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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the longitudinal relationships between subjective age (SA) and future functional status in later life, via depressive symptoms. Additionally, we assessed the role of subjective nearness to death (SNtD) as a potential moderator within these pathways. METHODS: Older adults (average age 81.14 at T1) were interviewed once a year for three consecutive years (N=224 at T1, N=178 at T2, and N=164 at T3), Participants reported their SA, SNtD, depressive symptoms, and functional status. Additionally, grip strength was employed as an objective measure of functional status. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed distinct pathways leading from T1 SA to T3 functional status through T2 depressive symptoms. Moreover, T1 SNtD was found to significantly moderate most of these indirect pathways, so that the mediation model of T1 SA-T2 depressive symptoms-T3 functional status was mostly significant among those who felt closer to death. DISCUSSION: The findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanism through which SA predicts long-term functioning sequelae by underscoring the indirect effect of depressive symptoms. They further indicate the importance of gauging the effects of SNtD on these longitudinal relationships. Present results may further contribute to establishing an integrative model for predicting long-term functional outcomes based on older adults' earlier subjective views of aging.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 272-274, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392054

RESUMO

This is the first study to examine COVID-19 vaccine-related stressors in the context of current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms amongst older adults exposed to traumatic events prior to the COVID-19 outbreak, with particular focus on the associations between ageism, vaccine-related stressors and PTSD. Five hundred and sixty-three participants aged 65 and above reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, their current PTSD level, physical and mental health, ageist attitudes, and vaccine related stressors. Univariate logistic regression revealed that depressive symptoms, ageism, vaccine hesitancy and severity of side effects were the main factors associated with clinical levels of current PTSD. These results suggest that older adults were vulnerable to intensified PTSD symptoms, not only as a result of greater depression, but also as a consequence of other factors, including ageism, vaccination hesitancy and vaccination side effects. Practitioners would benefit from awareness to these factors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
4.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(6): 443-448, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037551

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated whether levels of receptive arts engagement (visiting museums/concerts/the theater/the cinema) during the year preceding the COVID-19 outbreak may have served as a psychological resource for older adults that mitigated the association between resilience levels and COVID-19 anxiety when the pandemic broke out. Data were collected after the enactment of the first emergency regulations (between March 15 and April 1, 2020) via the Qualtrics Survey Software link that was sent out through social media platforms. In total, 205 participants aged 65 to 92 (mean age, 72.32; SD, 5.63) reported general anxiety symptom levels (GAD-7) (Spitzer et al., 2006), resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale), frequency of receptive arts engagement in the previous year, health status, exposure to risk situations, and behavioral changes due to the pandemic. Our hypothesis that receptive arts would moderate the resilience-COVID-19 anxiety link was examined by a multiple hierarchical regression analysis and with the PROCESS computational tool. Findings show that resilience was associated with COVID-19 anxiety and that this association was moderated by levels of receptive arts engagement. The findings show that high levels of prior art engagement constituted a potent buffer against subsequent COVID-19 anxiety. Policy makers may benefit older adults by encouraging their engagement in arts activities, even during social distancing.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Museus , Música/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 76(5): 836-844, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evidence of daily fluctuations in subjective age and their association with older adults' well-being was recently obtained. Yet, neither the simultaneous tracking of two daily views on aging (i.e., daily subjective age and daily ageist attitudes) nor their interactive effect on mental health (i.e., depressive symptoms) has been explored. We hypothesized that (a) at days on which older adults feel older or report high ageist attitudes they would report higher depressive symptoms, (b) combined older subjective age and high ageist attitudes will be associated with the highest daily depressive symptoms. METHOD: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 134, mean age = 69.66) completed measures of subjective age, ageist attitudes, and depressive symptoms for 10 consecutive days. RESULTS: Daily older subjective age and higher ageist attitudes were related to higher depressive symptoms, but there was no combined effect of both on depressive symptoms. There was a significant three-way interaction between subjective age, ageist attitudes, and chronological age, demonstrating the interactive effect of subjective age and ageist attitudes on depressive symptoms only among the old-old respondents. Time-lagged analyses further showed that ageist attitudes during previous days predicted feeling older and more depressed on following days, but not vice versa. DISCUSSION: Results suggest that old-old individuals are more susceptible to a combination of negative views on aging on daily basis. Findings further support a daily assimilation process, whereby previous-day stereotypes are assimilated and manifested into one's identity and mental health, so that one feels older and more depressed on subsequent days.

