 partner-partner pair, and 15 index-only groups with 2-7 indexes/cluster). Analysis of NGS data confirmed linkage for the 2 index-partner pairs, the partner-partner pair, and 11 of the 15 index-index clusters. The remaining 5 seroconverters had infections that were not linked to the corresponding enrolled index participant. Three (42.9%) of the 7 seroconverters were infected with more than 1 HIV strain (3-8 strains per person). CONCLUSIONS: We identified complex patterns of HIV clustering and linkage among PWID in 3 communities. This should be considered when designing strategies for HIV prevention for PWID. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02935296.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720955

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSW) in Malawi have among the highest HIV prevalence estimates worldwide. Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention method, yet preferences for PrEP delivery among FSW are lacking. Eight focus group discussions, a literature review, and cognitive interviews were conducted to identify modifiable PrEP delivery attributes and inform discrete-choice experiment (DCE) development for FSW in Lilongwe. Enrolled FSW received an interviewer-assisted DCE. Data were analyzed using mixed logit regression. Dispensing location was most preferred, followed by the provision of additional services. Women preferred receiving PrEP at family planning clinics or non-governmental organization run drop-in centers. Cervical cancer screening was the most preferred additional service, while pregnancy testing and partner risk reduction counseling were less valued. This study was the first study to examine PrEP delivery preferences in Malawi using DCE-a powerful elicitation tool to apply to other key populations at risk for HIV.

6.
Health Policy Plan ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722372

RESUMO

Many healthcare facilities (HCFs) in low-income countries experience unreliable connectivity to energy sources, which adversely impacts the quality of health service delivery and provision of adequate environmental health services. This assessment explores the status and consequences of energy access through interviews and surveys with administrators and healthcare workers from 44 HCFs (central hospitals, district hospitals, health centres and health posts) in Malawi. Most HCFs are connected to the electrical grid but experience weekly power interruptions averaging 10 h; less than one-third of facilities have a functional back-up source. Inadequate energy availability is associated with irregular water supply and poor medical equipment sterilization; it adversely affects provider safety and contributes to poor lighting and working conditions. Some challenges, such as poor availability and maintenance of back-up energy sources, disproportionately affect smaller HCFs. Policymakers, health system actors and third-party organizations seeking to improve energy access and quality of care in Malawi and similar settings should address these challenges in a way that prioritizes the specific needs of different facility types.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223829, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) have high HIV incidence and prevalence, and may have limited access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in some settings. We evaluated HIV drug resistance in PWID in a randomized clinical trial (HPTN 074). The study intervention included ART at any CD4 cell count with enhanced support for ART and substance use treatment. METHODS: HPTN 074 enrolled HIV-infected PWID (index participants) with viral loads ≥1,000 copies/mL and their HIV-uninfected injection-network partners in Indonesia, Ukraine, and Vietnam; the study limited enrollment of people who reported being on ART. HIV drug resistance testing and antiretroviral (ARV) drug testing were performed using samples collected from index participants at study enrollment. RESULTS: Fifty-four (12.0%) of 449 participants had HIV drug resistance; 29 (53.7%) of the 54 participants had multi-class resistance. Prevalence of resistance varied by study site and was associated with self-report of prior or current ART, detection of ARV drugs, and a history of incarceration. Resistance was detected in 10 (5.6%) of 177 newly diagnosed participants. Participants with resistance at enrollment were less likely to be virally suppressed after 52 weeks of follow-up, independent of study arm. CONCLUSIONS: In HPTN 074, many of the enrolled index participants had HIV drug resistance and more than half of those had multi-class resistance. Some newly-diagnosed participants had resistance, suggesting that they may have been infected with drug-resistant HIV strains. Behavioral and geographic factors were associated with baseline resistance. Baseline resistance was associated with reduced viral suppression during study follow-up. These findings indicate the need for enhanced HIV care in this high-risk population to achieve sustained viral suppression on ART.

