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1.
Pflege ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814707

RESUMO

Task sharing in outpatient dementia care - Focus groups with GPs and nurses Abstract. Background: Caring for people with dementia (PWD) is challenging for the health system and family carers and can only be managed through interprofessional medical and nursing care. AIM: The AHeaD study investigated attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) and nurses towards the transfer of activities previously performed by GPs to advanced nurses in the outpatient care of PWDs. METHODS: In four focus group discussions with 10 GPs and 13 nurses, qualitative content analysis was used to investigate attitudes towards the transfer of certain tasks and to identify opportunities and barriers to their introduction. RESULTS: GPs primarily preferred the transfer of nursing activities such as blood sampling, assessments, their monitoring or follow-up prescriptions for nursing aids. "Classical" medical tasks (e. g. diagnosis of diseases, initial prescription of medication) are still seen in the hands of GPs. Nurses demanded more appreciation and recognition for the relationship between GPs and nurse and criticised the lack of trust and insufficient communication. Both sides pointed to tight time budgets that were hardly oriented towards the actual needs of the PWD. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of a redistribution of tasks requires the creation of legal and financial framework conditions, time resources, concrete task descriptions as well as a stronger cooperation between the professional groups involved. Innovative concepts could contribute to the sensible use of the resources GP and nurses and strengthen the care of PWDs.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639754