8.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 28(11): 1200-1204, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study examined whether subjective age moderated the relationship between loneliness due to the COVID-19 pandemic and psychiatric symptoms. METHODS: A convenience sample of older adult Israelis (N = 277, mean age = 69.58 ± 6.72) completed web-based questionnaires comprising loneliness, anxiety, depressive, and peritraumatic distress symptoms. They also reported how old they felt. RESULTS: The positive relationship between loneliness due to the COVID-19 pandemic and psychiatric symptoms was weak among those who felt younger than their age while this very same relationship was robust among those feeling older. CONCLUSIONS: Young subjective age may weaken the loneliness-symptom association among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Older adults holding an older age identity are more susceptible to the adverse effects of loneliness. Although preliminary, the findings may inform screening and interventions. Subjective age may help identify those at high risk in suffering from loneliness, and suggest interventions aimed at ameliorating both loneliness and older subjective ages.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais , Infecções por Coronavirus , Ajustamento Emocional , Solidão/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoimagem , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Sintomas Comportamentais/epidemiologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 718, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681033

RESUMO

The effects of parental trauma on offspring of Holocaust survivors (OHS) are debated in the literature. Recently, scholars suggested that it may be more productive to ask when and via which mechanisms such effects are observed. Following, the current study examines if parental Holocaust-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are linked with the aging processes of their middle-aged offspring. Beyond this association, we also suggested a putative mediation path, indicating three underlying mechanisms by which parental trauma lingers on: perceived parent-child role reversal, secondary traumatization, and depressive symptoms. Using a convenience sample of 682 community-dwelling participants, comprising 341 older adult parent-middle-aged offspring dyads (M age = 81.71 and 54.58 for parents and offspring, respectively) to address this issue. Parents reported PTSD with the valid measure of PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition. OHS reported perceived parent-child role reversal, secondary traumatization, depressive symptoms, and completed indices of successful aging. Based on parents' reports, we divided the parent-offspring dyads into three groups: OHS whose parents had probable PTSD (n dyads = 43), OHS whose parents did not have PTSD (n dyads = 161), and comparison with parents who did not undergo the Holocaust (n dyads = 137). Findings reveal that OHS with parents suffering from probable PTSD aged less successfully than comparisons. Serial mediation analyses validated the aforementioned putative pathway (perceived parent-child role reversal, secondary traumatization, and depression) linking parental PTSD with offspring successful aging. Our findings are discussed through a vignette depicting a fictional OHS character. These underlying mechanisms suggest that different types of interventions, each geared towards a specific mechanism, may mitigate the lingering effect of parental PTSD on diminished OHS successful aging.

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231249

RESUMO

Fear of insects, mainly spiders, is considered one of the most common insect phobias. However, to date, no conducted studies have examined the effects of phobic stimulus exposure (spiders/ants) within the positive context of superhero movies, such as Spider-Man or Ant-Man. A convenience sample of 424 participants divided into four groups watched different clips. Two intervention groups (Spider-Man/Ant-Man) and two control groups (Marvel opening/natural scene) were measured twice (pre-post intervention). The measures comprised an online survey assessing socio-demographic variables, familiarity with superhero movies and comics, and phobic symptoms. Reduction in phobic symptoms was significant in the Spider-Man and Ant-Man groups in comparison to the control groups. Seven-second exposure to insect-specific stimuli within a positive context reduces the level of phobic symptoms. Incorporating exposure to short scenes from superhero movies within a therapeutic protocol for such phobias may have the potential to be robustly efficacious and enhance cooperation and motivation.

11.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 10(1): 1583523, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949302

RESUMO

Background: The nature of the reciprocal relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, proportional subjective age, and their effects on successful aging are important issues that have been so far under-studied. Clarifying the relationships between these variables has many theoretical and practical implications for the understanding of how individuals age in the shadow of traumatic exposure. Objective: The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between PTSD symptoms and proportional subjective age in a longitudinal design, and how these variables predict successful aging. Method: Using in-region random digit dialling, we collected a stratified sample of community-dwelling older adults residing in the south of Israel. Of that sample, 132 midlife and older adults (T1 age range = 50-87, mean age = 65.84, SD = 9.12) were interviewed three times across a period of two years and four months (2014-2016). Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms and proportional subjective age in the first two interviews (T1 and T2) and successful aging indices in the third interview (T3). PTSD symptoms and proportional subjective age measured at both T1 and T2 served as predictors and outcomes in a cross-lagged model and as predictors of successful aging at T3. Results: T1 PTSD symptoms predicted an older proportional subjective age at T2, whereas the reverse relationship (i.e. T1 proportional subjective age to T2 PTSD symptoms) was non-significant. Moreover, higher PTSD symptoms and an older proportional subjective age at T2 predicted lower successful aging at T3. Conclusions: In addition to clarifying the temporal sequencing of PTSD and proportional subjective age, the study further suggests that PTSD and proportional subjective age identity could each render midlife and older adults more susceptible to less successful aging. Accordingly, we advocate to further explore the mechanisms underlining these complicated relationships.