8.
Ethics Hum Res ; 41(5): 28-34, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541541

RESUMO

Given ethical concerns about research involving people who inject drugs and those affected by HIV, identifying potential participation benefits is important. We evaluated participant-reported benefits in a trial conducted in Indonesia, Ukraine, and Vietnam that assessed an intervention combining psychosocial counseling and referral for antiretroviral therapy and substance use treatment for HIV-infected people who use drugs. Reported benefits were aggregated into three groups: clinical (antiretroviral therapy, reduced cravings, reduced drug use, lab testing, medical referral, mental health, physical health), social (employment, financial, relationships, reduced stigma), and general (gained knowledge, life improvement). Overall, 438 index participants (90.5%) and 642 injection partners (83.1%) reported at least one benefit. Significantly more index participants who received the study intervention reported at least one benefit versus those who received the standard of care. Clinical trial participation can provide broad direct and indirect benefits for stigmatized populations, which has implications for assessing the ethical appropriateness of studies with such populations.

9.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 31(5): 421-432, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550194

RESUMO

Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately at risk for HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention method, yet approaches for incorporating PrEP within prevention strategies used by FSW are lacking. Semistructured focus group discussions were conducted with 44 HIV-negative FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi to explore perceptions of PrEP: acceptability, integration within HIV prevention behaviors, and barriers to use. Acceptability of PrEP was high. Motivation to use PrEP was rooted in love for one's life, anticipated negative economic effects associated with HIV acquisition. PrEP was viewed as complementary to existing norms for engaging in healthy sexual behaviors. Many felt PrEP may provide extra protection from HIV, along with condoms and frequent STI testing. Unpredictable daily lives, stigma, and side effects were barriers that could affect PrEP use. Leveraging existing HIV prevention strategies and social norms surrounding HIV prevention behaviors may positively impact PrEP uptake among FSW in Malawi and sub-Saharan Africa.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27954, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397075

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is among the most common inherited hematologic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Historically, hydroxyurea administration in SSA has been restricted due to limited region-specific evidence for safety and efficacy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of pediatric patients with SCD in Malawi. From January 2015 to November 2017, hydroxyurea at doses of 10-20 mg/kg/day was administered to children with clinically severe disease (targeted use policy). From December 2017 to July 2018, hydroxyurea was prescribed to all patients (universal use policy). RESULTS: Of 187 patients with SCD, seven (3.7%) died and 23 (12.3%) were lost to follow-up. The majority (135, 72.2%) were prescribed hydroxyurea, 59 (43.7%) under the targeted use policy and 76 (56.3%) under the universal use policy. There were no documented severe toxicities. Under the targeted use policy, children with SCD demonstrated absolute decreases in the rates of hospitalization (-4.1 per 1000 person-days; -7.2, -1.0; P = .004), fevers (-4.2 per 1000 person-days; -7.2, -1.1; P = .002), transfusions (-2.3 per 1000 person-days; 95% confidence interval: -4.9, 0.3; P = .06), and annual school absenteeism (-51.2 per person-year; -60.1, -42.3; P < .0001) within 6 months of hydroxyurea commencement. CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented universal administration of hydroxyurea to children with SCD at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Similar to recently reported trials, hydroxyurea was safe and effective during routine programmatic experience, with clinical benefits particularly among high-risk children. This highlights the importance of continued widespread scale-up of hydroxyurea within SCD programs across SSA.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216332, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067273

