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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808621

RESUMO

Background. In the past few years, surgical robots have recently entered the medical field, particularly in urology, gynecology, and general surgery. However, the clinical effectiveness and safety of robot-assisted surgery (RAS) in the field of head and neck surgery has not been clearly established. In this review, we evaluate to what extent RAS can potentially be applied in head and neck surgery, in which fields it is already daily routine and what advantages can be seen in comparison to conventional surgery. Data sources. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review of trials published between 2000 and 2021, as well as currently ongoing trials registered in clinicaltrials.gov. The results were structured according to anatomical regions, for the topics "Costs," "current clinical trials," and "robotic research" we added separate sections for the sake of clarity. Results. Our findings show a lack of large-scale systematic randomized trials on the use of robots in head and neck surgery. Most studies include small case series or lack a control arm which enables a comparison with established standard procedures. Conclusion. The question of financial reimbursement is still not answered and the systems on the market still require some specific improvements for the use in head and neck surgery.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808695

RESUMO

Surgical removal of the larynx (total laryngectomy) offers a curative approach to patients with advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal (squamous cell) cancer without distant metastases. Particularly in T4a carcinoma, laryngectomy seems prognostically superior to primary radio(chemo)therapy. Further relevant indications for laryngectomy include massive laryngeal dysfunction associated with aspiration and recurrence after radio(chemo)therapy, resulting in salvage surgery. The surgical procedure including neck dissection is highly standardised and safe. The resulting aphonia can be compensated by functional rehabilitation (e.g., voice prosthesis) associated with a significant quality of life improvement. This article presents an overview of indications, preoperative diagnostics, surgical procedures, including new developments (robotics), possible complications, the choice of adjuvant treatment, alternative therapeutic approaches, rehabilitation and prognosis. In summary, total laryngectomy still represents a relevant surgical procedure in modern head and neck oncology.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809574

RESUMO

Curcumin is known to have immune-modulatory and antitumor effects by interacting with more than 30 different proteins. An important feature of curcumin is the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Here, we evaluate the potential of curcumin to reverse the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells as a part of tumor escape mechanisms. We examined the impact of curcumin on the expression of different pro- and antitumoral chemokines in ex vivo HNSCC tumor tissue and primary macrophage cultures. Further, we evaluated the combinatorial effect of curcumin and toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist Poly I:C (PIC) on NF-κB inhibition and regulatory T-cell (Treg) attraction. Mesenchymal markers were significantly reduced in cancer specimens after incubation with curcumin, with simultaneous reduction of key transcription factors of EMT, Snail, and Twist. Furthermore, a decrease of the Treg-attracting chemokine CCL22 was observed. Additionally, curcumin-related inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation was evident. The combination of PIC with curcumin resulted in further NF-κB inhibition, whereas PIC alone contrarily resulted in NF-κB activation. Furthermore, curcumin was more effective in inhibiting PIC-dependent NF-κB activation and Treg attraction compared to known NF-κB inhibitors BAY 11-7082 or caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). The presented results show, for the first time, the immune-modulating effects of curcumin in HNSCC, with potent inhibition of the Treg-attracting effects of PIC. Hence, curcumin presents a promising drug in cancer therapy as a supplement to already established treatments.

