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1.
N Engl J Med ; 383(6): 600-602, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757538
2.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-4, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe baclofen toxicity can result in respiratory failure, hemodynamic instability, bradycardia, hypothermia, seizures, coma, and death. While hemodialysis (HD) is well-described in treating acute baclofen toxicity in patients with end-stage kidney disease or acute kidney injury, the utility of HD for patients with normal kidney function is uncertain. Implementing HD to speed recovery after a large acute baclofen ingestion is appealing, considering: (a) potential for prolonged coma and ventilator-associated morbidity, and (b) baclofen's low protein-binding, low molecular-weight, and moderate volume of distribution. METHODS: We report a 51 kg, 14-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department (ED) with hypotension, obtundation, and status epilepticus after an intentional ingestion of 1200 mg baclofen. Her post-intubation neurologic examination was concerning for coma. A 14-hour post-ingestion baclofen concentration was 882 ng/mL (therapeutic range 80-400 ng/mL). Three urgent-HD sessions were performed to reduce her time on the ventilator. RESULTS: The total baclofen removed in the first three-hour HD session was 3.05 mg. The total urinary elimination of baclofen 42 mg over 24-hours on day one. She was discharged without neurologic deficits to psychiatry on day-14. CONCLUSION: In this case, the amount of baclofen recovered during HD is negligible in comparison to the amount cleared by kidney elimination in this patient with normal kidney function.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11294, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647294

RESUMO

Hemodialysis (HD) has limited efficacy towards treatment of drug toxicity due to strong drug-protein binding. In this work, we propose to infuse a competitor drug into the extracorporeal circuit that increases the free fraction of a toxic drug and thereby increases its dialytic removal. We used a mechanistic model to assess the removal of phenytoin and carbamazepine during HD with or without binding-competition. We simulated dialytic removal of (1) phenytoin, initial concentration 70 mg/L, using 2000 mg aspirin, (2) carbamazepine, initial concentration 35 mg/L, using 800 mg ibuprofen, in a 70 kg patient. The competitor drug was infused at constant rate. For phenytoin (~ 13% free at t = 0), HD brings the patient to therapeutic concentration in 460 min while aspirin infusion reduces that time to 330 min. For carbamazepine (~ 27% free at t = 0), the ibuprofen infusion reduces the HD time to reach therapeutic concentration from 265 to 220 min. Competitor drugs with longer half-life further reduce the HD time. Binding-competition during HD is a potential treatment for drug toxicities for which current recommendations exclude HD due to strong drug-protein binding. We show clinically meaningful reductions in the treatment time necessary to achieve non-toxic concentrations in patients poisoned with these two prescription drugs.

7.
CJEM ; : 1-4, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396061

RESUMO

A 54-year-old woman prepares dinner around 8:00 pm that includes mushrooms that she picked from her yard. The next morning, around 8:00 am, the woman (patient), her daughter, and son-in-law all develop abdominal cramps, violent vomiting, and diarrhea. They present to the emergency department and are admitted for dehydration and intractable vomiting with a presumed diagnosis of food poisoning. Twenty-four hours later, they appear well with stable vital signs and improved symptoms. Four hours later, 36 hours post-ingestion, the patient becomes lethargic. A venous blood gas reveals pH, 7.1; PCO2, 16 mmHg; and her AST was 3140 units/L with an ALT of 4260 units/L and an INR of 3.7.

9.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-4, 2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237919

RESUMO

Objective: This study was designed to determine the fatality rate of suspected cyclopeptide-containing mushroom ingestions reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).Background: Although silibinin reportedly improves survival in suspected cyclopeptide-containing mushroom ingestions, the greater than 20% untreated fatality rate that is often cited is based on decades-old data. An ongoing open-label silibinin trial will likely use historical cases as comparators. A recent single poison control center (PCC) study showed a fatality rate of 8.3%. This study was designed to validate those findings in the NPDS.Methods: This study was an 11-year (1/1/2008-12/31/2018) retrospective review of suspected cyclopeptide-containing mushroom ingestions reported to NPDS. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were the same as the ongoing silibinin trial: Age >2-years-old; history of eating foraged mushrooms; gastrointestinal symptoms within 48 h of mushroom ingestion; and aminotransferases above the upper limit of normal within 48 h after ingestion. Each original participating PCC confirmed eligibility, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome on included cases.Results: During the study period, 8,953 mushroom exposures were reported to NPDS, of which 296 met inclusion criteria. The PCC survey response rate was 60% (28/47 PCCs), and the individual case response rate was 59% (174/296). Twenty-six cases were subsequently excluded leaving 148 included cases. The overall mortality rate was 8.8% (13/148). Mortality in silibinin/silymarin-treated vs untreated cases was 9.5% (4/42), vs 8.5% (9/106), respectively. A mycologist identified mushrooms in 16.9% of cases (25/148), of which 80% (20/25) were cyclopeptide-containing. Among these confirmed cases, the mortality rate was 10% (1/10) in both silibinin/silymarin-treated and untreated cases.Conclusions: The contemporary mortality rate of patients with presumed cyclopeptide-mushroom poisoning is only 8.8%. This likely represents improved supportive care for patients with acute liver injury and should be considered the current standard for historical controls in the United States.