RESUMO

The scientific and ethical importance of including women of reproductive age in biomedical research is widely acknowledged. Concerns about preventing fetal exposure to research interventions have motivated requirements for contraception among reproductive aged women in biomedical studies-often irrespective of risks and benefits or a woman's actual potential for pregnancy, raising important questions about when such requirements are appropriate. The perspectives of women themselves on these issues are largely unexplored. We conducted 140 interviews, 70 in the U.S. and 70 in Malawi, with women either living with or at-risk for HIV, exploring their views about the practice of requiring contraception in clinical trials. A majority of women interviewed from both countries indicated overall support for the practice, with seven themes characterizing advantages and disadvantages raised: reproductive control, health effects, prevention of fetal harm, burden on women, deferral to authority, autonomy regarding enrollment and birth control method, and relationship concerns. While women in the US frequently raised prevention of fetal harm as a key advantage, many other positives noted by women in both countries were related to contraception use in general, not specific to a trial context. With regard to disadvantages, U.S. women tended to focus on biomedical risks such as side effects and impact on fertility, whereas Malawian women focused on the social risks of contraception requirements, including violations of trust in marital relations and suspicions of potential infidelity. Given the potential benefits and burdens highlighted, contraception in research should be sensitive to actual fetal risk assessments; directed where justified at optimizing effective pregnancy prevention; responsive to women's reproductive preferences; and made available as an ancillary benefit even where risk thresholds do not justify requirement-in order to facilitate trials that are both ethical and robustly oriented around the interests and lives of women who will participate in them.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Anticoncepção/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Anticoncepção/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Malaui , Estados Unidos
12.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 15(10): 2386-2398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012786

RESUMO

A phase III, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (NCT00866619) in sub-Saharan Africa showed RTS,S/AS01 vaccine efficacy against malaria. We now present in-depth safety results from this study. 8922 children (enrolled at 5-17 months) and 6537 infants (enrolled at 6-12 weeks) were 1:1:1-randomized to receive 4 doses of RTS,S/AS01 (R3R) or non-malaria control vaccine (C3C), or 3 RTS,S/AS01 doses plus control (R3C). Aggregate safety data were reviewed by a multi-functional team. Severe malaria with Blantyre Coma Score ≤2 (cerebral malaria [CM]) and gender-specific mortality were assessed post-hoc. Serious adverse event (SAE) and fatal SAE incidences throughout the study were 24.2%-28.4% and 1.5%-2.5%, respectively across groups; 0.0%-0.3% of participants reported vaccination-related SAEs. The incidence of febrile convulsions in children was higher during the first 2-3 days post-vaccination with RTS,S/AS01 than with control vaccine, consistent with the time window of post-vaccination febrile reactions in this study (mostly the day after vaccination). A statistically significant numerical imbalance was observed for meningitis cases in children (R3R: 11, R3C: 10, C3C: 1) but not in infants. CM cases were more frequent in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated children (R3R: 19, R3C: 24, C3C: 10) but not in infants. All-cause mortality was higher in RTS,S/AS01-vaccinated versus control girls (2.4% vs 1.3%, all ages) in our setting with low overall mortality. The observed meningitis and CM signals are considered likely chance findings, that - given their severity - warrant further evaluation in phase IV studies and WHO-led pilot implementation programs to establish the RTS,S/AS01 benefit-risk profile in real-life settings.

13.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 31(2): 95-110, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917014

RESUMO

People who inject drugs (PWID) face barriers to engagement in antiretro-viral treatment (ART) and medication-assisted treatment (MAT). We detail the design, rapid preparation and adaptation, and systematic implementation of a flexible, individually tailored intervention for PWID in multiple settings: Indonesia, Ukraine, and Vietnam. HPTN 074 integrated systems navigation and counseling to facilitate entry and adherence to ART and MAT. Site-level guidance on the intervention involved in-depth interviews (IDIs) among PWID and their supporters and site-specific document review. IDIs emphasized ART misinformation and importance of social support for adherence. The document review revealed differences in health care system barriers, requiring an intervention that was flexible and tailored enough to address key outcomes. Implementation included regular debriefs for iterative adaptations based on participants' needs, including booster counseling sessions and subsidizing pre-ART testing. HPTN 074 provides a unique framework implementing a flexible and scalable intervention to improve ART and MAT outcomes among PWID across multiple settings.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 6(1): ofy341, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30648131

