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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769468

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Study aim was to evaluate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), its association with clinical disease and its predictive ability with mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients from the European Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) database. METHODS: SSc patients from the EUSTAR database with available items for calculation of eGFR at baseline visit and with a second follow-up visit were included. A cut-off of 60 ml/min was chosen for all SSc patients and 30 ml/min for scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). Cox regression and competing risk analysis were performed to evaluate the role of eGFR as predictive factor of mortality. RESULTS: 3650 SSc patients were included. Mean serum level of creatinine and eGFR were 0.8 mg/dl (IQR 0.6-0.9) and 86.6 ± 23.7 ml/min. The eGFR was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Overall survival (OS) was significantly reduced in SSc patients with eGFR <60 ml/min respect to patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min [OS at five years 0.763 (CI 95%: 0.700-0.814) vs 0.903 (CI 95%: 0.883-0.919 p< 0.001)]. In multivariable analysis, OS was associate with male gender (p< 0.01), systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) (p< 0.001) and eGFR (p< 0.001). Cumulative incidence of deaths due to SSc was associate with increased sPAP (p< 0.001) and reduced eGFR (p< 0.05). OS at five years of 53 SRC patients was not significantly different in SSc patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min or eGFR < 30 ml/min. CONCLUSION: eGFR represents a predictive risk factor of overall survival in SSc. The eGFR is not a risk factor for death in SRC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interstitial lung disease is frequent in systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD) and associates with significantly reduced quality of life. Here we aimed to analyse patient pathways, and experiences of patients and healthcare providers (HCPs) in order to identify unmet needs in the management of SSc-ILD patients. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted in eight European countries looked at HCP (n=95) and patient perspective (n=47), using two sets of 70 research questions. Pre-diagnostic, diagnostic and post-diagnostic phases of the patient pathway were systematically explored. RESULTS: (1) In the pre-diagnostic phase several gaps were identified by HCPs and patients in all participating countries: limited disease knowledge among primary care physicians and specialists, lack of accurate patient information, delayed and/or inappropriate referral. (2) The diagnostic phase is in most countries coordinated by rheumatologists also being the main point of care. Depending on the local health system, organisation of multidisciplinary collaboration varies. HCPs issued lack of national guidelines, while patients stated difficulties obtaining disease-related information. (3) In the post-diagnostic phase, HCPs and patients indicated lack of curative treatment, specialized nurses, paramedical and psychological support. Patients and caregivers additionally expressed the need for clear information on SSc-ILD. CONCLUSION: Lack of disease specific knowledge, gaps in national healthcare systems and insufficient information and support for patients and caregivers were identified as unmet needs to ensure timely diagnosis, provide better patient management and to improve quality of life in SSc ILD patients.