12.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-8, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141348

RESUMO

Introduction: Suicide attempts by poisoning are increasing and suicide occurrence may be associated with seasonality. We performed a retrospective analysis of poisoning exposure data from a single Poison Control Center (PCC) to determine if suicide attempts were associated with season, day of the week, and/or US holidays.Methods: We analyzed exposure cases identified as "intentional overdose - suspected suicide attempt" over 2009-2012. We used singular spectrum analysis (SSA) to detect cyclic patterns in the data and then performed Poisson regression and t-tests to determine if the number of cases were associated with season, day of the week, and US holidays.Results: There were 42,578 cases of "intentional overdose - suspected suicide" during the study period. Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) showed that the number of cases associated with poisoning suicide attempts peaked in the Spring and dipped in the Fall. Regression analysis showed higher numbers of suspected suicide attempts from intentional overdose in spring compared with winter by 1.07 times (p = 0.003), and on Sunday (p < 0.001), Monday (p < 0.001), and Thursday (p = 0.02) compared with Saturday by at least 1.09 times. No significant difference was seen for most holidays except for lower numbers of cases around Christmas (3 days before and after; 22.0 vs. 32.3 on control dates, p < 0.001).Conclusions: Suicide attempts by poisoning are associated with season of the year and some days of the week. Further research is required determine reasons for these associations and implementation of public health interventions.

15.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(4): 290-293, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322009

RESUMO

Introduction: Amygdalin, marketed misleadingly as supplement "Vitamin B17," is a cyanogenic glycoside. When swallowed, it is hydrolyzed into cyanide in the small intestine, which causes histotoxic hypoxia via inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. It remains available for purchase online despite a ban from the US Food and Drug Administration. We report a case of massive intentional amygdalin overdose resulting in recurrent cyanide toxicity after initial successful antidotal therapy.Case summary: A 33-year-old woman intentionally ingested 20 g of "apricot POWER B17 Amygdalin" supplements. She presented five hours post-ingestion with vital signs: P 127 bpm, BP 112/65 mmHg, RR 25/min, temperature 98.1 °F, and SpO2 98% RA. She was in agitated delirium, diaphoretic, and mydriatic. Her VBG was notable for a pH of 7.27 (rr 7.32-7.42) and lactate 14.1 mmol/L (rr 0.5-2.2), with ECG demonstrating QTc 538 ms (normal <440 ms). She was empirically treated with hydroxocobalamin and supportive care, but worsened clinically, requiring intubation and additional hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulfate, which resolved her toxicity. Twelve hours later, she developed recurrent hypotension, acidemia, and QTc prolongation that resolved with repeat hydroxocobalamin and sodium thiosulfate dosing.Discussion: Our case demonstrates rebound metabolic acidosis after massive amygdalin overdose. Toxicity was associated with prolonged QTc, which warrants further investigation into clinical significance. Redosing of combination antidotal therapy suggested efficacy without adverse effects.

16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 177-179, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701853