4.
JMIR Form Res ; 5(4): e20468, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an exercise-based program prescribed after cardiac events associated with improved physical, mental, and social functioning; however, many patients return to a sedentary lifestyle leading to deteriorating functional capacity after discharge from CR. Physical activity (PA) is critical to avoid recurrence of cardiac events and mortality and maintain functional capacity. Leveraging mobile health (mHealth) strategies to increase adherence to PA is a promising approach. Based on the social cognitive theory, we sought to determine whether mHealth strategies (Movn mobile app for self-monitoring, supportive push-through messages, and wearable activity tracker) would improve PA and functional capacity over 2 months. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this pilot randomized controlled trial were to examine preliminary effects of an mHealth intervention on group differences in PA and functional capacity and group differences in depression and self-efficacy to maintain exercise after CR. METHODS: During the final week of outpatient CR, patients were randomized 1:1 to the intervention group or usual care. The intervention group downloaded the Movn mobile app, received supportive push-through messages on motivation and educational messages related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) management 3 times per week, and wore a Charge 2 (Fitbit Inc) activity tracker to track step counts. Participants in the usual care group wore a pedometer and recorded their daily steps in a diary. Data from the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and self-reported questionnaires were collected at baseline and 2 months. RESULTS: We recruited 60 patients from 2 CR sites at a community hospital in Northern California. The mean age was 68.0 (SD 9.3) years, and 23% (14/60) were female; retention rate was 85% (51/60). Our results from 51 patients who completed follow-up showed the intervention group had a statistically significant higher mean daily step count compared with the control (8860 vs 6633; P=.02). There was no difference between groups for the 6MWT, depression, or self-efficacy to maintain exercise. CONCLUSIONS: This intervention addresses a major public health initiative to examine the potential for mobile health strategies to promote PA in patients with CVD. Our technology-based pilot mHealth intervention provides promising results on a pragmatic and contemporary approach to promote PA by increasing daily step counts after completing CR. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03446313; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03446313.

5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843952

RESUMO

Weight loss or lower Body Mass Index (BMI) may be an early symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but when this begins to emerge is difficult to estimate with traditional observational data. In an extension of Mendelian randomization, we used genetic risk for late-onset AD risk to estimate the causal effect of AD on BMI and the earliest ages at which AD-related weight loss (or lower BMI as a proxy) occurs. 407,386 UK Biobank participants enrolled 2007-2010 without dementia, aged 39-73, with Caucasian genetic ancestry, with BMI (kg/m2), and an AD genetic risk score (AD-GRS) based on 23 genetic variants. Using linear regressions, we tested the association of AD-GRS with BMI stratified by decade and calculated the age of divergence in BMI-trends between low and high AD-GRS. AD-GRS was not associated with BMI in 39-49 year-olds (ß:0.00;95%CI:-0.03,0.03). AD-GRS was associated with lower BMI in 50-59 year-olds (ß:-0.03; 95%CI:-0.06,-0.01) and 60-73 year-olds (ß:-0.09;95%CI:-0.12,-0.07). Model-based BMI age-curves for high versus low AD-GRS began to diverge after age 47. Sensitivity analyses found no evidence for pleiotropy or survival bias. Longitudinal replication is needed; however, our findings suggest that AD genes may begin to reduce BMI decades prior to dementia diagnosis.

6.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The surgical closure of septal perforations is a challenging procedure. Various techniques exist. Each perforation proves that there is not the one precise procedure for all perforations. Nevertheless, success rates of about 90% are reported, although the procedure for closing the defect is challenging. Our goal was to evaluate the existing data. METHODS: We performed a contemporary review of published closure rates of septal perforations on order to compare the present results in the literature. The limitations of the respective studies were analyzed. RESULTS: We found closure rates from 30 to 100%. Numerous procedures were described and combined. Prospective studies comparing different techniques are missing. The follow-up time in studies was quite short or not even specified. Studies on long-term success rates are rare. CONCLUSION: The closure of septal defects is one of the most challenging rhinosurgical interventions. Closure rates ≥90% as described in literature seem relatively high. One reason might be short follow-ups and retrospective study designs. Frequently, precise information on the follow-up and the method of follow up is missing. Thoroughly designed prospective studies are absent. Longer follow-up times are associated with lower complete closure rates. A long-term success rate between 70 and 80% seems realistic.

