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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 72, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM), a major component of ambient air pollution, accounts for a substantial burden of diseases and fatality worldwide. Maternal exposure to PM during pregnancy is particularly harmful to children's health since this is a phase of rapid human growth and development. METHOD: In this review, we synthesize the scientific evidence on adverse health outcomes in children following prenatal exposure to the smallest toxic components, fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) PM. We highlight the established and emerging findings from epidemiologic studies and experimental models. RESULTS: Maternal exposure to fine and ultrafine PM directly and indirectly yields numerous adverse birth outcomes and impacts on children's respiratory systems, immune status, brain development, and cardiometabolic health. The biological mechanisms underlying adverse effects include direct placental translocation of ultrafine particles, placental and systemic maternal oxidative stress and inflammation elicited by both fine and ultrafine PM, epigenetic changes, and potential endocrine effects that influence long-term health. CONCLUSION: Policies to reduce maternal exposure and health consequences in children should be a high priority. PM2.5 levels are regulated, yet it is recognized that minority and low socioeconomic status groups experience disproportionate exposures. Moreover, PM0.1 levels are not routinely measured or currently regulated. Consequently, preventive strategies that inform neighborhood/regional planning and clinical/nutritional recommendations are needed to mitigate maternal exposure and ultimately protect children's health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Saúde da Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/induzido quimicamente , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/induzido quimicamente , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula , Placenta , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
2.
Vet Pathol ; 58(3): 542-548, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583363

RESUMO

Molecular techniques are increasingly being applied to stained cytology slides for the diagnosis of neoplastic and infectious diseases. Such techniques for the identification of fungi from stained cytology slides have not yet been evaluated. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of direct (without nucleic acid isolation) panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing for identification of fungi and oomycetes on stained cytology slides from dogs, cats, horses, and other species. Thirty-six cases were identified with cytologically identifiable fungi/oomycetes and concurrent identification via fungal culture or immunoassay. Twenty-nine controls were identified with no cytologically or histologically visible organisms and a concurrent negative fungal culture. Direct PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer region followed by sequencing was performed on one cytology slide from each case and control, and the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were calculated. The sensitivity of the panfungal PCR assay performed on stained cytology slides was 67% overall, 73% excluding cases with oomycetes, and 86% when considering only slides with abundant fungi. The specificity was 62%, which was attributed to amplification of fungal DNA from control slides with no visible fungus and negative culture results. Direct panfungal PCR is capable of providing genus- or species-level identification of fungi from stained cytology slides. Given the potential of panfungal PCR to amplify contaminant fungal DNA, this assay should be performed on slides with visible fungi and interpreted in conjunction with morphologic assessment by a clinical pathologist.

3.
Pathogens ; 9(5)2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429494

RESUMO

Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) has an unclear pathogenesis with the oral microbiome and viral infections, such as feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), thought to contribute. Although the relationship between the FIV status and FCGS is not clear, one theory is FIV-induced immune dysregulation could contribute to oral dysbiosis, promoting FCGS development. To further understand the relationship between FCGS, FIV infection, and the oral microbiome, oral cavities of forty cats fitting within 4 groups (FIV- without gingivitis, FIV+ without gingivitis, FIV- with gingivitis, FIV+ with gingivitis) were swabbed. Next generation sequencing targeting the V4 region of the 16s rRNA gene was performed for bacterial community profiling. No differences in diversity were observed, however, analysis of the data in terms of gingivitis revealed differences in the relative abundance of taxa and predicted functional output. Odoribacter spp., a bacteria associated with oral disease, was found in higher relative abundances in cats with the highest gingivitis grade. Cats with gingivitis were also found to harbor communities more involved in production of short-chain fatty acids, which have been connected with oral disease. Significant findings associated with the FIV status were few and of low impact, suggesting any connection between the FIV status and FCGS is likely not related to the oral microbiota.