3.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major complication in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a disease marked by vascular and lymphatic vessel abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to assess lymphangiogenic factors Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C (VEGFC) and Angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and soluble forms of their cognate receptors; VEGFR3 and Tie-2 in SSc; and evaluate their predictive ability of PAH development. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used multiplex bead assays to assess serum levels of lymphangiogenic factors in sera samples from two well-characterized SSc cohorts; an unselected identification cohort from Oslo and a PAH enriched validation cohort from Zurich and Oslo, all assessed by right heart catheterizations (RHC). We defined PAH according to ESC/ERS 2015 Guidelines. Statistics included logistic- and Cox-regression analyses. RESULTS: We found in the identification cohort (n=371) lower mean serum levels of VEGF-C and higher Ang-2 levels in SSc patients compared to healthy controls, and the same trend in SSc cases with PAH compared to those without PH. We confirmed VEGF-C associations to SSc and PAH in the PAH enriched RHC validation cohort (n=149). For prediction analysis, we assembled all 251 cases assessed by RHC from the identification and validation cohorts. In multivariable Cox analysis we found, after adjusting for age and gender, that VEGF-C (HR 0.53 95% CI 0.29-0.97, p=0.040) and sVEGFR3 (HR 1.21 95% CI 1.01-1.45, p=0.042) predicted PAH development. CONCLUSION: This study supports the notion of deregulated lymphangiogenesis during PAH development in SSc, and indicates VEGF-C as a promising marker for early PAH detection.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(1): 96-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Safety and Efficacy of Nintedanib in Systemic Sclerosis (SENSCIS) trial, nintedanib reduced the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). Patients on stable treatment with mycophenolate for at least 6 months before randomisation could participate. The aim of this subgroup analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of nintedanib by mycophenolate use at baseline. METHODS: The SENSCIS trial was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, in which patients with SSc-ILD were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 150 mg of oral nintedanib twice daily or placebo for at least 52 weeks. In a prespecified subgroup analysis, we analysed the primary endpoint of rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks by mycophenolate use at baseline. In a post-hoc analysis, we analysed the proportion of patients with an absolute decrease in FVC of at least 3·3% predicted at week 52 (proposed minimal clinically important difference estimate for worsening of FVC in patients with SSc-ILD) in subgroups by mycophenolate use at baseline. Adverse events were reported in subgroups by mycophenolate use at baseline. Analyses were done in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. We analysed the annual rate of decline in FVC using a random coefficient regression model (with random slopes and intercepts) including anti-topoisomerase I antibody status, age, height, sex, and baseline FVC as covariates and terms for baseline-by-time, treatment-by-subgroup, and treatment-by-subgroup-by-time interactions. SENSCIS is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02597933, and is now complete. FINDINGS: Between Nov 30, 2015, and Oct 31, 2017, 819 participants were screened and 576 were enrolled, randomly assigned to, and treated with nintedanib (n=288) or placebo (n=288). 139 (48%) of 288 in the nintedanib group and 140 (49%) of 288 in the placebo group were taking mycophenolate at baseline. In patients taking mycophenolate at baseline, the adjusted mean annual rate of decline in FVC was -40·2 mL per year (SE 19·8) with nintedanib and -66·5 mL per year (19·3) with placebo (difference: 26·3 mL per year [95% CI -27·9 to 80·6]). In patients not taking mycophenolate at baseline, the adjusted mean annual rate of decline in FVC was -63·9 mL per year (SE 19·3) with nintedanib and -119·3 mL per year (19·0) with placebo (difference: 55·4 mL per year [95% CI 2·3 to 108·5]). We found no heterogeneity in the effect of nintedanib versus placebo on the annual rate of decline in FVC between the subgroups by mycophenolate use (p value for interaction=0·45). In a post-hoc analysis, the proportion of patients with an absolute decrease in FVC of at least 3·3% predicted was lower with nintedanib than with placebo in both patients taking mycophenolate (40 [29%] of 138 vs 56 [40%] of 140; odds ratio 0·61 [0·37 to 1·01]) and those not taking mycophenolate (59 [40%] of 149 vs 70 [47%] of 148; 0·73 [0·46 to 1·16]) at baseline. The adverse event profile of nintedanib was similar between the subgroups. Diarrhoea, the most common adverse event, was reported in 106 (76%) of 139 patients in the nintedanib group and 48 (34%) of 140 in the placebo group among those taking mycophenolate at baseline, and in 112 (75%) of 149 in the nintedanib group and 43 (29%) of 148 in the placebo group among those not taking mycophenolate at baseline. Over the entire trial period, 19 patients died (ten in the nintedanib group and nine in the placebo group). One death in the nintedanib group was considered to be related to study drug. INTERPRETATION: Nintedanib reduced the progression of interstitial lung disease both in patients with SSc-ILD who were and were not using mycophenolate at baseline, with no heterogeneity in its treatment effect detected between the subgroups. The adverse event profile of nintedanib was similar in the subgroups by mycophenolate use. Our findings suggest that the combination of mycophenolate and nintedanib offers a safe treatment option for patients with SSc-ILD. More data are needed on the benefits of initial combination therapy versus a sequential approach to treatment of SSc-ILD. FUNDING: Boehringer Ingelheim.


Assuntos
Indóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Micofenólico/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Adv Ther ; 38(2): 854-867, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315170

RESUMO

Some patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis exhibit a progressive clinical phenotype. These chronic progressive fibrosing ILDs have a variety of underlying diseases, and their prevalence is currently unknown. Here we carry out the first systematic review of literature on the prevalence of fibrosing ILDs and progressive fibrosing ILDs using data from physician surveys to estimate frequency of progression among different ILDs. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies assessing prevalence of ILD, individual ILDs associated with fibrosis and progressive fibrosing ILDs. These were combined with data from previously published physician surveys to obtain prevalence estimates of each chronic fibrosing ILD with a progressive phenotype and of progressive fibrosing ILDs overall. We identified 16 publications, including five reporting overall ILD prevalence, estimated at 6.3-76.0 per 100,000 people in Europe (four studies) and 74.3 per 100,000 in the USA (one study). In total, 13-40% of ILDs were estimated to develop a progressive fibrosing phenotype, with overall prevalence estimates for progressive fibrosing ILDs of 2.2-20.0 per 100,000 in Europe and 28.0 per 100,000 in the USA. Prevalence estimates for individual progressive fibrosing ILDs varied up to 16.7 per 100,000 people. These conditions represent a sizeable fraction of chronic respiratory disorders and have a high unmet need.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Médicos , Progressão da Doença , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Prevalência
6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037004

