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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 319-324, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634346

RESUMO

Initial results from various phase-III trials on vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are promising. For proper translation of these results to clinical guidelines, it is essential to determine how well the general population is reflected in the study populations of these trials. This study was conducted among 7162 participants (age-range: 51-106 years; 58% women) from the Rotterdam Study. We quantified the proportion of participants that would be eligible for the nine ongoing phase-III trials. We further quantified the eligibility among participants at high risk to develop severe COVID-19. Since many trials were not explicit in their exclusion criterion with respect to 'acute' or 'unstable preexisting' diseases, we performed two analyses. First, we included all participants irrespective of this criterion. Second, we excluded persons with acute or 'unstable preexisting' diseases. 97% of 7162 participants was eligible for any trial with eligibility for separate trials ranging between 11-97%. For high-risk individuals the corresponding numbers were 96% for any trial with separate trials ranging from 5-96%. Importantly, considering persons ineligible due to 'acute' or 'unstable pre-existing' disease drastically dropped the eligibilities for all trials below 43% for the total population and below 36% for high-risk individuals. The eligibility for ongoing vaccine trials against SARS-CoV-2 can reduce by half depending on interpretation and application of a single unspecified exclusion criterion. This exclusion criterion in our study would especially affect the elderly and those with pre-existing morbidities. These findings thus indicate the difficulty as well as importance of developing clinical recommendations for vaccination and applying these to the appropriate target populations. This becomes especially paramount considering the fact that many countries worldwide have initiated their vaccination programs by first targeting the elderly and most vulnerable persons.

2.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(2): e116-e123, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although dementia is associated with non-participation in cognitive and social activities, this association might merely reflect the consequences of dementia, rather than any direct effect of non-participation on the subsequent incidence of dementia. Because of the slowness with which dementia can develop, unbiased assessment of any such direct effects must relate non-participation in such activities to dementia detection rates many years later. Prospective studies with long-term follow-up can help achieve this by analysing separately the first and second decade of follow-up. We report such analyses of a large, 20-year study. METHODS: The UK Million Women Study is a population-based prospective study of 1·3 million women invited for National Health Service (NHS) breast cancer screening in median year 1998 (IQR 1997-1999). In median year 2001 (IQR 2001-2003), women were asked about participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work, and in median year 2006 (IQR 2006-2006), they were asked about reading. All participants were followed up through electronic linkage to NHS records of hospital admission with mention of dementia, the first mention of which was the main outcome. Comparing non-participation with participation in a particular activity, we used Cox regression to assess fully adjusted dementia risk ratios (RRs) during 0-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years, after information on that activity was obtained. FINDINGS: In 2001, 851 307 women with a mean age of 60 years (SD 5) provided information on participation in adult education, groups for art, craft, or music, and voluntary work. After 10 years, only 9591 (1%) had been lost to follow-up and 789 339 (93%) remained alive with no recorded dementia. Follow-up was for a mean of 16 years (SD 3), during which 31 187 (4%) had at least one hospital admission with mention of dementia, including 25 636 (3%) with a hospital admission with dementia mentioned for the first time 10 years or more after follow-up began. Non-participation in cognitive or social activities was associated with higher relative risks of dementia detection only during the first decade after participation was recorded. During the second decade, there was little association. This was true for non-participation in adult education (RR 1·04, 99% CI 0·98-1·09), in groups for art, craft, or music (RR 1·04, 0·99-1·09), in voluntary work (RR 0·96, 0·92-1·00), or in any of these three (RR 0·99, 0·95-1·03). In 2006, 655 118 women provided information on reading. For non-reading versus any reading, there were similar associations with dementia, again with strong attenuation over time since reading was recorded, but longer follow-up is needed to assess this reliably. INTERPRETATION: Life has to be lived forwards, but can be understood only backwards. Long before dementia is diagnosed, there is a progressive reduction in various mental and physical activities, but this is chiefly because its gradual onset causes inactivity and not because inactivity causes dementia. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK.