4.
Vet Pathol ; 57(2): 290-295, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081085

RESUMO

Prolonged exposure to water, known as immersion foot syndrome in humans, is a phenomenon first described in soldiers during World War I and characterized by dermal ischemic necrosis. In this report, we describe the pathologic findings of a condition resembling immersion foot syndrome in 5 horses and 1 donkey with prolonged floodwater exposure during Hurricane Harvey. At necropsy, all animals had dermal defects ventral to a sharply demarcated "water line" along the lateral trunk. In 5 animals, histologic examination revealed moderate to severe perivascular dermatitis with vasculitis and coagulative necrosis consistent with ischemia. The severity of the lesions progressed from ventral trunk to distal limbs and became more pronounced in the chronic cases. The pathophysiology of immersion foot syndrome is multifactorial and results from changes in the dermal microvasculature leading to thrombosis and ischemia. Prompt recognition of this disease may lead to appropriate patient management and decreased morbidity.


Assuntos
Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Pé de Imersão/veterinária , Isquemia/veterinária , Trombose/veterinária , Vasculite/veterinária , Animais , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Dermatite/patologia , Medicina de Desastres , Equidae , Feminino , Inundações , Cavalos , Pé de Imersão/patologia , Masculino , Microvasos/patologia , Necrose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Vasculite/patologia
5.
Med Mycol ; 58(6): 756-765, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782778

RESUMO

Malassezia dermatitis and otitis are recurrent features of canine atopic dermatitis, increasing the cost of care, and contributing to a reduced quality of life for the pet. The exact pathogenesis of secondary yeast infections in allergic dogs remains unclear, but some have proposed an overgrowth of M. pachydermatis to be one of the flare factors. The distribution of Malassezia populations on healthy and allergic canine skin has not been previously investigated using culture-independent methods. Skin swabs were collected from healthy, naturally affected allergic, and experimentally sensitized atopic dogs. From the extracted DNA, fungal next-generations sequencing (NGS) targeting the ITS region with phylogenetic analysis of sequences for species level classification, and Malassezia species-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed. M. globosa was significantly more abundant on healthy canine skin by both methods (NGS P < .0001, qPCR P < .0001). M. restricta was significantly more abundant on healthy skin by NGS (P = .0023), and M. pachydermatis was significantly more abundant on naturally-affected allergic skin by NGS (P < .0001) and on allergen-induced atopic skin lesions by qPCR (P = .0015). Shifts in Malassezia populations were not observed in correlation with the development of allergen-induced skin lesions. Differences in the lipid dependency of predominant Malassezia commensals between groups suggests a role of the skin lipid content in driving community composition and raises questions of whether targeting skin lipids with therapeutics could promote healthy Malassezia populations on canine skin.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Hipersensibilidade , Malassezia/patogenicidade , Pele/microbiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Hipersensibilidade/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade/veterinária , Malassezia/classificação , Malassezia/genética , Masculino , Micobioma , Filogenia , Qualidade de Vida , Pele/patologia
6.
Vet Pathol ; 55(1): 124-132, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145794

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing (NGS) studies are revealing a diverse microbiota on the skin of dogs. The skin microbiota of canine sterile granulomatous and pyogranulomatous dermatitis (SGPD) has yet to be investigated using NGS techniques. NGS targeting the 16S rRNA and ITS-1 region of bacterial and fungal DNA, respectively, were used to investigate if bacterial and fungal DNA were associated with skin lesions in cases of canine SGPD. The study included 20 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) skin samples and 12 fresh samples from SGPD-affected dogs, and 10 FFPE and 10 fresh samples from healthy dogs. DNA was extracted from deep dermis and panniculus, and microbial DNA was amplified using primers targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA V1-V3 and fungal ITS-1 regions. The amplified DNA was utilized for NGS on an Illumina MiSeq instrument. The sequences were processed using QIIME. No differences in fungal or bacterial alpha diversity were observed between the SGPD and control samples. Beta diversity analysis demonstrated differences in the bacterial communities between SGPD and control, but not in the fungal communities. Compared to controls, the family Erysipelotrichaceae and genus Staphylococcus were significantly more abundant in the SGPD FFPE samples, and genus Corynebacterium were more abundant in fresh samples. The bacteria found to be more abundant in SGPD are common inhabitants of skin surfaces, and likely secondary contaminants in SGPD cases. This study provides additional evidence that SGPD lesions are likely sterile.