RESUMO

Quality of life (QoL) is a core patient-reported outcome in healthcare research, alongside primary clinical outcomes. A conceptual, operational, and psychometric elaboration of QoL in the context of TM is needed, because standardized instruments to assess QoL do not sufficiently represent essential aspects of intended outcomes of telemedical applications (TM). The overall aim is to develop an instrument that can adequately capture QoL in TM. For that purpose, an extended working model of QoL will be derived. Subsequently, an instrument will be developed and validated that captures those aspects of QoL that are influenced by TM. The initial exploratory study section includes (a) a systematic literature review, (b) a qualitative survey for concept elicitation, and (c) pre-testings using cognitive debriefings with patients and an expert workshop. The second quantitative section consists of an online expert survey and two patient surveys for piloting and validation of the newly developed instrument. The resulting questionnaire will assess central experiences of patients regarding telemedical applications and its impact on QoL more sensitively. Its use as adjunct instrument will lead to a more appropriate evaluation of TM and contribute to the improvement of care tailored to patients' individual needs.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 84(1): 343-366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person-centered care (PCC) is an important concept in many countries' national guidelines and dementia plans. Key intervention categories, i.e., a taxonomy of person-centered (PC)-interventions, to provide person-centered dementia care, are difficult to identify from literature. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to identify and categorize published PC-interventions into key intervention categories to guide the provision of person-centered dementia care. METHODS: Conduct of this systematic review followed Cochrane guidelines. A search of the dimensions 'Dementia', 'Person-Centered Care', and 'Intervention' combined was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Study selection was based on 2-stage screening against eligibility criteria, limited to controlled study designs. Information about interventions and outcomes was extracted into an "Effects Table". The identified PC-interventions were categorized in intervention categories to provide person-centered dementia care. RESULTS: Searches identified 1,806 records. 19 studies were included. These covered a range of psychosocial interventions, oftentimes multi-component interventions, which followed heterogeneous approaches. Studies were conducted in long-term care/hospital settings. Nine key intervention categories were identified: social contact, physical activities, cognitive training, sensory enhancement, daily living assistance, life history oriented emotional support, training and support for professional caregivers, environmental adjustments, and care organization. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a current overview of published PC-interventions in dementia, which followed heterogeneous approaches under the PCC-concept. The heterogeneity made it challenging to identify a well-defined concept of PCC and common key intervention categories. An effectiveness-evaluation of "PC" - including "relationship-centered"-interventions may be valuable, to assess whether an explicit focus on relationships around PCC-interventions yields an added benefit. PROSPERO-ID: CRD42021225084.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257326, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of physical activity (PA) and a high level of physical inactivity (PI) are associated with a higher risk for mortality and responsible for several non-communicable diseases including cardiovascular disease. Higher age is associated with a decrease of PA and an increasing level of PI. Studies have shown that interventions in the elderly have the potential to increase the amount of PA and to decrease the level of PI. However, most interventions are complex, elaborated, time- and resource-consuming. Here, we examined the effect of individual feedback-letters reporting the measured PA and PI in a sample of elderly people in Germany. Primary outcomes of the study were overall PA and PI after 6 months in the intervention group compared to a control group. METHODS: We examined data from the MOVING intervention study (RCT) for people aged ≥ 65 years living in the northeast of Germany. At baseline, 3 and 6-months follow-up, all study participants wore a 3-axis accelerometer over a period of seven consecutive days. After the baseline measurement, the participants were randomized into intervention and control group. Participants in the intervention group received automatically generated, individualized feedback letters reporting their PA and PI by mail after the baseline measurement and after the 3-months follow-up. A Two-Way Mixed ANOVA with repeated measures was calculated with light, moderate and overall PA as well as PI as dependent variables, and group (between subject) and time (inner subject) as factors. The analysis based on retrospective data from the MOVING study (2016-2018). RESULTS: N = 258 patients were recruited. N = 166 participants could be included in the analysis, thereof N = 97 women (58.4%). The mean age was 70.8 years (SD 4.8). At baseline, the participants had a mean wearing time of 5,934.5 minutes (SD = 789.5) per week, which corresponds to about 14 hours daily on average. The overall PA in the intervention group at the 6-months follow up was 2488.8 (95% CI 2358.9-2618.2) minutes and 2408.2 (95% CI 2263.0-2553.4) minutes in the control group. There was no statistically significant interaction effect (time*group) between the intervention and control group for the depending variables. Sensitivity analyses showed significant small positive effects of the interaction time*partnership, F(2, 300) = 3.020, p = 0.05, partial η2 = 0.020. DISCUSSION: On average, study participants had high levels of PA at baseline and showed a good adherence in wearing the accelerometer. Both is likely due to selection in the convenience study sample. Thus, some ceiling effect reduced the overall intervention effect somewhat. At baseline, the weekly average of PI was 3436.7 minutes, which correspondents to about 8.2 hours per day and about 57% of participants' daily waking time. The average level of PI could be slightly decreased in both study groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00010410, 17 May 2017.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256689, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vulnerable groups, e.g. persons with mental illness, neurological deficits or dementia, are often excluded as participants from research projects because obtaining informed consent can be difficult and tedious. This may have the consequence that vulnerable groups benefit less from medical progress. Vulnerable persons are often supported by a legal guardian in one or more demands of their daily life. We examined the attitudes of legal guardians and legally supervised persons towards medical research and the conditions and motivations to participate in studies. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with standardized surveys of legal guardians and legally supervised persons. Two separate questionnaires were developed for the legal guardians and the supervised persons to asses previous experiences with research projects and the reasons for participation or non-participation. The legal guardians were recruited through various guardianship organizations. The supervised persons were recruited through their legal guardian and from a previous study among psychiatric patients. The data were analysed descriptively. RESULTS: Alltogether, 82 legal guardians and 20 legally supervised persons could be recruited. Thereof 13 legal guardians (15.6%) and 13 legally supervised persons (65.0%) had previous experience with research projects. The majority of the guardians with experience in research projects had consented the participation of their supervised persons (n = 12 guardians, 60.0%; in total n = 16 approvals). The possible burden on the participating person was given as the most frequent reason not to participate both by the guardians (n = 44, 54.4%) and by the supervised persons (n = 3, 30.0%). The most frequent motivation to provide consent to participate in a research study was the desire to help other patients by gaining new scientific knowledge (guardians: n = 125, 78.1%; supervised persons: n = 10, 66.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, an open attitude towards medical research can be observed both among legal guardians and supervised persons. Perceived risks and no sense recognized in the study are reasons for not participating in medical research projects.


