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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 167: 105291, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691257

RESUMO

Ocean acidification (OA) can negatively affect early-life stages of marine organisms, with the key processes of larval settlement and metamorphosis potentially vulnerable to reduced seawater pH. Settlement success depends strongly on suitable substrates and environmental cues, with marine biofilms as key settlement inducers for a range of marine invertebrate larvae. This study experimentally investigated (1) how seawater pH determines growth and community composition of marine biofilms, and (2) whether marine biofilms developed under different pH conditions can alter settlement success in the New Zealand serpulid polychaete Galeolaria hystrix. Biofilms were developed under six pH(T) treatments (spanning from 7.0 to 8.1 [ambient]) in a flow-through system for up to 14 months. Biofilms of different ages (7, 10 and 14 months) were used to assay successful settlement of competent G. hystrix larvae reared under ambient conditions. Biofilm microbiomes were characterized through amplicon sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal rRNA gene (16S and 18S). Biofilm community composition was stable over time within each pH treatment and biofilm age did not affect larval settlement selectivity. Seawater pH treatment strongly influenced biofilm community composition, as well as subsequent settlement success when biofilms were presented to competent Galeolaria larvae. Exposure to biofilms incubated under OA-treatments caused a decrease in larval settlement of up to 40% compared to the ambient treatments. We observed a decrease in settlement on biofilms relative to ambient pH for slides incubated at pH 7.9 and 7.7. This trend was reversed at pH 7.4, resulting in high settlement, comparable to ambient biofilms. Settlement decreased on biofilms from pH 7.2, and no settlement was observed on biofilms from pH 7.0. For the first time, we show that long-term incubation of marine biofilms under a wide range of reduced seawater pH treatments can alter marine biofilms in such a way that settlement success in marine invertebrates can be compromised.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 219, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594188

RESUMO

Human activities are rapidly changing the structure and function of coastal marine ecosystems. Large-scale replacement of kelp forests and coral reefs with turf algal mats is resulting in homogenous habitats that have less ecological and human value. Ocean acidification has strong potential to substantially favour turf algae growth, which led us to examine the mechanisms that stabilise turf algal states. Here we show that ocean acidification promotes turf algae over corals and macroalgae, mediating new habitat conditions that create stabilising feedback loops (altered physicochemical environment and microbial community, and an inhibition of recruitment) capable of locking turf systems in place. Such feedbacks help explain why degraded coastal habitats persist after being initially pushed past the tipping point by global and local anthropogenic stressors. An understanding of the mechanisms that stabilise degraded coastal habitats can be incorporated into adaptive management to better protect the contribution of coastal systems to human wellbeing.

3.
Mol Ecol ; 29(23): 4680-4691, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979001

RESUMO

Oligotrophic subtropical gyres are the largest continuous biomes on Earth and play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Microbial communities govern primary production and carbon cycling in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre, yet the ecological processes which underpin microbial biogeography in the region remain understudied. We investigated microbial biogeography and community assembly processes at three depths over a ~2,000-km the transect was longitudinal, so ran from 32°S, 170°W to 32°S, 152°W). Thus the latitude (32°S) was constant. Microbial communities in the surface waters (15 and 50 m) were remarkably similar across the transect, whilst communities at the deep chlorophyll maximum were distinct from the surface waters and displayed greater compositional heterogeneity. An ecological null model approach indicated that homogeneous selection was the dominant community assembly process in both the surface waters (100%) and at the deep chlorophyll maximum (91.81%), although variable selection (2.34%) and stochastic processes (5.85%) had a minor influence at the deep chlorophyll maximum. Homogeneous selection (76.69%77.90%), dispersal limitation (15.00%-20.05%) and variable selection (3.01%-7.11%) influenced community assembly between the surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum. Seawater density and temperature, which were correlated, were the most important environmental modulators of the balance between stochastic and deterministic assembly processes. Our findings demonstrate remarkable similarity in microbial community composition across longitudinal scales in the oligotrophic South Pacific Gyre, underpinned by strong environmental selection which overwhelms the influence of ecological drift. These data significantly advance our understanding of microbial community dynamics in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres which dominate the Earth's surface.

4.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 12(4): 377-386, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307860

RESUMO

Bacterioplankton play a critical role in primary production, carbon cycling, and nutrient cycling in the oligotrophic ocean. To investigate the effect of elevated CO2 and warming on the composition and function of bacterioplankton communities in oligotrophic waters, we performed two trace-metal clean deck board incubation experiments during the New Zealand GEOTRACES transect of the South Pacific gyre (SPG). High-throughput amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that bacterioplankton community composition was distinct between the fringe and ultra-oligotrophic centre of the SPG and changed consistently in response to elevated CO2 at the ultra-oligotrophic centre but not at the mesotrophic fringe of the SPG. The combined effects of elevated CO2 and warming resulted in a high degree of heterogeneity between replicate communities. Community-level protein synthesis rates (3 H-Leucine incorporation) and bacterioplankton abundance were not affected by elevated CO2 alone or in combination with warming at the fringe or ultra-oligotrophic centre of the SPG. These data suggest bacterioplankton community responses to elevated CO2 may be modulated by nutrient regimes in open ocean ecosystems and highlight the need for further investigation in expanding oligotrophic subtropical gyres.