7.
HNO ; 69(4): 303-311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the main symptoms of severe infection with the new coronavirus­2 (SARS-CoV-2) is hypoxemic respiratory failure because of viral pneumonia with the need for mechanical ventilation. Prolonged mechanical ventilation may require a tracheostomy, but the increased risk for contamination is a matter of considerable debate. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of safety and effects of surgical tracheostomy on ventilation parameters and outcome in patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study between March 27 and May 18, 2020, in a single-center coronavirus disease-designated ICU at a tertiary care German hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with COVID-19 were treated with open surgical tracheostomy due to severe hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. MEASUREMENTS: Clinical and ventilation data were obtained from medical records in a retrospective manner. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV­2 infection and surgical tracheostomy were analyzed. The age range was 42-87 years. All patients received open tracheostomy between 2-16 days after admission. Ventilation after tracheostomy was less invasive (reduction in PEAK and positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]) and lung compliance increased over time after tracheostomy. Also, sedative drugs could be reduced, and patients had a reduced need of norepinephrine to maintain hemodynamic stability. Six of 18 patients died. All surgical staff were equipped with N99-masks and facial shields or with powered air-purifying respirators (PAPR). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that open surgical tracheostomy can be performed without severe complications in patients with COVID-19. Tracheostomy may reduce invasiveness of mechanical ventilation and the need for sedative drugs and norepinehprine. Recommendations for personal protective equipment (PPE) for surgical staff should be followed when PPE is available to avoid contamination of the personnel.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of demographic change on the age at diagnosis in German head and neck cancer (HNC) patients is unclear. Here we present an evaluation of aging trends in HNC at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study on aging trends at the initial diagnosis of newly diagnosed patients with HNC between 2004 and 2018 at the head and neck cancer center Ulm in relation to demographic data of the catchment area. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 2450 individuals diagnosed with HNC with a mean age of 62.84 (±11.67) years. We observed a significant increase in annual incidence rates and mean age over time. Mean age among HNC patients increased significantly more than among the population in the catchment area. Whereas the incidence rate of patients <50 years did not change, the incidence of HNC patients aged ≥70 years increased the most. The mean patient age in the main tumor sites increased significantly. Surprisingly, HPV-positive patients were not younger than HPV-negative patients, but showed a non-significant trend towards a higher mean age (63.0 vs. 60.7 years). CONCLUSIONS: Increasing incidence rates in older patients pose a challenge for health care systems. A nationwide study is needed to assess the dynamics and impact of aging on the incidence of HNC.

9.
Eur J Immunol ; 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733501

RESUMO

BOB.1/OBF.1 expression regulates the transcription of direct and indirect target genes. We propose that BOB.1/OBF.1 affects CXCL13-CXCR5 signaling of LTinducer and LTorganizer cells during embryonic Peyer's patch organogenesis as well as of B cells and follicular dendritic cells during lymphocyte homing at postnatal stages of secondary lymphoid organ development.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561380

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical interventions are urgently needed to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission. As SARS-CoV-2 infects and spreads via the nasopharyngeal airways, we analyzed the antiviral effect of selected nasal and oral sprays on virus infection in vitro. Two nose sprays showed virucidal activity but were cytotoxic precluding further analysis in cell culture. One nasal and one mouth spray suppressed SARS-CoV-2 infection of TMPRSS2-Vero E6 cells and primary differentiated human airway epithelial cultures. The antiviral activity in both sprays could be attributed to polyanionic ι- and κ-carrageenans. Thus, application of carrageenan containing nasal and mouth sprays may reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and may limit viral spread, warranting further clinical evaluation.

12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 970, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579919

RESUMO

Even distinct cancer types share biological hallmarks. Here, we investigate polygenic risk score (PRS)-specific pleiotropy across 16 cancers in European ancestry individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (16,012 cases, 50,552 controls) and UK Biobank (48,969 cases, 359,802 controls). Within cohorts, each PRS is evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models against all other cancer types. Results are then meta-analyzed across cohorts. Ten positive and one inverse cross-cancer associations are found after multiple testing correction. Two pairs show bidirectional associations; the melanoma PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer and vice versa, whereas the lung cancer PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, and the oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer PRS is inversely associated with lung cancer. Overall, we validate known, and uncover previously unreported, patterns of pleiotropy that have the potential to inform investigations of risk prediction, shared etiology, and precision cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Laryngorhinootologie ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395712