Assuntos
Dermatite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Paniculite/veterinária , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Dermatite/microbiologia , Dermatite/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Granuloma/microbiologia , Granuloma/patologia , Granuloma/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Masculino , Paniculite/microbiologia , Paniculite/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
7.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184899, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28934260

RESUMO

Little is known about physiological factors that affect the sense of olfaction in dogs. The objectives of this study were to describe the canine nasal and oral microbiota in detection dogs. We sought to determine the bacterial composition of the nasal and oral microbiota of a diverse population of detection canines. Nasal and oral swabs were collected from healthy dogs (n = 81) from four locations-Alabama, Georgia, California, and Texas. Nasal and oral swabs were also collected from a second cohort of detection canines belonging to three different detection job categories: explosive detection dogs (SP-E; n = 22), patrol and narcotics detection dogs (P-NDD; n = 15), and vapor wake dogs (VWD-E; n = 9). To understand if the nasal and oral microbiota of detection canines were variable, sample collection was repeated after 7 weeks in a subset of dogs. DNA was extracted from the swabs and used for 454-pyrosequencing of the16S rRNA genes. Nasal samples had a significantly lower diversity than oral samples (P<0.01). Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were higher in nasal samples, while Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and Tenericutes were higher in oral samples. Bacterial diversity was not significantly different based on the detection job. No significant difference in beta diversity was observed in the nasal samples based on the detection job. In oral samples, however, ANOSIM suggested a significant difference in bacterial communities based on job category albeit with a small effect size (R = 0.1079, P = 0.02). Analysis of the composition of bacterial communities using LEfSe showed that within the nasal samples, Cardiobacterium and Riemerella were higher in VWD-E dogs, and Sphingobacterium was higher in the P-NDD group. In the oral samples Enterococcus and Capnocytophaga were higher in the P-NDD group. Gemella and Aggregatibacter were higher in S-PE, and Pigmentiphaga, Chryseobacterium, Parabacteroides amongst others were higher within the VWD-E group. Our initial data also shows that there is a temporal variation in alpha diversity in nasal samples in detection canines.


Assuntos
Cães/microbiologia , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Nariz/microbiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Discriminante , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Substâncias Explosivas , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Militares , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Polícia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Olfato , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Vet Pathol ; 54(4): 640-648, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346123

RESUMO

Identification of fungal organisms often poses a problem for pathologists because the histomorphology of some fungal organisms is not specific, fresh tissues may not be available, and isolation and identification in culture may take a long time. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify fungal organisms from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded curls were tested from 128 blocks containing canine, feline, equine, and bovine tissues with cutaneous, nasal, pulmonary, and systemic fungal infections, identified by the presence of fungi in histologic sections. Quantitative scoring of histologic sections identified rare (11.9%), occasional (17.5%), moderate (17.5%), or abundant (53.1%) fungal organisms. DNA was isolated from FFPE tissues and PCR was performed targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) region, a segment of noncoding DNA found in all eukaryotes. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced and identified at ≥97% identity match using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool and the NCBI database of ITS sequences. Of the 128 blocks, 117 (91.4%) yielded PCR products and high-quality sequences were derived from 89 (69.5%). Sequence and histologic identifications matched in 79 blocks (61.7%). This assay was capable of providing genus- and species-level identification when histopathology could not and, thus, is a beneficial complementary tool for diagnosis of fungal diseases.


Assuntos
Micoses/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Inclusão em Parafina/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
9.
Can J Vet Res ; 80(4): 302-308, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27733785