RESUMO

Background: Persons with acute HIV infection (AHI) have heightened transmission risk. We evaluated potential transmission reduction using behavioral and biomedical interventions in a randomized controlled pilot study in Malawi. Methods: Persons were randomized 1:2:2 to standard counseling (SC), 5-session behavioral intervention (BI), or behavioral intervention plus 12 weeks of antiretrovirals (ARVs; BIA). All were followed for 26-52 weeks and, regardless of arm, referred for treatment according to Malawi-ARV guidelines. Participants were asked to refer partners for testing. Results: Among 46 persons (9 SC, 18 BI, 19 BIA), the average age was 28; 61% were male. The median viral load (VL) was 5.9 log copies/mL at enrollment. 67% (10/15) of BIA participants were suppressed (<1000 copies/mL) at week 12 vs 25% BI and 50% SC (P = .07). Although the mean number of reported condomless sexual acts in the past week decreased from baseline across all arms (1.5 vs 0.3 acts), 36% experienced incident sexually transmitted infection by 52 weeks (12% SC, 28% BI, 18% BIA). Forty-one percent (19/46) of participants referred partners (44% SC, 44% BI, 37% BIA); 15 of the partners were HIV-infected. Conclusions: Diagnosis of AHI facilitates behavioral and biomedical risk reduction strategies during a high-transmission period that begins years before people are typically identified and started on ARVs. Sexually transmitted infection incidence in this cohort suggests ongoing risk behaviors, reinforcing the importance of early intervention with ARVs to reduce transmission. Early diagnosis coupled with standard AHI counseling and early ARV referral quickly suppresses viremia, may effectively change behavior, and could have tremendous public health benefit in reducing onward transmission.

15.
AIDS Behav ; 23(8): 2101-2108, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600453

RESUMO

We used antiretroviral (ARV) drug testing to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported data for HIV status and antiretroviral treatment (ART) among people who inject drugs enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. ARV drugs were detected in enrollment samples from 72/482 = 14.9% HIV-infected participants (39/52 = 75.0% who reported being on ART; 33/430 = 7.7% who reported not being on ART). Overall, 213/482 = 44.2% participants indicated that they were not aware of their HIV-positive status prior to study entry; of those, 30 had ARV drugs detected at enrollment, including 15 who also had ARV drugs detected at the screening visit. These participants were likely aware of their HIV-positive status at study entry but did not report this to study staff. This study shows that self-reported data on HIV testing history and ART may not be accurate and that ARV drug testing can help identify persons who are aware of their HIV-positive status and are on ART.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral
16.
AIDS Behav ; 23(4): 1084-1093, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306437

