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1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies of the relationship between gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconsistent. To address possible confounding and reverse causation, we examine the relationship between these potential risk factors and CRC using Mendelian randomisation (MR). METHODS: We used two-sample MR to examine the relationship between genetic liability to gallstone disease and circulating levels of bilirubin with CRC in 26,397 patients and 41,481 controls. We calculated the odds ratio per genetically predicted SD unit increase in log bilirubin levels (ORSD) for CRC and tested for a non-zero causal effect of gallstones on CRC. Sensitivity analysis was applied to identify violations of estimator assumptions. RESULTS: No association between either gallstone disease (P value = 0.60) or circulating levels of bilirubin (ORSD = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-1.03, P value = 0.90) with CRC was shown. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the large scale of this study, we found no evidence for a causal relationship between either circulating levels of bilirubin or gallstone disease with risk of developing CRC. While the magnitude of effect suggested by some observational studies can confidently be excluded, we cannot exclude the possibility of smaller effect sizes and non-linear relationships.

2.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(1): 38-47, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is a complex phenotype that may interact with genetic variants to influence colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We tested multiplicative statistical interactions between BMI (per 5 kg/m2) and approximately 2.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal cancer risk among 14 059 colorectal cancer case (53.2% women) and 14 416 control (53.8% women) participants. All analyses were stratified by sex a priori. Statistical methods included 2-step (ie, Cocktail method) and single-step (ie, case-control logistic regression and a joint 2-degree of freedom test) procedures. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with higher risks of colorectal cancer, less so for women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.14, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.11 to 1.18; P = 9.75 × 10-17) than for men (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.32; P = 2.13 × 10-24). The 2-step Cocktail method identified an interaction for women, but not men, between BMI and a SMAD7 intronic variant at 18q21.1 (rs4939827; Pobserved = .0009; Pthreshold = .005). A joint 2-degree of freedom test was consistent with this finding for women (joint P = 2.43 × 10-10). Each 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI was more strongly associated with colorectal cancer risk for women with the rs4939827-CC genotype (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.16 to 1.32; P = 2.60 × 10-10) than for women with the CT (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.09 to 1.19; P = 1.04 × 10-8) or TT (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.14; P = .02) genotypes. CONCLUSION: These results provide novel insights on a potential mechanism through which a SMAD7 variant, previously identified as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, and BMI may influence colorectal cancer risk for women.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 148(4): 800-811, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683684

RESUMO

Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS), one of the most common inherited cancer syndromes, are at increased risk of developing malignancies, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Regular colonoscopy with polypectomy is recommended to reduce CRC risk in LS individuals. However, recent independent studies demonstrated that a substantial proportion of LS individuals develop CRC despite regular colonoscopy. The reasons for this surprising observation confirmed by large prospective studies are a matter of debate. In this review, we collect existing evidence from clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies and interpret them with regard to the origins and progression of LS-associated CRC. Alongside with hypotheses addressing colonoscopy quality and pace of progression from adenoma to cancer, we discuss the role of alternative precursors and immune system in LS-associated CRC. We also identify gaps in current knowledge and make suggestions for future studies aiming at improved CRC prevention for LS individuals.

4.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(1): 177-185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In rectal cancer, prediction of tumor response and pathological complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant treatment could contribute to refine selection of patients who might benefit from a delayed- or no-surgery approach. The aim of this study was to explore the association of clinical and molecular characteristics of rectal cancer with response to neoadjuvant treatment and to compare patient survival according to level of response. METHODS: Resected rectal cancer patients were selected from a population-based cohort study. Molecular tumor markers were determined from the surgical specimen. Tumor response and pCR were defined as downstaging in T or N stage and absence of tumor cells upon pathological examination, respectively. The associations of patient and tumor characteristics with tumor response and pCR were explored, and patient survival was determined by degree of response to neoadjuvant treatment. RESULTS: Among 1536 patients with rectal cancer, 602 (39%) received neoadjuvant treatment. Fifty-five (9%) patients presented pCR, and 239 (49%) and 250 (53%) patients showed downstaging of the T and N stages, respectively. No statistically significant associations were observed between patient or tumor characteristics and tumor response or pCR. Patients who presented any type of response to neoadjuvant treatment had significantly better cancer-specific and overall survival compared with non-responders. CONCLUSION: In this study, patient characteristics were not associated with response to neoadjuvant treatment, and molecular characteristics determined after surgical resection of the tumor were not predictive of pCR or tumor downstaging. Future studies should include molecular biomarkers from biopsy samples before neoadjuvant treatment.