Assuntos
Atitude , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Demência/psicologia , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/ética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
6.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(11): 890-893, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in schools continues to be a subject of controversy. METHODOLOGY: "schugi-MV" collects data on the incidence of infection, hygiene management and other factors in structured inspections of schools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Recommendations for safe teaching are to be derived from the results. This article presents information on the first 10 schools visited between 18.12.2020 and 20.01.2021. RESULTS: At the schools visited, the ratio of the number of index cases among adults and children was 1:1.25. The inspections showed a great heterogeneity of schools and school buildings and the resulting possibilities for implementing infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Based on the present preliminary results, hygiene and infection control measures at schools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania cannot be standardised, but should leave room for design.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Criança , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas
7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255427, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 frequently necessitates in-patient treatment and in-patient mortality is high. Less is known about the long-term outcomes in terms of mortality and readmissions following in-patient treatment. AIM: The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed account of hospitalized COVID-19 patients up to 180 days after their initial hospital admission. METHODS: An observational study with claims data from the German Local Health Care Funds of adult patients hospitalized in Germany between February 1 and April 30, 2020, with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and a related principal diagnosis, for whom 6-month all-cause mortality and readmission rates for 180 days after admission or until death were available. A multivariable logistic regression model identified independent risk factors for 180-day all-cause mortality in this cohort. RESULTS: Of the 8,679 patients with a median age of 72 years, 2,161 (24.9%) died during the index hospitalization. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 23.9% (2,073/8,679), the 90-day rate was 27.9% (2,425/8,679), and the 180-day rate, 29.6% (2,566/8,679). The latter was 52.3% (1,472/2,817) for patients aged ≥80 years 23.6% (1,621/6,865) if not ventilated during index hospitalization, but 53.0% in case of those ventilated invasively (853/1,608). Risk factors for the 180-day all-cause mortality included coagulopathy, BMI ≥ 40, and age, while the female sex was a protective factor beyond a fewer prevalence of comorbidities. Of the 6,235 patients discharged alive, 1,668 were readmitted a total of 2,551 times within 180 days, resulting in an overall readmission rate of 26.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The 180-day follow-up data of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in a nationwide cohort representing almost one-third of the German population show significant long-term, all-cause mortality and readmission rates, especially among patients with coagulopathy, whereas women have a profoundly better and long-lasting clinical outcome compared to men.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Readmissão do Paciente/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 43-49, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450524

RESUMO

Several studies revealed that mental disorders' prevalence increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in young and female individuals. Such studies represent individuals' subjective perceptions and not the number of mental health cases treated in primary care. Thus, this study aimed to describe the changes in depression, anxiety, and stress disorder diagnoses in General Practitioner (GP) practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. More than three million patients of 757 German GP practices were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to assess changes in the number of incident depression, anxiety disorders, and reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders documented by GPs in 2020 compared to the average of the years 2017-2019. There was a tremendous decrease in mental health diagnoses during the first lockdown that was only slightly compensated later. Overall populations and the entire year 2020, there was no change in documented depression (0%) and stress disorders (1%), but anxiety disorders were more often documented (+19%), especially for the elderly population (>80 years; +24%). This population group also received more frequently new depression (+12%) and stress disorder diagnoses (23%). The younger population was diagnosed more frequently at the end of 2020, nine months after the first lockdown. Anxiety disorders but not depression and stress diagnoses were elevated, which is not in line with previously published studies. We speculate that the elderly population was affected most by the pandemic immediately after the first lockdown was announced. The younger population has probably become more and more affected the longer the pandemic lasts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtorno Depressivo , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Atenção Primária à Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1775-1787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-value care (LvC) is defined as care unlikely to provide a benefit to the patient regarding the patient's preferences, potential harms, costs, or available alternatives. Avoiding LvC and promoting recommended evidence-based treatments, referred to as high-value care (HvC), could improve patient-reported outcomes for people living with dementia (PwD). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the prevalence of LvC and HvC in dementia and the associations of LvC and HvC with patients' quality of life and hospitalization. METHODS: The analysis was based on data of the DelpHi trial and included 516 PwD. Dementia-specific guidelines, the "Choosing Wisely" campaign and the PRISCUS list were used to indicate LvC and HvC treatments, resulting in 347 LvC and HvC related recommendations. Of these, 77 recommendations (51 for LvC, 26 for HvC) were measured within the DelpHi-trial and finally used for this analysis. The association of LvC and HvC treatments with PwD health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hospitalization was assessed using multiple regression models. RESULTS: LvC was highly prevalent in PwD (31%). PwD receiving LvC had a significantly lower quality of life (b = -0.07; 95% CI -0.14 - -0.01) and were significantly more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.26-3.39). Different HvC treatments were associated with both positive and negative changes in HRQoL. CONCLUSION: LvC could cause adverse outcomes and should be identified as early as possible and tried to be replaced. Future research should examine innovative models of care or treatment pathways supporting the identification and replacement of LvC in dementia.