12.
Psychiatry Res ; 271: 161-166, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481693

RESUMO

Complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) is a psychiatric diagnosis that includes three additional symptom clusters beyond those necessary for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. CPTSD is typically associated with a prolonged trauma exposure in which a person's destiny is under the control of other people and escape is not an option. Insomnia prevalence in women suffering from CPTSD was compared to the prevalence of insomnia in those with no-PTSD and those with only PTSD. Yazidi women (N = 108, age = 24.41 ±â€¯5.71) former captives of the Islamic State terrorist group were queried about captivity variables, psychological distress, resilience, PTSD, CPTSD, and insomnia. CPTSD prevalence was high (>50%) and was highly correlated with insomnia (95% of those with CPTSD had insomnia). A dichotomous insomnia variable was regressed on age and marital-status (Step 1), captivity-duration and number of fellow captives (Step 2), resilience and psychological distress (Step 3), and group (no-PTSD/PTSD/CPTSD) (Step 4). Insomnia was 18 times more likely in the CPTSD group than in the no-PTSD group. There were no differences in insomnia prevalence between the no-PTSD and PTSD groups. Insomnia levels among Yazidi women released from captivity support an understanding of CPTSD as a separate entity than PTSD. Potential factors linking CPTSD to insomnia, beyond those associated with PTSD are discussed.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Genocídio/psicologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mesopotâmia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Síndrome , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1746, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271367

RESUMO

It is now widely acknowledged that physical decline may increase among middle-aged and older adults who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Much less is known about the temporal sequencing of PTSD and physical decline relationship over time. While PTSD can lead to physical decline, physical decline may preserve or augment existing PTSD symptoms. Both problems can also mutually affect each other forming a vicious cycle. Additionally, it is important to address variables that can mitigate these longitudinal effects. Following the recovery capital framework, we consider how the existence or lack of capital in the form of young age identity may affect the recovery process. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the reciprocal effects of PTSD symptoms and self-rated physical functioning and further test whether one's subjective age moderates these effects. Using in-region random digit dialing, we collected a stratified sample of community dwelling older adult residing in south Israel. Of that sample (N at T1 = 339), 132 older adults (age range = 51-88, mean age = 66.90, SD = 9.14) were interviewed 4 months after the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict (T2) and 1 year later (T3). Participants responded to PTSD symptoms scale, and reported their physical functioning and subjective age. PTSD symptoms and self-rated physical functioning were tested as both predictors and outcomes in a cross-lagged model. The moderating effect of subjective age was assessed by examining whether T2 variables interacted with subjective age in predicting T3 outcomes. Results showed that higher PTSD symptoms at T2 were associated with subsequent lower self-rated physical functioning at T3, yet self-rated physical functioning at T2 did not predict PTSD symptoms at T3, thereby highlighting the PTSD self-rated physical function direction. Moreover, subjective age moderated this latter association, so that this relationship was significant only for those who felt relatively older. In addition to clarifying the temporal sequencing of the PTSD self-rated physical functioning association, the study further suggests that an older subjective age (i.e., lack of recovery capital) could render middle-aged and older adults more susceptible to physical decline following PTSD symptoms. We therefore propose to develop interventions aimed at coping with an older age identity and facilitating a younger age identity among traumatized older individuals.

14.
Psychiatry ; 81(4): 361-375, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216131

RESUMO

Objective: This study examined how inner perceptions that develop in the aftermath of exposure to trauma attenuate the association between posttraumatic symptoms across time and what the reciprocal relations between inner perceptions of trauma and posttraumatic symptoms are. Method: The present article is based on two studies. The data in Study 1 are drawn from three waves of a longitudinal study of community-dwelling midlife adults and older adults residing in the south of Israel. In Wave 1, 339 participants were interviewed (mean age = 65.44, SD = 9.77). Of these participants, 170 and 132, respectively, participated in Waves 2 (one year later) and 3 (two years later). Posttraumatic stress symptoms were self-reported in all three waves. Inner perceptions of trauma were assessed with the Subjective Traumatic Outlook scale (STO) and Centrality of Event Scale (CES), administered at Wave 3. Study 2 is drawn from two waves of research of young adults. Wave 1 included 138 participants (mean age = 32.01, SD = 10.57) from a convenience sample. At Wave 2, 128 participants were interviewed again a month later. Participants reported their level of posttraumatic stress symptoms and completed the STO and the CES in both waves. Results: In Study 1, analyses showed stronger associations between posttraumatic symptoms across waves among those who reported higher subjective traumatic outlook and higher centrality of events. In Study 2, significant reciprocal relationships between PTSD and STO were found, but whereas the W1 PTSD-W2 CES path was significant, the W1 CES-W2 PTSD path was not. Conclusions: The findings emphasize that overintegration and especially disintegration of the pretraumatic identity with traumatic experiences are associated with the deleterious effects of long-lasting exposure to traumatic events.