5.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320964

RESUMO

Simulation models are a powerful tool to overcome gaps of evidence needed to inform medical decision-making. Here, we present development and application of COSIMO, a Markov-based Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Multi-state Simulation Model to simulate effects of CRC screening, along with a thorough assessment of the model's ability to reproduce real-life outcomes. Firstly, we provide a comprehensive documentation of COSIMO's development, structure and assumptions. Secondly, to assess the model's external validity, we compared model-derived cumulative incidence and prevalences of colorectal neoplasms to (a) results from KolosSal, a study in German screening colonoscopy participants, (b) registry-based estimates of CRC incidence in Germany, and (c) outcome patterns of randomized sigmoidoscopy screening studies. We found that (a) more than 90% of observed prevalences in the KolosSal study were within the 95% confidence intervals of the model-predicted neoplasm prevalences; (b) the 15-year cumulative CRC incidences estimated by simulations for the German population deviated by 0.0% to 0.2% units in men and 0.0% to 0.3% units in women when compared to corresponding registry-derived estimates; and (c) the time course of cumulative CRC incidence and mortality in the modeled intervention group and control group closely resembles the time course reported from sigmoidoscopy screening trials. Overall, COSIMO adequately predicted colorectal neoplasm prevalences and incidences in a German population for up to 25 years, with estimated patterns of the effect of screening colonoscopy resembling those seen in registry data and real-world studies. This suggests that the model may represent a valid tool to assess the comparative effectiveness of CRC screening strategies.

6.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 184, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood DNA methylation-based aging algorithms predict mortality in the general population. We investigated the prognostic value of five established DNA methylation aging algorithms for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: AgeAccelHorvath, AgeAccelHannum, DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim were constructed using whole blood epi-genomic data from 2206 CRC patients. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 1079 deaths were documented, including 596 from CRC. Associations of the aging algorithms with survival outcomes were evaluated using the Cox regression and survival curves. Harrell's C-statistics were computed to investigate predictive performance. RESULTS: Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all-cause mortality for patients in the third compared to the first tertile were 1.66 (1.32, 2.09) for the DNAmMRscore, 1.35 (1.14, 1.59) for AgeAccelPheno and 1.65 (1.37, 2.00) for AgeAccelGrim, even after adjustment for age, sex and stage. AgeAccelHorvath and AgeAccelHannum were not associated with all-cause or CRC-specific mortality. In stage-specific analyses, associations were much stronger for patients with early or intermediate stage cancers (stages I, II and III) than for patients with metastatic (stage IV) cancers. Associations were weaker and less often statistically significant for CRC-specific mortality. Adding DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno or AgeAccelGrim to models including age, sex and tumor stage improved predictive performance moderately. CONCLUSIONS: DNAmMRscore, AgeAccelPheno and AgeAccelGrim could serve as non-invasive CRC prognostic biomarkers independent of other commonly used markers. Further research should aim for tailoring and refining such algorithms for CRC patients and to explore their value for enhanced prediction of treatment success and treatment decisions.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk. METHODS: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labelling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL (N=3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium (N=31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls). RESULTS: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2 and ARFIP2 expression and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR:1.08, 95% CI:1.03-1.13, OR:3.33, 95% CI:2.46-4.50 and OR:1.15, 95% CI:1.02-1.29, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis. IMPACT: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.