10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 175, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although telemedical applications are increasingly used in the area of both mental and physical illness, there is no quality of life (QoL) instrument that takes into account the specific context of the healthcare setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a concept of quality of life in telemedical care to inform the development of a setting-sensitive patient-reported outcome measure. METHODS: Overall, 63 semi-structured single interviews and 15 focus groups with 68 participants have been conducted to determine the impact of telemedical care on QoL. Participants were patients with chronic physical or mental illnesses, with or without telemedicine supported healthcare as well as telemedical professionals. Mayring's content analysis approach was used to encode the qualitative data using MAXQDA software. RESULTS: The majority of aspects that influence the QoL of patients dealing with chronic conditions or mental illnesses could be assigned to an established working model of QoL. However, some aspects that were considered important (e. g. perceived safety) were not covered by the pre-existing domains. For that reason, we re-conceptualized the working model of QoL and added a sixth domain, referred to as healthcare-related domain. CONCLUSION: Interviewing patients and healthcare professionals brought forth specific aspects of QoL evolving in telemedical contexts. These results reinforce the assumption that existing QoL measurements lack sensitivity to assess the intended outcomes of telemedical applications. We will address this deficiency by a telemedicine-related re-conceptualization of the assessment of QoL and the development of a suitable add-on instrument based on the resulting category system of this study.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Qualidade de Vida , Telemedicina , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(1): 77-87, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assessing health-related quality of life in dementia poses challenges due to patients' cognitive impairment. It is unknown if the newly introduced EQ-5D five-level version (EQ-5D-5L) is superior to the 3-level version (EQ-5D-3L) in this cognitively impaired population group. OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the EQ-5D-5L in comparison to the EQ-5D-3L in patients living with dementia (PwD). METHODS: The EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L were assessed via interviews with n = 78 PwD at baseline and three and six months after, resulting in 131 assessments. The EQ-5D-3L and EQ-5D-5L were evaluated in terms of acceptability, agreement, ceiling effects, redistribution properties and inconsistency, informativity as well as convergent and discriminative validity. RESULTS: Mean index scores were higher for the EQ-5D-5L than the EQ-5D-3L (0.70 versus 0.64). Missing values occurred more frequently in the EQ-5D-5L than the EQ-5D-3L (8%versus 3%). Agreement between both measures was acceptable but poor in PwD with moderate to severe cognitive impairment. The index value's relative ceiling effect decreased from EQ-5D-3L to EQ-5D-5L by 17%. Inconsistency was moderate to high (13%). Absolute and relative informativity increased in the EQ-5D-5L compared to the 3L. The EQ-5D-5L demonstrated a lower discriminative ability and convergent validity, especially in PwD with moderate to severe cognitive deficits. CONCLUSION: The EQ-5D-5L was not superior as a self-rating instrument due to a lower acceptability and discriminative ability and a high inconsistency, especially in moderate to severe dementia. The EQ-5D-3L had slightly better psychometric properties and should preferably be used as a self-rating instrument in economic evaluations in dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Trials ; 22(1): 401, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to two-thirds of dementia care is provided by family caregivers who often experience high burden, little support and adverse health outcomes. Enabling and supporting family caregivers to provide care at home prevents early institutionalisation of the person with dementia and alleviates the economic burden of dementia in the long term. General practitioners (GPs), as the first point of contact, have a key role in identifying and managing burden and care needs of family caregivers. However, in routine care, this opportunity is often limited by time constraints and even if caregiver needs are recognised, detailed information about regionally available support and advice on healthcare services is often lacking. METHODS: This is a cluster randomised, controlled trial investigating the clinical use and cost-effectiveness of a digitally supported care management programme for caregivers of people with dementia (PwD). Five hundred family caregivers will be randomised at GP offices, specialist practices and memory clinics, with about n=250 participants per arm. Participants are eligible if they are the primary family caregiver of a PwD, are at least 18 years of age and provide informed consent. Participants in the intervention group will receive an individualised care management plan, which will be carried out by qualified study nurses in collaboration with the treating GP. All participants will receive a baseline assessment and a 6-months follow-up assessment. Participants in the wait-list control group will receive usual care. Starting at the 6 months' follow-up, the former controls will also receive an individualised management plan. Primary outcomes are the number of unmet needs (incl. the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly, CANE) and health-related quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes include caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview, ZBI), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale, LSNS), the use of medical and non-medical services (Questionnaire for the Use of Medical and Non-Medical Services, FIMA) and resource utilisation (Resource Utilisation in Dementia, RUD). The primary analysis will be based on intention-to-treat. Between- and within-group analyses and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to estimate the effect of the tablet PC-based care management programme. This trial is funded by the German Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) Innovation Fund. DISCUSSION: The findings of this trial will be useful in informing and improving current healthcare system structures and processes to support family dementia caregivers within routine care practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04037501 . Registered on 30 July 2019.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Transfus Med Hemother ; 48(3): 175-182, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177423