RESUMO

Internet-facilitated self-diagnosis and treatment is becoming more prevalent, putting individuals at risk of toxicity when drugs are acquired without medical oversight. We report a patient with delusional parasitosis who consumed veterinary albendazole purchased on the Internet, leading to pancytopenia, transaminase elevation, and alopecia. A 53-year-old man was sent to the emergency department (ED) by his gastroenterologist because of abnormal laboratory results. The patient had chronic abdominal pain and believed he was infected with parasites. He purchased two bottles of veterinary-grade albendazole on the Internet, and over the 3 weeks before his ED visit, he consumed 113.6 g of albendazole (a normal maximal daily dose is 800 mg). Five days before admission, he noticed hair loss and a rash on his face. His examination was notable for significant scalp hair loss and hyperpigmentation along the jaw line. Laboratory studies were remarkable for pancytopenia (most notably a white blood cell count (WBC) of 0.4 × 103 cells/mm3, with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 0 × 103 cells/mm3) and transaminase elevation (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] 268 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase [ALT] 89 IU/L). He developed a fever and was treated with antibiotics and colony-stimulating factors for presumed neutropenic bacteremia. Over the course of 1 week, his hepatic function normalized and his ANC increased to 3,000 × 103 cells/mm3. Serial albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide concentrations were measured in serum and urine by liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. On day 2, his serum concentrations were 20.7 ng/mL and 4,257.7 ng/mL for albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, respectively. A typical peak therapeutic concentration for albendazole sulfoxide occuring at 2-5 hours post-ingestion is 220-1,580 ng/mL. Known adverse effects of albendazole include alopecia, transaminase elevation, and neutropenia. Pancytopenia leading to death from septic shock is reported. In our patient, prolonged use of high-dose albendazole resulted in a significant body burden of albendazole and albendazole sulfoxide, leading to pancytopenia, transaminase elevation, and alopecia. He recovered with supportive therapy.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Overdose de Drogas/patologia , Pancitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Albendazol/análogos & derivados , Albendazol/sangue , Albendazol/metabolismo , Albendazol/urina , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
CJEM ; 22(2): 165-169, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although alcohol withdrawal is common, the recognition of benzodiazepine-resistant alcohol withdrawal is a relatively new concept. To provide a framework for both literature review and future research, we assessed clinicians' personal definition of resistant alcohol withdrawal. METHOD: We developed a cross-sectional web-based survey. Administrators from collaborating toxicology and emergency medicine associations deployed the survey directly to their respective memberships. Only physicians, pharmacists, and other clinicians routinely treating alcohol withdrawal were eligible to participate. Respondents selected their preferred definition among the three most common author sources - JB Hack, NJ Benedict, D Hughes - or provided their own. Additional criteria to define resistant alcohol withdrawal were explored. RESULTS: 384 individuals answered the survey. Respondents were mostly attending physicians (79%), in full-time practice (90%), in emergency medicine (70%), and from North America (90%). The majority (64%) described resistant alcohol withdrawal as a high benzodiazepine dosage. Seizures (26%) and persistent tachycardia (16%) were also main characteristics. The median dose to describe high benzodiazepine dose (n = 146) was 40 mg per hour of diazepam equivalents (IQR 20-50). Available definitions were ranked equally as the preferred one: Hack (27%); Benedict (28%); Hughes (28%). CONCLUSION: Our results did not identify one single preferred definition for resistant alcohol withdrawal even though a high total dose of benzodiazepine is a major component. Hourly requirements of 40 mg of diazepam equivalents or more emerged as a possible threshold. These findings serve as a base to explore consensus guidelines or future research.

18.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(2): 403-404, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421953
20.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 58(1): 20-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018700

RESUMO

Background: The assessment and management of patients with QT interval prolongation in poisoning requires an appropriate method of measuring and adjusting the QT interval for the heart rate (HR) in order to decide if the patient is at risk of life-threatening dysrhythmias, notably torsade de pointes (TdP). As the Clinical Toxicology Collaborative (CTC) workgroup reviewed the published literature on drug-induced QT interval prolongation in poisoning, it became obvious that many publications were missing essential data that were necessary to thoroughly assess and compare the evidence. The aim of this guidance document is to identify essential and ideal criteria required when reporting a case of drug-induced QT interval prolongation and/or TdP in poisoning.Methods: We employed a mixed methods approach as follows. Initially, we reviewed 188 cases of available published case reports and series in the literature regarding drug-induced QT interval prolongation and/or TdP in poisoning as the first step to another project. Common features and deficiencies were identified. Given the large gaps in reporting quality, we conducted an iterative consultative process involving all 23 members of the CTC to identify essential and ideal criteria to analyse publications of QT interval prolongation in poisoning. A priori standards were developed for acceptance or rejection of individual criteria.Results: Survey response was 100%. A minimum set of essential criteria for reporting cases of QT interval prolongation and drug-induced TdP in overdose setting are provided and a 35-item checklist is presented.Conclusions: We report a QT reporting checklist to ensure published case reports and series describing drug-induced QT interval prolongation in poisoning can contribute to the fund of knowledge of QT interval prolongation, TdP and other malignant dysrhythmias.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas/complicações , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Publicações/normas , Fatores Etários , Lista de Checagem , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Síndrome do QT Longo/terapia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
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