8.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(21)2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142733

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) survival has environmental and inherited components. The expression of specific genes can be inferred based on individual genotypes-so called expression quantitative trait loci. In this study, we used the PrediXcan method to predict gene expression in normal colon tissue using individual genotype data from 91 CRC patients and examined the correlation ρ between predicted and measured gene expression levels. Out of 5434 predicted genes, 58% showed a negative ρ value and only 16% presented a ρ higher than 0.10. We subsequently investigated the association between genotype-based gene expression in colon tissue for genes with ρ > 0.10 and survival of 4436 CRC patients. We identified an inverse association between the predicted expression of ARID3B and CRC-specific survival for patients with a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 (HR (hazard ratio) = 0.66 for an expression higher vs. lower than the median, p = 0.005). This association was validated using genotype and clinical data from the UK Biobank (HR = 0.74, p = 0.04). In addition to the identification of ARID3B expression in normal colon tissue as a candidate prognostic biomarker for obese CRC patients, our study illustrates the challenges of genotype-based prediction of gene expression, and the advantage of reassessing the prediction accuracy in a subset of the study population using measured gene expression data.

10.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa051, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134831

RESUMO

Background: Folates, including folic acid, may play a dual role in colorectal cancer development. Folate is suggested to be protective in early carcinogenesis but could accelerate growth of premalignant lesions or micrometastases. Whether circulating concentrations of folate and folic acid, measured around time of diagnosis, are associated with recurrence and survival in colorectal cancer patients is largely unknown. Methods: Circulating concentrations of folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites p-aminobenzoylglutamate and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at diagnosis in 2024 stage I-III colorectal cancer patients from European and US patient cohort studies. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between folate, folic acid, and folate catabolites concentrations with recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival. Results: No statistically significant associations were observed between folate, p-aminobenzoylglutamate, and p-acetamidobenzoylglutamate concentrations and recurrence, overall survival, and disease-free survival, with hazard ratios ranging from 0.92 to 1.16. The detection of folic acid in the circulation (yes or no) was not associated with any outcome. However, among patients with detectable folic acid concentrations (n = 296), a higher risk of recurrence was observed for each twofold increase in folic acid (hazard ratio = 1.31, 95% confidence interval = 1.02 to 1.58). No statistically significant associations were found between folic acid concentrations and overall and disease-free survival. Conclusions: Circulating folate and folate catabolite concentrations at colorectal cancer diagnosis were not associated with recurrence and survival. However, caution is warranted for high blood concentrations of folic acid because they may increase the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence.

12.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) and its treatment can lead to several physical and psychosocial impairments. Cancer rehabilitation aims to reduce morbidity and improve quality of life. The objective of this review was to summarize and evaluate evidence on changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation therapy and on the effectiveness of such treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search including the electronic databases Pubmed and Web of Science to find observational and interventional studies, which investigated changes in health-related outcomes among CRC patients undergoing multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation programs or treatment effects. Study findings were synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Eleven studies were eligible and included in this review. Eight patient cohort studies addressed outcomes such as physical and functional status, fecal incontinence, anxiety and depression, and quality of life. Positive changes during rehabilitation therapy were observed for physical health (functional and physical status, fecal incontinence), and several dimensions of quality of life. Study findings concerning anxiety and depression were not conclusive. Studies that additionally conducted long-term follow-ups indicated that the improved health status after rehabilitative treatment waned over time. One RCT reported no effect of inpatient rehabilitation on distress and two randomized trials reported effects of exercise intensity on oxidative stress and immune response. Sample sizes were low (<100 included CRC patients) in eight studies and only the RCT included a comparison group (non-rehabilitants). CONCLUSION: The scientific evidence level was very limited. Due to the lack of a comparison group in most studies, we were only able to evaluate changes during/after inpatient rehabilitation therapy but not the effectiveness of treatment. However, study findings suggest that physical health and functional independence improve during inpatient rehabilitation, but improvements wane over time. Further large representative studies, in particular RCTs with long-term follow-up, are essential to evaluate the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation and identify determinants of treatment success.