15.
Psychiatry Res ; 267: 306-312, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945072

RESUMO

Following an ISIS attack, the present study examined the association between psychological distress and severe stress symptoms with vulnerability variables: i.e. Physical proximity to the site of the terror attack, Associative memory of prior events, Danger perception and ISIS anxiety. Using an online survey, 397 adult participants were recruited, Seventy-two hours after an ISIS terror attack, and filled out Psychological distress Patient Health Questionnaire 4 and severe stress symptoms questionnaire as well as physical proximity to the site of the terror attack, associative memory of prior events, danger perception and ISIS anxiety scales. Physical proximity to the site of the terror attack and ISIS anxiety were found to be significantly associated of both psychological distress and severe stress symptoms. Regarding danger perception, only danger perception of terror attacks was associated with both psychological distress and with severe stress symptoms. Lastly, whereas being reminded of the 2014 Jerusalem tractor attack (tapping to association via location) was neither associated with psychological distress nor with severe stress symptom, the reminder of the truck attack in Berlin (tapping into association by recency and similarity) was associated with psychological distress but not with severe stress symptoms. The importance of the findings is discussed.


Assuntos
Medo/psicologia , Memória , Veículos Automotores , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Stress Health ; 34(1): 84-92, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28589703

RESUMO

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) is a relatively small organization, yet it wields its terror and media campaigns efficiently. Its presence has altered security measures in many western counties. In the current study, I assess anxiety of the ISIS threat and its correlates in a convenience sample of 1,007 adult Israelis (mean age = 29.61, SD = 7.16). Findings show that being female, a lower socioeconomic status, and having elevated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom levels were all associated with ISIS anxiety. Likewise, exposure to ISIS media, as well as having low resilience, was also correlated with ISIS anxiety. The correlations between ISIS anxiety on the one hand and ISIS media exposure, PTSD symptoms, and resilience on the other hand remained significant even after controlling for general anxiety symptoms. Finally, the PTSD- ISIS anxiety relationship was especially pronounced when resources (resilience/optimism) were low. This critical interaction also remained significant after controlling for general anxiety. Theoretical and practical ramifications of ISIS anxiety are discussed. Both resources for addressing current tasks (resilience), as well as those aimed at future outcomes (optimism), may be required for addressing ISIS anxiety, especially when PTSD symptoms are high.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Terrorismo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Aging Ment Health ; 22(6): 826-833, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the underexplored effects of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms on objective and subjective successful aging and to inquire whether emotional complexity moderates these effects. METHODS: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 127, mean age = 67.86, SD = 11.07) rated their PTSD symptoms and completed measures of objective and subjective successful aging. They further reported their emotions on a daily basis over 14 days. RESULTS: After controlling for background characteristics, self-rated health and cumulative lifetime adversity, results showed that higher PTSD symptoms were related to less successful aging, both objective and subjective. However, this relationship existed only amongst older adults with low emotional complexity, but not amongst those with high emotional complexity. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that high emotional complexity buffers against the negative effects of PTSD symptoms on successful aging. Interventions that empower emotional complexity amongst traumatized older adults may attenuate these negative effects.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 257: 438-440, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837933

RESUMO

This study examined whether participants with low somatization (no bodily manifestations of anxiety) who are assumed to identify with- and be inspired- by the Olympic-Games-spirit will present a stronger association between their Olympic-game viewing hours and their will-to-live, than persons with high somatization. One hundred and thirty seven participants reported their daily Olympic-game viewing hours, somatization and will-to-live levels. Results show that while among those with low somatization symptoms level, the relationships between Olympic game viewing hours and will-to-live was positive, the opposite was found among those with high somatization symptoms level. Viewing the Olympic Games may be beneficial for individuals with low somatization level but less so to individuals with higher somatization.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , Esportes/psicologia , Valor da Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espiritualidade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychiatry Res ; 256: 458-460, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709061

RESUMO

The present study examines the DSM-5 Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) diagnostic criteria of exposure, in the context of a natural disaster. The study is based on the reports of 1001 Filipinos following the aftermath of super typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Participants reported exposure to injury, psychological distress and ASD symptoms. Findings indicated the association of criterion A with the prevalence of meeting all other ASD diagnostic criteria and high psychological distress. The diagnostic properties of Criterion A are discussed.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Desastres , Transtornos de Estresse Traumático Agudo/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Filipinas , Adulto Jovem
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