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNC) of the larynx is a rare tumor entity with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of only 5 % after treatment with chemoradiotherapy. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed for "SCNC" and "SCNC in head and neck". Our hospital's own electronic patient file database was investigated for patients diagnosed with a SCNC over the last 12 years. RESULTS: The effectiveness of chemoradiotherapy in SCNC is still unclear since randomized clinical trials are missing for the evaluation of standard of care treatment. Common therapy approaches are based on experiences with small cell lung cancer. 0.5 % of all SCNC occur in the head and neck region. In the last 12 years, we diagnosed 9 patients with SCNC, two of which were located in the larynx. Exemplarily, we report the case of a 29-year-old male with the initial diagnosis of a SCNC of the larynx with concurrent lymph node metastasis. This case is particularly interesting due to the young age at disease onset and the lack of major risk factors. Treatment was modified to nivolumab due to progressive disease after treatment with chemoradiotherapy. After an OS of 22 months, the patient deceased due to a tumor-associated major bleeding with airway obstruction. CONCLUSION: So far there are no clinical reports evaluating the use of nivolumab in third-line-therapy of SCNC. NTRK fusion (neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase gene fusion) or the folate receptor expression analysis should be considered to evaluate the potential use of a tropomyosin receptor kinase inhibitor or a folate receptor targeting therapy.

15.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 33: 127738, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316404

RESUMO

Through structural modification of an oxalamide derived chemotype, a novel class of highly potent, orally bioavailable IDO1-specific inhibitors was identified. Representative compound 18 inhibited human IDO1 with IC50 values of 3.9 nM and 52 nM in a cellular and human whole blood assay, respectively. In vitro assessment of the ADME properties of 18 demonstrated very high metabolic stability. Pharmacokinetic profiling in mice showed a significantly reduced clearance compared to the oxalamides. In a mouse pharmacodynamic model 18 nearly completely suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced kynurenine production. Hepatocyte data of 18 suggest the human clearance to be in a similar range to linrodostat (1).

17.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 33: 127744, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333163

RESUMO

Since the advent of antibody checkpoint inhibitors as highly efficient drugs for cancer treatment, the development of immunomodulating small molecules in oncology has gained great attention. Drug candidates targeting IDO1, a key enzyme in tryptophan metabolism, are currently under clinical investigation in combination with PD-1/PD-L1 agents as well as with other established anti-tumor therapeutics. A ligand based design approach from hydroxyamidine 4 that aimed at heme-binding IDO1 inhibitors resulted in new compounds with moderate IDO1 potency. A hybrid structure design that made use of the linrodostat structure (2) led to oxalamide derived, heme-displacing IDO1 inhibitors with high cell-based IDO1 potency and a favorable ADME/PK profile.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 148(8): 2023-2035, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336372

RESUMO

Programmed-death-1 (PD1) antibodies are approved for recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Multiple drugs targeting costimulatory and coinhibitory immune checkpoint molecules (ICM) have been discovered. However, it remains unknown how these ICM are affected by curative conventional therapy on different immune cell subsets during the course of treatment. In the prospective noninterventional clinical study titled "Immune Response Evaluation to Curative conventional Therapy" (NCT03053661), 22 patients were prospectively enrolled. Blood samples were drawn at defined time points throughout curative conventional treatment and follow-up. Immune cells (IC) from the different time points were assessed by multicolor flow cytometry. The following ICM were measured by flow cytometry: PD1, CTLA4, BTLA, CD137, CD27, GITR, OX40, LAG3 and TIM3. Dynamics of ICM expression were assessed using nonparametric paired samples tests. Significant changes were noted for PD1, BTLA and CD27 on multiple IC types during or after radiotherapy. Nonsignificant trends for increased expression of OX40 and GITR from baseline until the end of RT were observed on CD4 T cells and CD4+ CD39+ T cells. In patients with samples at recurrence of disease, a nonsignificant increase of TIM3 and LAG3 positive CD4+ CD39+ T cells was evident, accompanied by an increase of double positive cells for TIM3/LAG3. Potential future targets to be combined with RT in the conventional treatment and anti-PD1/PD-L could be BTLA agonists, or agonistic antibodies to costimulatory ICM like CD137, OX40 or GITR. The combination of cetuximab with CD27 agonistic antibodies enhancing ADCC or the targeting of TIM3/LAG3 may be another promising strategy.