RESUMO

The only way to diagnose hepatic fibrosis in dogs is by histological assessment of a liver biopsy specimen. As this technique is invasive and susceptible to sampling variation, serum biomarkers are used to detect hepatic fibrosis in humans. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen type III N-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as serum markers of canine hepatic fibrosis. Serum samples were collected from 47 dogs with histologically confirmed hepatobiliary disease and 24 healthy dogs in order to measure concentrations of HA, PIIINP, and TIMP-1. Hepatic fibrosis was staged using a 5-point scoring scheme. There was no correlation between serum concentrations of HA or PIIINP and the severity of hepatic fibrosis. There was a negative correlation between serum concentration of TIMP-1 and the severity of hepatic fibrosis (rs = -0.33; P = 0.036). It was not possible to use serum concentrations of HA, PIIINP, or TIMP-1 to discriminate between dogs with absent-to-moderate hepatic fibrosis and those with marked-to-very-marked fibrosis. The results of this study do not support the utility of measuring serum concentrations of HA, PIIINP, or TIMP-1 for diagnosing canine hepatic fibrosis. Further studies are needed to support this finding.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Ácido Hialurônico/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/veterinária , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Pró-Colágeno/sangue , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(2): 650-3, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27468044

RESUMO

A 37-yr-old captive common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) developed lethargy and decline in mobility that progressed to death, despite supportive therapy. Histopathologic examination revealed severe, diffuse, intravascular and interstitial infiltration of neoplastic histiocytes in the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, lungs, large intestine, kidneys, and thyroid gland. Neoplastic cells were pleomorphic with marked anisocytosis and anisokaryosis, scattered multinucleated giant cells, numerous bizarre mitotic figures, and marked erythrophagocytosis. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that neoplastic cells were positive for ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (a histiocytic marker) and negative for CD3 (a T-cell marker) and myeloperoxidase, confirming the diagnosis of systemic histiocytic sarcoma.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos , Sarcoma Histiocítico/veterinária , Animais , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Sarcoma Histiocítico/patologia
11.
J Wildl Dis ; 52(2): 395-9, 2016 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124332

RESUMO

Sarcocystis calchasi is a recently described apicomplexan parasite that causes encephalitis in avian hosts. We diagnosed one White-winged Dove ( Zenaida asiatica ) and two Eurasian Collared Doves ( Streptopelia decaocto ) in Texas, US, with a history of neurologic signs with protozoal encephalitis. On histologic examination, all three doves had moderate to severe meningoencephalitis characterized by large numbers of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages with gliosis and astrocytosis. Brain sections from two doves also contained numerous Mott cells. Protozoal schizonts with rosettes or clusters of individual merozoites consistent with Sarcocystis spp. were seen within areas of inflammation. Sarcocysts were also identified in the skeletal muscle of one dove. The PCR and sequencing of brain and skeletal muscle from two doves revealed 99% identity with S. calchasi. The presence of S. calchasi in fatal cases of encephalitis in doves in Texas suggests that the geographic and host ranges of S. calchasi are broader than previously reported.


Assuntos
Columbidae/parasitologia , Encefalite/veterinária , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Encefalite/parasitologia , Sarcocistose/epidemiologia , Sarcocistose/parasitologia , Texas/epidemiologia
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 46(2): 405-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26056905

RESUMO

A 14-yr-old female serval (Leptailurus serval) died unexpectedly after 2 wk of inappetence and lethargy. Necropsy revealed a pyoabdomen with a full-term, well-developed fetus in the caudal abdomen covered by a mesenteric sac. The mesenteric sac communicated with a tear in the wall of the right uterine horn, supporting a diagnosis of secondary abdominal pregnancy. The uterine wall had evidence of adenomyosis at the rupture site with no evidence of pyometra. The fetus, supporting mesentery, and peritoneum were coated with mixed bacteria, which may have ascended through an open cervix to the site of uterine rupture. This is the first case of abdominal pregnancy related to uterine rupture reported in a large felid species.