RESUMO

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), which can arise from a broad spectrum of distinct aetiologies, can manifest as a pulmonary complication of an underlying autoimmune and connective tissue disease (CTD-ILD), such as rheumatoid arthritis-ILD and systemic sclerosis (SSc-ILD). Patients with clinically distinct ILDs, whether CTD-related or not, can exhibit a pattern of common clinical disease behaviour (declining lung function, worsening respiratory symptoms and higher mortality), attributable to progressive fibrosis in the lungs. In recent years, the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib has demonstrated efficacy and safety in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), SSc-ILD and a broad range of other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, including those associated with CTDs. Data from phase II studies also suggest that pirfenidone, which has a different-yet largely unknown-mechanism of action, may also have activity in other fibrosing ILDs with a progressive phenotype, in addition to its known efficacy in IPF. Collectively, these studies add weight to the hypothesis that, irrespective of the original clinical diagnosis of ILD, a progressive fibrosing phenotype may arise from common, underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of fibrosis involving pathways associated with the targets of nintedanib and, potentially, pirfenidone. However, despite the early proof of concept provided by these clinical studies, very little is known about the mechanistic commonalities and differences between ILDs with a progressive phenotype. In this review, we explore the biological and genetic mechanisms that drive fibrosis, and identify the missing evidence needed to provide the rationale for further studies that use the progressive phenotype as a target population.

7.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076716

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The rarity of systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its widely heterogeneous presentation and disease course are the main limitations for clinical research. The European Scleroderma Trials and Research group (EUSTAR) was launchegd in 2004, aiming to unify research efforts in the field of SSc. The central EUSTAR database has grown exponentially over the years, promoting new research and clinical trials, shedding new light on SSc diagnosis, its clinical course and providing new ideas for state-of-the-art therapy.Areas covered: The authors summarized the key findings of the main EUSTAR studies by reviewing PubMed and Web-of-Science databases through July 2020. The authors focused on the very early diagnosis of SSc, the prediction of disease course and mortality, the evaluation of disease activity and quality of life, the general management and therapy. EXPERT OPINION: The findings elucidated in EUSTAR studies have substantially improved the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to SSc in the last 15 years. Further efforts are warranted to identify early prognostic markers of the disease and stratify patients who may benefit most from vasoactive, immunosuppressive, and/or antifibrotic therapy. This will be particularly important in leading the future of SSc toward precision medicine and to promote more targeted clinical trials.

8.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify overall disease course, progression patterns and risk factors predictive for progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD), using data from the European Scleroderma Trials And Research (EUSTAR) database over long-term follow-up. METHODS: Eligible patients with SSc-ILD were registered in the EUSTAR database and had measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline and after 12±3 months. Long-term progressive ILD and progression patterns were assessed in patients with multiple FVC measurements. Potential predictors of ILD progression were analysed using multivariable mixed-effect models. RESULTS: 826 patients with SSc-ILD were included. Over 12±3 months, 219 (27%) showed progressive ILD: either moderate (FVC decline 5% to 10%) or significant (FVC decline >10%). A total of 535 (65%) patients had multiple FVC measurements available over mean 5-year follow-up. In each 12-month period, 23% to 27% of SSc-ILD patients showed progressive ILD, but only a minority of patients showed progression in consecutive periods. Most patients with progressive ILD (58%) had a pattern of slow lung function decline, with more periods of stability/improvement than decline, whereas only 8% showed rapid, continuously declining FVC; 178 (33%) experienced no episode of FVC decline. The strongest predictive factors for FVC decline over 5 years were male sex, higher modified Rodnan skin score and reflux/dysphagia symptoms. CONCLUSION: SSc-ILD shows a heterogeneous and variable disease course, and thus monitoring all patients closely is important. Novel treatment concepts, with treatment initiation before FVC decline occurs, should aim for prevention of progression to avoid irreversible organ damage.