RESUMO

Background: The federal state of Saarland (SL) is experiencing the fastest demographic change in the western part of Germany. In this study, we analyzed retrospective data on the current and future supply of red blood cell concentrates (RBC) in this region and compared it to the current and future RBC demand in SL hospitals. Methods: The projection of the SL blood supply in 2030 was modeled based on SL demographics for age distribution and donation frequency of donors, and the RBC transfusion data for in-house patients. These results were compared to published data on the transfusion demand from the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MV). Results: For the period January 1 to December 31, 2017, a total of 43,205 whole blood donations were collected. The donation frequency in SL never exceeded 80 per 1,000 inhabitants and was well below the numbers in MV. Thirty-one percent of the donors were responsible for 53.5% of the donations, and donors older than 45 years of age contributed highly to the total blood supply. In addition, 40,614 RBC transfusions at 10 SL hospitals were analyzed representing nearly all RBC transfusions for in-house patients in this region. RBC transfusions per 1,000 inhabitants increased with age from 24 (50-54) to 140 (80-84) years. Facing an already existing structural deficit of nearly 8,200 RBC in 2017, the projection predicts a dramatic increase in the regional deficit to >18,300 RBC in 2030. Conclusion: Our results on RBC demand in SL are comparable but not identical to those projected for the region of MV in eastern Germany. Due to the ongoing demographic changes in Germany as a whole, regular regional monitoring of RBC demand and the age structure of blood recipients and donors should be implemented to allow for better strategic planning in blood transfusion services and hospitals.

16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 318, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are serious psychiatric disorders with a high disease burden, a high number of years of life lived with disability and a high risk for relapses and re-hospitalizations. Besides, both diseases are often accompanied with a reduced quality of life (QoL). A low level of quality of life is one predictor for relapses. This study examines whether a telemedical care program can improve QoL. METHODS: Post stationary telemedical care of patients with severe psychiatric disorders" (Tecla) is a prospective controlled randomized intervention trial to implement and evaluate a telemedical care concept for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Participants were randomized to an intervention or a control group. The intervention group received telemedical care including regular, individualized telephone calls and SMS-messages. QoL was measured with the German version of the WHOQOL-BREF. Effects of telemedicine on QoL after 6 months and treatment*time interactions were calculated using linear regressions (GLM and linear mixed models). RESULTS: One hundred eighteen participants were recruited, thereof 57.6% men (n = 68). Participants were on average 43 years old (SD 13). The treatment*time interaction was not significant. Hence, treatment had no significant effect either. Instead, gender is an influencing factor. Further analysis showed that social support, the GAF-level and QoL-values at baselines were significant determinants for the improvement of QoL. CONCLUSION: The telemedicine care concept Tecla was not significant for QoL in patients with severe psychiatric disorders. More important for the QoL is the general social support and the level of global functioning of the patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00008548, registered 21 May 2015 - retrospectively registered, https://www.drks.de/drks_web/setLocale_EN.do.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Esquizofrenia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Esquizofrenia/terapia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009511, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is highly prevalent in Africa. Praziquantel is effective against adult schistosomes but leaves prepatent stages unaffected-which is a limit to patient management and elimination. Given the large-scale use of praziquantel, development of drug resistance by Schistosoma is feared. Antimalarials are promising drugs for alternative treatment strategies of Schistosoma infections. Development of drugs with activity against both malaria and schistosomiasis is particularly appealing as schistosome infections often occur concomitantly with malaria parasites in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, antiplasmodial compounds were progressively tested against Schistosoma in vitro, in mice, and in a clinical study. RESULTS: Amongst 16 drugs and 1 control tested, pyronaridine, methylene blue and 5 other antimalarials were highly active in vitro against larval stage schistosomula with a 50% inhibitory concentration below 10 µM. Both drugs were lethal to ex vivo adult worms tested at 30 µM with methylene blue also active at 10 µM. Pyronaridine treatment of mice infected with S. mansoni at the prepatent stage reduced worm burden by 82% and cured 7 out of 12 animals, however in mice adult stages remained viable. In contrast, methylene blue inhibited adult worms by 60% but cure was not achieved. In an observational pilot trial in Gabon in children, the antimalarial drug combination pyronaridine-artesunate (Pyramax) reduced S. haematobium egg excretion from 10/10 ml urine to 0/10 ml urine, and 3 out of 4 children were cured. CONCLUSION: Pyronaridine and methylene blue warrant further investigation as candidates for schistosomiasis treatment. Both compounds are approved for human use and evidence for their potential as antischistosomal compounds can be obtained directly from clinical testing. Particularly, pyronaridine-artesunate, already available as an antimalarial drug, calls for further clinical evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03201770.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Artesunato/farmacologia , Criança , Combinação de Medicamentos , Gabão , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Camundongos , Schistosoma haematobium/efeitos dos fármacos , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(6): 470-480, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020493