Assuntos
Felidae , Gravidez Abdominal/veterinária , Ruptura Uterina/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Gravidez , Gravidez Abdominal/etiologia , Ruptura Uterina/patologia
13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 60(2): 382-92, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25240298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Five million people currently live with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease. Available treatments frequently result in side effects that compromise the immune health of the patient. Consequently, alternative therapies that cause fewer systemic effects are needed. Dioctahedral smectite clays have been utilized to treat medical conditions, including diarrheal and enteric disease. Herein, we report the ability of a refined dioctahedral smectite (NovaSil, NS) to sorb inflammatory proteins and reduce inflammation in a TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid) mouse model of CD. We also investigated whether NS could rescue gut microbial diversity in TNBS-induced mice. METHODS: ELISA, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the NS-cytokine interaction in vitro. A TNBS mouse colitis model was utilized to study the efficacy of NS supplementation for 4 weeks. The three treatment groups included control, TNBS, and TNBS + NS. DNA was extracted from feces and sorted for bacterial phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: Results suggest that NS binds TNFα in vitro. In TNBS-treated mice, supplementation with NS significantly reduced weight loss, and serum proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12, TNFα, IFNγ) compared with the TNBS group. TNBS-treated mice demonstrated a significant reduction in gut microbiota species richness when compared with the TNBS + NS group and control group. CONCLUSIONS: NovaSil mitigated the effects of TNBS-induced colitis based on reduction in systemic markers of inflammation, significant improvement in weight gain, and intestinal microbial profile.


Assuntos
Silicatos de Alumínio/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colite/prevenção & controle , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/farmacologia , Silicatos/farmacologia , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Argila , Colite/sangue , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Difração de Pó , Ribotipagem , Silicatos/química , Fatores de Tempo , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 5(9): 1555-73, 2013 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24064717

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent carcinogen that causes growth stunting, immunosuppression and liver cancer in multiple species. The recent trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based proteins in fish feed has amplified the AFB1 exposure risk in farm-raised fish. NovaSil (NS), a calcium montmorillonite clay, has previously been shown to reduce AFB1 bioavailability safely and efficaciously in several mammalian species. This study was designed to: (1) evaluate AFB1 impact on cultured red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, over the course of seven weeks; and (2) assess NS supplementation as a strategy to prevent aflatoxicosis. Fish were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 ppm AFB1. Two additional treatment groups were fed either 5 ppm AFB1 + 1% NS or 5 ppm AFB1 + 2% NS. Aflatoxin B1 negatively impacted red drum weight gain, survival, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, hepatosomatic index (HSI), whole-body lipid levels, liver histopathological scoring, as well as trypsin inhibition. NovaSil inclusion in AFB1-contaminated diets improved weight gain, feed efficiency, serum lysozyme concentration, muscle somatic index, and intraperitoneal fat ratios compared to AFB1-treated fish. Although not significant, NS reduced AFB1-induced histopathological changes in the liver and decreased Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) staining. Importantly, NS supplementation improved overall health of AFB1-exposed red drum.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Bentonita/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Micotoxicose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Muramidase/sangue , Micotoxicose/imunologia , Micotoxicose/patologia , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/imunologia
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 24(5): 990-3, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786975

RESUMO

Saksenaea erythrospora is a filamentous fungus belonging to the order Mucorales. Cases of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Saksenaea spp. have previously been reported in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed people. A premature, 1-day-old bull calf from Texas with numerous plaque-like and ulcerative lesions in the skin was found at necropsy to have multiple areas of mycotic dermatitis and abomasitis. Fungal culture of the skin followed by morphological characterization and genetic analysis identified the etiologic agent as S. erythrospora.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação , Mucormicose/veterinária , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Gastropatias/veterinária , Abomaso/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Masculino , Mucormicose/patologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Gastropatias/microbiologia
16.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 24(3): 636-40, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22529142

RESUMO

Cutaneous toxoplasmosis has been previously reported in human beings, rarely reported in cats, and reported in 1 dog with systemic toxoplasmosis. The present report describes 2 cases of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in 2 dogs treated with immunosuppressive therapy. One of the dogs developed generalized cutaneous pustules and pruritus, and the other dog only had a single subcutaneous nodule. Microscopically, skin biopsies showed moderate to severe pyogranulomatous and necrotizing dermatitis and panniculitis, with multifocal vasculitis and vascular thrombosis. Single or aggregates of protozoal tachyzoites were mostly intracytoplasmic and occasionally extracellular. The etiology was confirmed in both cases by immunohistochemistry and by polymerase chain reaction assays, which were followed by nucleic acid sequencing. Both patients were treated with clindamycin. The dog with generalized lesions developed pulmonary and neurological signs and was euthanized. The dog with a single nodule recovered completely with no remission of cutaneous lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clindamicina/uso terapêutico , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
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