19.
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 79(3): 520-531, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338418

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The removal of third molars (M3) is one of the most common oral-maxillofacial surgical procedures affecting periodontal tissues of neighboring second molars (M2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal status of lower M2 following the removal of unerupted lower M3 up to 5 years after removal. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Primary predictor variable in this prospective cohort-study was time [baseline (BL; preoperatively), 6 and 60 months postoperatively]. The primary outcome variable was probing pocket depth (PPD). Clinical attachment level (CAL) was defined as a secondary outcome variable. Plaque index (PlI) and gingival index (GI) were assessed descriptively. All variables were compared using nonparametric tests. M3 were classified as either completely bony or partially bony unerupted. Risk factors (removed M3, type of impaction, mean BL PPD≥4 mm, gender, age) were analyzed (repeated measures ANCOVA). The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: From originally 91 subjects enrolled in this study, 39 subjects (22 females; mean age: 21.6 ± 2.5 years) contributing 39 M3 completed the study after 5 years. Average BL PPD significantly decreased at 6 (-0.50 ± 0.61 mm, P = .001), 60 months (-0.81 ± 0.56, P < .0001), as well as between 6 and 60 months (-0.31 ± 0.51 mm, P = .030). Corresponding CAL values decreased accordingly (BL-6 months: -0.37 ± 0.59 mm, P = .004; BL-60 months: -0.67 ± 0.55 mm, P < .0001; 6 to 60 months: -0.34 ± 0.48 mm, P = .004). The was confirmed as risk factor for PPD (P = .026) and CAL (P = .042) changes. CONCLUSIONS: Average PPD and CAL of mandibular M2 in young subjects improved 5 years after early removal of unerupted M3 in favor of an initial partially bony unerupted type of impaction.


Assuntos
Dente Serotino , Dente Impactado , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Mandíbula , Dente Serotino/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Extração Dentária , Dente Impactado/diagnóstico por imagem , Dente Impactado/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293427

RESUMO

To identify rare variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility and better characterize the mechanisms and cumulative disease risk associated with common risk variants, we conducted an integrated study of PrCa genetic etiology in two cohorts using custom genotyping microarrays, large imputation reference panels, and functional annotation approaches. Specifically, 11,984 men (6,196 PrCa cases, 5,788 controls) of European ancestry from Northern California Kaiser Permanente were genotyped and meta-analyzed with 196,269 men of European ancestry (7,917 PrCa cases, 188,352 controls) from the UK Biobank. Three novel loci, including two rare variants (European ancestry minor allele frequency < 0.01, at 3p21.31 and 8p12), were significant genome-wide in a meta-analysis. Gene-based rare variant tests implicated a known PrCa gene (HOXB13), as well as a novel candidate gene (ILDR1), which encodes a receptor highly expressed in prostate tissue and is related to the B7/CD28 family of T cell immune checkpoint markers. Haplotypic patterns of long-range linkage disequilibrium were observed for rare genetic variants at HOXB13 and other loci, reflecting their evolutionary history. Additionally, a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 188 PrCa variants was strongly associated with risk (90th vs. 40-60th percentile OR = 2.62, P = 2.55*10-191). Many of the 188 variants exhibited functional signatures of gene expression regulation or transcription factor binding, including a six-fold difference in log-probability of Androgen Receptor binding at the variant rs2680708 (17q22). Rare variant and PRS associations, with concomitant functional interpretation of risk mechanisms can help clarify the full genetic architecture of PrCa and other complex traits.

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