13.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes. METHODS: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted. RESULTS: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10-6, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2719-2728, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High numbers of lymphocytes in tumor tissue, including T regulatory cells (Treg), have been associated with better colorectal cancer survival. Tregs, a subset of CD4+ T lymphocytes, are mediators of immunosuppression in cancer, and therefore variants in genes related to Treg differentiation and function could be associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. METHODS: In a prospective German cohort of 3,593 colorectal cancer patients, we assessed the association of 771 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 58 Treg-related genes with overall and colorectal cancer-specific survival using Cox regression models. Effect modification by microsatellite instability (MSI) status was also investigated because tumors with MSI show greater lymphocytic infiltration and have been associated with better prognosis. Replication of significant results was attempted in 2,047 colorectal cancer patients of the International Survival Analysis in Colorectal Cancer Consortium (ISACC). RESULTS: A significant association of the TGFBR3 SNP rs7524066 with more favorable colorectal cancer-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) per minor allele: 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.74-0.94; P value: 0.0033] was replicated in ISACC (HR: 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98; P value: 0.03). Suggestive evidence for association was found with two IL7 SNPs, rs16906568 and rs7845577. Thirteen SNPs with differential associations with overall survival according to MSI in the discovery analysis were not confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variation in the Treg pathway implicating genes such as TGFBR3 and IL7 was shown to be associated with prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. IMPACT: The implicated genes warrant further investigation.

15.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(10): e00243, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031193

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To quantify the association of self-reported lower gastrointestinal endoscopy use measured in 2004/05 with colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality changes over 2004-2015 in Europe. METHODS: An ecological analysis was performed using endoscopy utilization data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in 11 European countries in 2004/05 and CRC mortality data from the World Health Organization Mortality Database over 2004-2015. Mortality trends were compared through annual mortality changes from joinpoint regression models. Cross-national variations in mortality trends with respect to endoscopy use were tested for statistical significance by negative binomial regression models. RESULTS: The proportion of respondents who reported having had an endoscopy within 10 years varied widely across countries, from 6.1% to 25.1%. Large disparities in CRC mortality trends were also observed, with annual mortality change ranging from a decline of 3.3% to an increase of 0.9% for men and from a decline of 3.3% to a decline of 0.6% for women. Endoscopy uptake was negatively associated with the magnitude of annual mortality change over 2004-2015 (rate ratio for a 10-year mortality change per 10% higher endoscopy use, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94). DISCUSSION: This analysis provides quantitative evidence on the contributions of endoscopy use to CRC mortality declines in European countries over the past decade. A considerable fraction of protection is likely to be delivered through endoscopic removal of adenomas and sessile serrated lesions. With many European countries having recently implemented CRC screening programs, an increase in endoscopy use and a subsequent reduction in CRC mortality would be expected.

16.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(5): pkaa042, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923935

RESUMO

Background: Postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with a decreased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. As CRC is a heterogeneous disease, we evaluated whether the association of HT and CRC differs across etiologically relevant, molecularly defined tumor subtypes and tumor location. Methods: We pooled data on tumor subtypes (microsatellite instability status, CpG island methylator phenotype status, BRAF and KRAS mutations, pathway: adenoma-carcinoma, alternate, serrated), tumor location (proximal colon, distal colon, rectum), and HT use among 8220 postmenopausal women (3898 CRC cases and 4322 controls) from 8 observational studies. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of ever vs never HT use with each tumor subtype compared with controls. Models were adjusted for study, age, body mass index, smoking status, and CRC family history. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Results: Among postmenopausal women, ever HT use was associated with a 38% reduction in overall CRC risk (OR =0.62, 95% CI = 0.56 to 0.69). This association was similar according to microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF or KRAS status. However, the association was attenuated for tumors arising through the serrated pathway (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.01) compared with the adenoma-carcinoma pathway (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.55 to 0.73; P het =.04) and alternate pathway (OR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.72). Additionally, proximal colon tumors had a weaker association (OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.62 to 0.80) compared with rectal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.63) and distal colon (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.66; P het =.01) tumors. Conclusions: We observed a strong inverse association between HT use and overall CRC risk, which may predominantly reflect a benefit of HT use for tumors arising through the adenoma-carcinoma and alternate pathways as well as distal colon and rectal tumors.