9.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 32(6): 497-504, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890027

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) associates with disease burden and reduced life expectancy in systemic sclerosis (SSc). As ILD afflicts around 50% of SSc patients and is often present from early on, there is rationale for early and universal ILD screening. With the approval of the first SSc-ILD therapy last year, there is an increasing need for ILD classifications to assign the right treatment to the right patient. Here, we discuss recent advances on screening, detection, and classification of SSc-ILD. RECENT FINDINGS: Although prospective datasets from a nationwide population-based SSc cohort confirm insufficient sensitivity of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) for ILD screening, they provide strong support for lung high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) as the primary tool to detect ILD. Lung ultrasound shows promise as an additional screening tool. Interpreting statements from a new European consensus on SSc-ILD management, we propose an urgent need for integrated SSc classification, grading ILD severity at time of diagnosis and evaluate risk for ILD progression. We discuss advances on potential parameters for such classification, including PFTs, quantitative HRCT analyses, patient-reported outcome measures, functional exercise capacity tests, and soluble biomarkers. SUMMARY: Early screening to diagnose ILD is feasible. With new therapies at hand, there is a need for integrated ILD classification including severity grading and risk for progression.

10.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 197, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703199

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease with complex interactions between immune-mediated inflammatory processes and vascular pathology leading to small vessel obliteration, promoting uncontrolled fibrosis of skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common but highly variable manifestation of SSc and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment approaches have focused on immunosuppressive therapies, which have shown some efficacy on lung function. Recently, a large phase 3 trial showed that treatment with nintedanib was associated with a reduction in lung function decline. None of the conducted randomized clinical trials have so far shown convincing efficacy on other outcome measures including quality of life determined by patient reported outcomes. Little evidence is available for non-pharmacological treatment and supportive care specifically for SSc-ILD patients, including pulmonary rehabilitation, supplemental oxygen, symptom relief and adequate information. Improved management of SSc-ILD patients based on a holistic approach is necessary to support patients in maintaining as much quality of life as possible throughout the disease course and to improve long-term outcomes.

11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) are fibrotic ILDs with divergent disease populations. Little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQL) in SSc-ILD relative to IPF. METHODS: We used the Kings Brief Interstitial Lung Disease Questionnaire (K-BILD) to compare HRQL in a cross-sectional study of 57 patients with IPF and 29 patients with SSc-ILD. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust for age, gender and lung function. RESULTS: The unadjusted mean K-BILD score was 63.1 (95% CI 57.1 to 69.1) among patients with SSc-ILD, as compared with 54.7 (51.8-57.5) among those with IPF (p=0.005). However, this difference in HRQL was attenuated after adjustment for age, gender and lung function. In a multivariable model, only forced vital capacity was associated with K-BILD scores. K-BILD scores were correlated with both forced vital capacity and with other relevant HRQL measures, regardless of ILD diagnosis. DISCUSSION: Patients with SSc-ILD may have better ILD-specific quality of life than patients with IPF, but this difference appears to be driven primarily by better lung function. These results underscore the impact of lung function on HRQL in fibrotic ILD and the utility of K-BILD to assess HRQL in SSc-ILD.

12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232739, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an auto-immune, multi organ disease marked by severe gastrointestinal (GI) involvement and gut dysbiosis. Here, we aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using commercially-available anaerobic cultivated human intestinal microbiota (ACHIM) in SSc. METHODS: Ten patients with SSc were randomized to ACHIM (n = 5) or placebo (n = 5) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 16-week pilot. All patients had mild to severe upper and lower GI symptoms including diarrhea, distention/bloating and/or fecal incontinence at baseline. Gastroduodenoscopy transfer of ACHIM or placebo was performed at weeks 0 and 2. Primary endpoints were safety and clinical efficacy on GI symptoms assessed at weeks 4 and 16. Secondary endpoints included changes in relative abundance of total, immunoglobulin (Ig) A- and IgM-coated fecal bacteria measured by 16s rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: ACHIM side effects were mild and transient. Two placebo controls experienced procedure-related serious adverse events; one developed laryngospasms at week 0 gastroduodenoscopy necessitating study exclusion whilst one encountered duodenal perforation during gastroduodenoscopy at the last study visit (week 16). Decreased bloating, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence was observed in four of five patients in the FMT group (week 4 or/and 16) and in two of four in the placebo group (week 4 or 16). Relative abundance, richness and diversity of total and IgA-coated and IgM-coated bacteria fluctuated more after FMT, than after placebo. CONCLUSIONS: FMT of commercially-available ACHIM is associated with gastroduodenoscopy complications but reduces lower GI symptoms by possibly altering the gut microbiota in patients with SSc.