RESUMO

The evaluation of intervention effects is an important domain of health services research. The ad hoc commission for the use of routine practice data of the German Network for Health Services Research (DNVF) therefore provides this second part of its manual focusing on the use of routine practice data for the evaluation of intervention effects. First, we discuss definition issues and the importance of contextual factors. Subsequently, general requirements for planning, data collection and analysis as well as concrete examples for the evaluation of intervention effects for the 3 fields of application regarding pharmacotherapy, nonpharmaceutical interventions as well as complex interventions are elaborated. We consider scenarios in which no information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the two groups directly is yet available or in which RCTs are already available but an extension of the research question is required. In all examples either with or without randomization, the first and foremost question is always whether the data source is suitable for the specific research question. Most of the examples chosen are from oncology trials, because the necessary data are already available for Germany, at least in some form. Finally, the manual discusses possible challenges for future use of these data.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Coleta de Dados , Alemanha
19.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 270, 2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To (a) describe the pattern of leisure time physical activities (LTPA) in community-dwelling persons who have been screened positive for dementia and (b) determine the health-related and sociodemographic factors associated with LTPA. METHODS: Data of the general practitioner-based, randomized, controlled intervention trial, DelpHi-MV (Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) were used. Patients aged 70 years or older, who lived at home and had a DemTect< 9 were informed about the study by their General practitioners and invited to participate. Data from 436 participants with complete baseline data were used. Standardized, computer-assisted assessments were made during face-to-face interviews at the participants' homes. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty-eight patients (54.6%) carried out LTPA (men 58.4%, women 51.8%). Physically active patients mentioned one to two different activities; diversity of LTPA was higher for men than for women. The most-frequently mentioned types of activity were gardening (35.3%), cycling (24.1%) and mobility training (12.4%); there was only a statistically significant difference between men and women in cycling, χ2(1) = 21.47, p < .001. The odds of LTPA increased with increasing quality of life (OR = 2.41), lower impairments in activities of daily living (OR = 0.85), and living in a rural environment (OR = 2.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that people who have been screened positive for dementia living in a rural area are more likely to be active than people living in an urban area. Following studies should investigate whether this difference has an effect on the progression of dementia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov Identifier NCT01401582 .


Assuntos
Demência , Vida Independente , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(4): 309-313, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831973

RESUMO

Within the framework of the early benefit assessment, the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA) has been authorised since 2019 by the law for more safety in the supply of pharmaceuticals GSAV to request additional application-related data capture for certain pharmaceutical drugs. This results in certain challenges, especially in the area of conflict between methodological requirements and practical feasibility. The position paper provides an overview and takes up the general regulations defined by the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG) as well as the process defined by the G-BA. Subsequently, possible solutions are discussed and recommendations for implementation are given from the perspective of health care research.


Assuntos
Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Livros , Coleta de Dados , Alemanha , Humanos
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