17.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(25): 423-430, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Participation rates in colorectal cancer screening in Germany are low. We therefore investigated the effectiveness of different invitation models for immunological stool blood tests (fecal immunological tests, FITs). METHODS: A randomized controlled trial in 50- to 54-year-old clients of the health insurance provider AOK Baden-Wuerttemberg. A total of 17 532 insured persons were randomized to receive: (A) an invitation letter including a FIT (n = 5850); (B) an invitation letter including an option to request a FIT (n = 5844); or (C) an invitation letter only (n = 5838; control group, routine practice). Reminder letters were sent to half the members of groups A and B, selected at random, after 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the use of a FIT within 1 year of the date of the invitation letter. IRRID: RR2-10.2196/16413. Registration: DRKS00011858. RESULTS: The invitation letter with a FIT enclosed (A) increased usage from 10% to 29.7% compared with the control group (+19.7% points, p < 0.0001; men: +19.4%, women: +18.8%). The invitation letter with a FIT request option (B) increased usage from 10% to 27.7% (+17.7% points, p < 0.0001; men: +17.7%, women: +17.4%). Reminders increased usage in group A by 7.5% points and in group B by 8.5% points. Participation among women was higher than among men in all groups. The FIT positivity rate was 6.9%. A subsequent colonoscopy was reported for 64.3% of FIT-positive participants, and advanced neoplasia was found in 21.3% of these cases. CONCLUSION: Letters of invitation that include a FIT and those that offer low-threshold access to a FIT achieve strong, comparable increases in the usage of FIT in the context of colorectal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Programas de Rastreamento , Sangue Oculto , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Int J Cancer ; 147(10): 2801-2810, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875553

RESUMO

BRAF V600E mutations have been reported as a marker of sporadic microsatellite instability (MSI) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current international diagnostic guidelines recommend BRAF mutation testing in MSI CRC patients to predict low risk of Lynch syndrome (LS). We evaluated the age-specific performance of BRAF testing in LS diagnostics. We systematically compared the prevalence of BRAF mutations in LS-associated CRCs and unselected MSI CRCs in different age groups as available from published studies, databases and population-based patient cohorts. Sensitivity/specificity analysis of BRAF testing for exclusion of LS and cost calculations were performed. Among 969 MSI CRCs from LS carriers in the literature and German HNPCC Consortium, 15 (1.6%) harbored BRAF mutations. Six of seven LS patients with BRAF-mutant CRC and reported age were <50 years. Among 339 of 756 (44.8%) of BRAF mutations detected in unselected MSI CRC, only 2 of 339 (0.6%) BRAF mutations were detected in patients <50 years. The inclusion of BRAF testing led to high risk of missing LS patients and increased costs at age <50 years. BRAF testing in patients <50 years carries a high risk of missing a hereditary cancer predisposition and is cost-inefficient. We suggest direct referral of MSI CRC patients <50 years to genetic counseling without BRAF testing.

19.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(12): 2007-2016, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In previous studies, the protective effect of colonoscopy was generally stronger for distal colorectal cancer than for proximal colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate whether reduction of CRC risk through colonoscopy varies according to major tumor markers and pathways of CRC. METHODS: This is a population-based case-control study from Germany, including 2,132 patients with a first diagnosis of CRC and information on major molecular tumor markers and 2,486 control participants without CRC. Detailed participant characteristics were collected by standardized questionnaires. Information on previous colonoscopy was derived from medical records. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between previous colonoscopy and subtypes of CRC. RESULTS: Overall, we observed strong risk reduction of CRC after colonoscopy that was weaker for microsatellite instable (MSI) than for non-MSI CRC (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.97 vs OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.24-0.33), for CpG island methylator phenotype high CRC than for CpG island methylator phenotype low/negative CRC (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.34-0.59 vs OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.25-0.34), for BRAF-mutated than for BRAF nonmutated CRC (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.35), for KRAS nonmutated than for KRAS-mutated CRC (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.29-0.40 vs OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.32), and for CRC classified into the sessile serrated pathway than for CRC of the traditional pathway (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.36-0.91 vs OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.25-0.37). After colonoscopy with the detection of adenomas or hyperplastic polyps, no risk reduction was found for sessile serrated pathway CRC, MSI, and BRAF-mutated subtypes. DISCUSSION: Our study extends the molecular understanding of existing differences in risk reduction of proximal and distal CRCs reported by previous studies and may imply important information for improving strategies for timely detection of relevant precursors.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf , Adenoma/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética
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