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal , Escleroderma Sistêmico/microbiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Bactérias , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Incontinência Fecal/etiologia , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Placebos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 59(10): 2920-2929, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SSc is a severe, heterogeneous multi-organ disease where population-based estimates on phenotypic spectrum, overall disease burden and societal impact are largely missing. Here the objective was to provide the first-ever complete national-level data on phenotype and major organ afflictions in SSc. METHODS: A stepwise strategy was applied to find and characterize every SSc patient resident in Norway from 2000 to 2012. First we identified every case in the country registered with an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision code for SSc (M34). Next we manually reviewed all cases coded as M34 to determine whether they met the 1980 ACR and/or 2013 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for SSc and could be included in the Norwegian SSc cohort (Nor-SSc). Finally, all disease features from SSc onset to study end were reviewed. RESULTS: The Nor-SSc cohort included 815 SSc patients. The mean age at diagnosis was 53 years, with 84% females and 77% limited cutaneous SSc. The estimated incidence increased from 4 per million in 2000 to 13 per million in 2012. We identified high cumulative frequencies of internal organ involvement, coexistence of multiple organ afflictions across disease subsets and autoantibody status and stable frequencies of pulmonary arterial hypertension across haemodynamic definitions, but indications of referral-related differences in pulmonary hypertension detection rates across the study area. CONCLUSION: This nationwide cohort study provides new, unbiased evidence for a high disease burden in SSc patients of Caucasian descent and indicates the existence of hurdles preventing equality of assessment across the SSc population.

14.
Eur Respir J ; 55(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079645

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting multiple organ systems, including the lungs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in SSc.There are no valid biomarkers to predict the occurrence of SSc-ILD, although auto-antibodies against anti-topoisomerase I and several inflammatory markers are candidate biomarkers that need further evaluation. Chest auscultation, presence of shortness of breath and pulmonary function testing are important diagnostic tools, but lack sensitivity to detect early ILD. Baseline screening with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is therefore necessary to confirm an SSc-ILD diagnosis. Once diagnosed with SSc-ILD, patients' clinical courses are variable and difficult to predict, although certain patient characteristics and biomarkers are associated with disease progression. It is important to monitor patients with SSc-ILD for signs of disease progression, although there is no consensus about which diagnostic tools to use or how often monitoring should occur. In this article, we review methods used to define and predict disease progression in SSc-ILD.There is no valid definition of SSc-ILD disease progression, but we suggest that either a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline of ≥10%, or a decline in FVC of 5-9% in association with a decline in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of ≥15% represents progression. An increase in the radiographic extent of ILD on HRCT imaging would also signify progression. A time period of 1-2 years is generally used for this definition, but a decline over a longer time period may also reflect clinically relevant disease progression.

15.
Eur J Rheumatol ; 7(Suppl 3): S228-S236, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922474

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex autoimmune disease of unknown etiology. Genetic factors are thought to collude with various environmental triggers to induce SSc and subsequently manifest various SSc disease phenotypes. Emerging evidence suggests that the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) may represent a key pathogenic participant in this disease state. Recent studies have demonstrated specific alterations in the GIT microbial composition in SSc patients, and this article reviews studies that have investigated the GIT microbiota in SSc patients. The focus of this article is to highlight the modifications in the GIT microbiota observed in SSc patients belonging to different cohorts and to demonstrate how these alterations may be associated with specific SSc features. This article presents the results of these SSc microbiota studies in the context of findings from microbiotic studies in other autoimmune states to explore similarities and differences across disease states affecting the immune system. Finally, this article provides insights into potential SSc therapies that target the GIT microbiota. Given the complexity and variability of the SSc disease state, any treatment aimed at modulating GIT microbiota will likely need to be coupled with additional interventions that target other SSc disease components.