RESUMO

HIV-infected people who inject drugs (PWID) have low uptake of HIV services, increasing the risk of transmission to uninfected injection or sexual partners and the likelihood of AIDS-related deaths. HPTN 074 is a vanguard study assessing the feasibility of an integrated intervention to facilitate treatment as prevention to PWID in Indonesia, Ukraine, and Vietnam. We describe barriers to and facilitators of ART uptake and adherence among PWID. We conducted in-depth interviews with 62 participants, including 25 providers and 37 PWID at baseline across all sites. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and coded in NVivo for analysis. Matrices were developed to identify emergent themes and patterns. Overall, differences between provider and PWID perspectives were greater than differences in cross-site perspectives. Providers and PWID recognized clinic access, financial barriers, side effects, and lack of information about HIV testing and ART enrollment as barriers to ART. However, providers tended to emphasize individual level barriers to ART, such as lack of motivation due to drug use, whereas PWID highlighted health systems barriers, such as clinic hours and financial burden, fears, and side effects. Providers did not mention stigma as a barrier though their language reflected stereotypes about drug users. The differences between provider and PWID perspectives suggest a gap in providers' understanding of PWID. This misunderstanding has implications for patient-provider interactions that may affect PWID willingness to access care or adhere to ART. Lessons learned from this study will be important as countries with a significant HIV burden among PWID design and implement programs to engage HIV-infected PWID in care and treatment.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/complicações , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Parceiros Sexuais , Estigma Social , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/psicologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(5): 853-860, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding sexual networks involving acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infections (AHI) may lead to prevention opportunities to mitigate high rates of onward transmission. We evaluated HIV-1 phylogenetic and behavioral characteristics among persons with AHI and their referred partners. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2014, 46 persons with AHI in Malawi participated in a combined behavioral and biomedical intervention. Participants referred sexual partners by passive referral. Demographics and sexual behaviors were collected through interviews and HIV-1 genetic relationships were assessed with phylogenetics. RESULTS: Among 45 AHI participants with HIV-1 sequences, none was phylogenetically-linked with another AHI index. There were 19 (42%) AHI participants who referred a single partner that returned for testing. Most partners (n = 17) were HIV-infected, with 15 (88%) presenting with an established infection. There were 14 index-partner pairs that had sequences available; 13 (93%) pairs were phylogenetically-linked dyads. The AHI index was female in 7/13 (54%) dyads. Age-disparate relationships among dyads were common (≥5-year age difference in 67% of dyads), including 3/6 dyads involving a male index and a younger woman. Index participants with a referred partner were more likely to report no casual partners and to be living with their current partner than participants not in dyads. CONCLUSIONS: Passive-partner referral successfully identified partners with genetically-similar HIV infections-the likely source of infection-but only 40% of index cases referred partners who presented for HIV-1 testing. Future work evaluating assisted partner notification may help reach susceptible partners or more people with untreated HIV-1 infections connected to acute transmission. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT01450189.

18.
AIDS Care ; 31(2): 199-206, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182730

RESUMO

Couples HIV testing and counseling (couple counseling) promotes safer sexual behaviors, increases communication between couples, and decreases HIV transmission. However, the impact of couple counseling on social support, critical for persons living with HIV, has not been examined. Ninety couples with a recently tested HIV-positive pregnant woman (female-positive couples) and 47 couples with a recently tested HIV-negative pregnant woman (female-negative couples) were enrolled in an observational study at an antenatal clinic in Malawi. Each couple member was assessed immediately before and one month after couple counseling for partner, family, and peer social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Before couple counseling, social support was lower among women than men in both female-positive couples (ß = -10.00, p < .01) and female-negative couples (ß = -8.43, p < .01). After couple counseling, social support increased for women in female-positive couples (ß = 4.01, p < .01) and female-negative couples (ß = 4.69, p < .01) but not for men in either type of couple. Couple counseling could be an effective strategy to increase social support for women, including those with recent HIV diagnoses.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Aconselhamento , Soropositividade para HIV/diagnóstico , Gestantes , Apoio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Família , Feminino , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Gravidez , Fatores Sexuais , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209052, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Malawi's PMTCT Option B+ program, HIV-infected pregnant women who are already receiving ART are continued on their current therapy regimen without testing for treatment failure at the first antenatal care (ANC) visit. HIV RNA screening at ANC may identify women with treatment failure and ensure that viral suppression is maintained throughout the pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected pregnant women who had been receiving ART for at least 6 months at the first ANC visit under the PMTCT Option B+ program at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi from June 2015 to December 2017. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to investigate the predictors of ART treatment failure defined as viral load ≥1000 copies/ml. RESULTS: The median age of 864 women tested for ART failure was 31.1 years (interquartile range: 26.9-34.5). The prevalence of treatment failure was 7.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.0-9.6). CD4 cell count (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50-0.65) was strongly associated with treatment failure. CONCLUSION: The low prevalence of treatment failure among women presenting for their first ANC in urban Malawi demonstrates success of Option B+ in maintaining viral suppression and suggests progress towards the last 90% of the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets. Women failing on ART should be identified early for adherence counseling and may require switching to an alternative ART regimen.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Gravidez , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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