5.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158553, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27384948

RESUMO

Relief of iron (Fe) limitation in the surface Southern Ocean has been suggested as one driver of the regular glacial-interglacial cycles in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). The proposed cause is enhanced deposition of Fe-bearing atmospheric dust to the oceans during glacial intervals, with consequent effects on export production and the carbon cycle. However, understanding the role of enhanced atmospheric Fe supply in biogeochemical cycles is limited by knowledge of the fluxes and 'bioavailability' of atmospheric Fe during glacial intervals. Here, we assess the effect of Fe fertilization by dust, dry-extracted from the Last Glacial Maximum portion of the EPICA Dome C Antarctic ice core, on the Antarctic diatom species Eucampia antarctica and Proboscia inermis. Both species showed strong but differing reactions to dust addition. E. antarctica increased cell number (3880 vs. 786 cells mL-1), chlorophyll a (51 vs. 3.9 µg mL-1) and particulate organic carbon (POC; 1.68 vs. 0.28 µg mL-1) production in response to dust compared to controls. P. inermis did not increase cell number in response to dust, but chlorophyll a and POC per cell both strongly increased compared to controls (39 vs. 15 and 2.13 vs. 0.95 ng cell-1 respectively). The net result of both responses was a greater production of POC and chlorophyll a, as well as decreased Si:C and Si:N incorporation ratios within cells. However, E, antarctica decreased silicate uptake for the same nitrate and carbon uptake, while P. inermis increased carbon and nitrate uptake for the same silicate uptake. This suggests that nutrient utilization changes in response to Fe addition could be driven by different underlying mechanisms between different diatom species. Enhanced supply of atmospheric dust to the surface ocean during glacial intervals could therefore have driven nutrient-utilization changes which could permit greater carbon fixation for lower silica utilization. Additionally, both species responded more strongly to lower amounts of direct Fe chloride addition than they did to dust, suggesting that not all the Fe released from dust was in a bioavailable form available for uptake by diatoms.


Assuntos
Atmosfera , Diatomáceas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gelo , Ferro/química , Regiões Antárticas , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Clorofila/química , Clorofila A , Poeira , Ecossistema , Nitratos/química , Nitrogênio/química , Oceanos e Mares , Fotossíntese , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Silício/química
6.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 368(1627): 20120437, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23980240

RESUMO

Ocean acidification and greenhouse warming will interactively influence competitive success of key phytoplankton groups such as diatoms, but how long-term responses to global change will affect community structure is unknown. We incubated a mixed natural diatom community from coastal New Zealand waters in a short-term (two-week) incubation experiment using a factorial matrix of warming and/or elevated pCO2 and measured effects on community structure. We then isolated the dominant diatoms in clonal cultures and conditioned them for 1 year under the same temperature and pCO2 conditions from which they were isolated, in order to allow for extended selection or acclimation by these abiotic environmental change factors in the absence of interspecific interactions. These conditioned isolates were then recombined into 'artificial' communities modelled after the original natural assemblage and allowed to compete under conditions identical to those in the short-term natural community experiment. In general, the resulting structure of both the unconditioned natural community and conditioned 'artificial' community experiments was similar, despite differences such as the loss of two species in the latter. pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on community structure, but temperature was more influential, as warming significantly reduced species richness. In this case, our short-term manipulative experiment with a mixed natural assemblage spanning weeks served as a reasonable proxy to predict the effects of global change forcing on diatom community structure after the component species were conditioned in isolation over an extended timescale. Future studies will be required to assess whether or not this is also the case for other types of algal communities from other marine regimes.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Biota/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Água do Mar/química , Análise de Variância , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nova Zelândia , Oceano Pacífico , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
7.
Nature ; 487(7407): 313-9, 2012 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22810695

RESUMO

Fertilization of the ocean by adding iron compounds has induced diatom-dominated phytoplankton blooms accompanied by considerable carbon dioxide drawdown in the ocean surface layer. However, because the fate of bloom biomass could not be adequately resolved in these experiments, the timescales of carbon sequestration from the atmosphere are uncertain. Here we report the results of a five-week experiment carried out in the closed core of a vertically coherent, mesoscale eddy of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, during which we tracked sinking particles from the surface to the deep-sea floor. A large diatom bloom peaked in the fourth week after fertilization. This was followed by mass mortality of several diatom species that formed rapidly sinking, mucilaginous aggregates of entangled cells and chains. Taken together, multiple lines of evidence-although each with important uncertainties-lead us to conclude that at least half the bloom biomass sank far below a depth of 1,000 metres and that a substantial portion is likely to have reached the sea floor. Thus, iron-fertilized diatom blooms may sequester carbon for timescales of centuries in ocean bottom water and for longer in the sediments.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Oceanos e Mares , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Glob Chang Biol ; 18(10): 3004-3014, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741835

RESUMO

Nitrogen fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria is a critical source of new nitrogen to the oligotrophic surface ocean. Research to date indicates that some diazotroph groups may increase nitrogen fixation under elevated pCO2 . To test this in natural plankton communities, four manipulation experiments were carried out during two voyages in the South Pacific (30-35o S). High CO2 treatments, produced using 750 ppmv CO2 to adjust pH to 0.2 below ambient, and 'Greenhouse' treatments (0.2 below ambient pH and ambient temperature +3 °C), were compared with Controls in trace metal clean deckboard incubations in triplicate. No significant change was observed in nitrogen fixation in either the High CO2 or Greenhouse treatments over 5 day incubations. qPCR measurements and optical microscopy determined that the diazotroph community was dominated by Group A unicellular cyanobacteria (UCYN-A), which may account for the difference in response of nitrogen fixation under elevated CO2 to that reported previously for Trichodesmium. This may reflect physiological differences, in that the greater cell surface area:volume of UCYN-A and its lack of metabolic pathways involved in carbon fixation may confer no benefit under elevated CO2 . However, multiple environmental controls may also be a factor, with the low dissolved iron concentrations in oligotrophic surface waters limiting the response to elevated CO2 . If nitrogen fixation by UCYN-A is not stimulated by elevated pCO2 , then future increases in CO2 and warming may alter the regional distribution and dominance of different diazotroph groups, with implications for dissolved iron availability and new nitrogen supply in oligotrophic regions.

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