17.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 1(4): 258-266, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777802

RESUMO

Objective: Primary cardiac involvement is presumed to account for a substantial part of disease-related mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Still, there are knowledge gaps on the evolution and total burden of systolic dysfunction in SSc. Here we evaluated prospective left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) systolic function in an unselected SSc cohort and assessed the burden of systolic dysfunction on mortality. Methods: From the Oslo University Hospital cohort, 277 SSc patients were included from 2003-2016 and compared with healthy controls. Serial echocardiographies were reevaluated in order to detect change in systolic function. Right heart catheterization was performed on patients suspected of pulmonary hypertension. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted. Results: At baseline, LV systolic dysfunction by ejection fraction less than 50%, or a global longitudinal strain greater than -17.0%, was found in 12% and 24%, respectively. RV systolic dysfunction measured by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) less than 17 mm was evident in 10%. Follow-up echocardiography was performed after a median of 3.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-5.6). At follow-up, LV systolic function remained stable, whereas RV function evaluated by TAPSE deteriorated (mean 23.1 to 21.7 mm, P = 0.005) equaling a 15% prevalence of RV systolic dysfunction. RV systolic function predicted mortality in multivariable models (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.90, P value 0.027), whereas LV systolic function lost predictive significance when adjusted for TAPSE. Conclusion: In this unselected and prospective study, systolic dysfunction of the LV and RV was a frequent complication of SSc. LV systolic function remained stable across the observation period, whereas RV function deteriorated and predicted mortality.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 50: 379-386, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some interstitial lung disease (ILD) patients develop a progressive fibrosing-ILD phenotype (PF-ILD), with similar persistent lung function decline suggesting common molecular pathways involved. Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting the PDGF, FGF, VEGF and M-CSF pathways, has shown comparable efficacy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD). We hypothesize that Nintedanib targeted molecular pathways will be augmented to a similar degree across PF-ILD regardless of aetiology. METHODS: We collected explanted lung tissue at the time of lung transplantation from 130 PF-ILD patients (99 (76%) IPF, 14 (11%) SSc-ILD, 17 (13%) other PF-ILD), and wedge biopsies from 200 donor lungs and measured PDGF, FGF, VEGF and M-CSF concentrations by Luminex. FINDINGS: The concentrations of PDGF-AA, PDGF-BB, FGF-2, VEGF and M-CSF were significantly increased in PF-ILD lungs compared to donor lungs (PDGF-AA 93·0 pg/ml [±97·2] vs. 37·5 pg/ml [±35·4], p < 0·001; PDGF-BB 102·5 pg/ml [±78·8] vs. 61·9 pg/ml [±47·0], p < 0·001; FGF-2 1442·4 pg/ml [±426·6] vs. 1201·7 pg/ml [±535·2], p = 0·009; VEGF 40·6 pg/ml [±20·1] vs. 24·9 pg/ml [±29·5], p < 0·001; and M-CSF 25526 pg/ml [±24,799] vs. 6120 pg/ml [±7245], p < 0·001). There were no significant differences in these growth factor/angiogenic molecules/cytokine concentrations when segregated by IPF, SSc-ILD and other PF-ILDs. INTERPRETATION: Nintedanib specific targeted molecular pathways are augmented to a similar magnitude in all PF-ILD lung tissue as compared to controls, suggesting that Nintedanib treatment may be efficacious in PF-ILD regardless of aetiology. We speculate that clinical trials using Nintedanib for PF-ILD with or without IPF or SSc-ILD should show a similar relative reduction in FVC decline as seen in IPF and SSc-ILD (∼45-50%). FUNDING: Health Grant P01-HL108793 (JAB), South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority Grant 2018072 (AMHV).


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/patologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Fenótipo , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/terapia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.


Assuntos
Fibrose/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 15(10): 1009-1017, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566449

RESUMO

Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare and complex connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of SSc and the leading cause of SSc-related death. No drugs are licensed for the treatment of SSc-ILD. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the current treatment of SSc-ILD and a perspective on investigational therapies, focusing on those studied in randomized controlled trials. Expert opinion: There is substantial room for improvement in the treatment of SSc-ILD. Current treatment focuses on immunosuppressant therapies, particularly cyclophosphamide and mycophenolate. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been shown to improve long-term outcomes, but the risk of treatment-related mortality restricts its use to select patients at specialized centers. Modifying the course of disease to improve outcomes remains the goal for new therapies. Several drugs are under investigation as potential therapies for SSc-ILD, providing hope that the limited treatment armamentarium for SSc-ILD will be expanded and improved in the near future. Expert consensus is needed on how to screen for and monitor SSc-ILD and on when to initiate and escalate therapy.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Pulmão , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Transplante Autólogo
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