Assuntos
Cognição , Demência/epidemiologia , Participação Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Leitura , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple genomic loci associated with coronary artery disease, but most are common variants in non-coding regions that provide limited information on causal genes and etiology of the disease. To overcome the limited scope that common variants provide, we focused our investigation on low-frequency and rare sequence variations primarily residing in coding regions of the genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using samples of individuals of European ancestry from ten cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium, both cross-sectional and prospective analyses were conducted to examine associations between genetic variants and myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), and all-cause mortality following these events. For prevalent events, a total of 27,349 participants of European ancestry, including 1831 prevalent MI cases and 2518 prevalent CHD cases were used. For incident cases, a total of 55,736 participants of European ancestry were included (3,031 incident MI cases and 5,425 incident CHD cases). There were 1,860 all-cause deaths among the 3,751 MI and CHD cases from six cohorts that contributed to the analysis of all-cause mortality. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed separately in each cohort and then meta-analyzed for each outcome. A low-frequency intronic variant (rs988583) in PLCL1 was significantly associated with prevalent MI (OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval: 1.43, 2.27; P = 7.12 × 10-7). We conducted gene-based burden tests for genes with a cumulative minor allele count (cMAC) ≥ 5 and variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 5%. TMPRSS5 and LDLRAD1 were significantly associated with prevalent MI and CHD, respectively, and RC3H2 and ANGPTL4 were significantly associated with incident MI and CHD, respectively. No loci were significantly associated with all-cause mortality following a MI or CHD event. CONCLUSION: This study identified one known locus (ANGPTL4) and four new loci (PLCL1, RC3H2, TMPRSS5, and LDLRAD1) associated with cardiovascular disease risk that warrant further investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The population prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) disease is unclear and difficult to assess in an asymptomatic population. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of GI lesions in a largely asymptomatic population undergoing colon capsule endoscopy (CCE). METHODS: Participants aged between 50-75years were retrieved from the Rotterdam Study, a longitudinal epidemiological study, between 2017-2019. Participants received CCE with bowel preparation. Abnormalities defined as clinically relevant were Barrett segment>3cm, severe ulceration, polyp>10 mm or ≥3 polyps in small bowel(SB) or colon, and cancer. RESULTS: Of 2800 invited subjects, 462 (16.5%) participants (mean age 66.8 years, female 53.5%) ingested the colon capsule. A total of 451 videos were analyzed, and in 94.7% the capsule reached the descending colon. At least one abnormal finding was seen in 448 (99.3%) participants. The prevalence of abnormalities per GI segment, and the most common type of abnormality, were as follows: Esophageal 14.8% (Barrett's esophagus <3 cm in 8.3%), gastric 27.9% (fundic gland polyps in 18.1%), SB abnormalities 33.9% (erosions in 23.8%), colon 93.3% (diverticula in 81.2%). A total of 54 participants (12%) had clinically relevant abnormalities, three (0.7%) in esophagus/stomach (reflux esophagitis grade D, Mallory Weiss lesion and severe gastritis), five (1.1%) in SB (polyps > 10 mm n= 4, severe ulcer n= 1,) and 46 (10.2%) in colon (polyp > 10 mm or ≥3 polyps n= 46, colorectal cancer n= 1). CONCLUSIONS: GI lesions are very common in a mostly asymptomatic Western population, and clinically relevant lesions were found in 12% at CCE. These findings provide a frame of reference for the prevalence rates of GI lesions in the general population.

5.
Ophthalmology ; 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Current prediction models for advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are based on a restrictive set of risk factors. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive prediction model applying a machine learning algorithm allowing selection of the most predictive risk factors automatically. DESIGN: Two population-based cohort studies. PARTICIPANTS: The Rotterdam Study I (RS-I; training set) included 3838 participants 55 years of age or older, with a median follow-up period of 10.8 years, and 108 incident cases of advanced AMD. The Antioxydants, Lipids Essentiels, Nutrition et Maladies Oculaires (ALIENOR) study (test set) included 362 participants 73 years of age or older, with a median follow-up period of 6.5 years, and 33 incident cases of advanced AMD. METHODS: The prediction model used the bootstrap least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method for survival analysis to select the best predictors of incident advanced AMD in the training set. Predictive performance of the model was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incident advanced AMD (atrophic, neovascular, or both), based on standardized interpretation of retinal photographs. RESULTS: The prediction model retained (1) age, (2) a combination of phenotypic predictors (based on the presence of intermediate drusen, hyperpigmentation in one or both eyes, and Age-Related Eye Disease Study simplified score), (3) a summary genetic risk score based on 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms, (4) smoking, (5) diet quality, (6) education, and (7) pulse pressure. The cross-validated AUC estimation in RS-I was 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.97) at 5 years, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.95) at 10 years, and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.88-0.94) at 15 years. In ALIENOR, the AUC reached 0.92 at 5 years (95% CI, 0.87-0.98). In terms of calibration, the model tended to underestimate the cumulative incidence of advanced AMD for the high-risk groups, especially in ALIENOR. CONCLUSIONS: This prediction model reached high discrimination abilities, paving the way toward making precision medicine for AMD patients a reality in the near future.

6.
Neurology ; 95(5): e519-e531, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine changes in the incidence of dementia between 1988 and 2015. METHODS: This analysis was performed in aggregated data from individuals >65 years of age in 7 population-based cohort studies in the United States and Europe from the Alzheimer Cohort Consortium. First, we calculated age- and sex-specific incidence rates for all-cause dementia, and then defined nonoverlapping 5-year epochs within each study to determine trends in incidence. Estimates of change per 10-year interval were pooled and results are presented combined and stratified by sex. RESULTS: Of 49,202 individuals, 4,253 (8.6%) developed dementia. The incidence rate of dementia increased with age, similarly for women and men, ranging from about 4 per 1,000 person-years in individuals aged 65-69 years to 65 per 1,000 person-years for those aged 85-89 years. The incidence rate of dementia declined by 13% per calendar decade (95% confidence interval [CI], 7%-19%), consistently across studies, and somewhat more pronouncedly in men than in women (24% [95% CI 14%-32%] vs 8% [0%-15%]). CONCLUSION: The incidence rate of dementia in Europe and North America has declined by 13% per decade over the past 25 years, consistently across studies. Incidence is similar for men and women, although declines were somewhat more profound in men. These observations call for sustained efforts to finding the causes for this decline, as well as determining their validity in geographically and ethnically diverse populations.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Am J Hypertens ; 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710605

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence demonstrates that blood pressure variability (BPV) may contribute to target organ damage, causing coronary heart disease, stroke, and renal disease independent of the level of BP. Several lines of evidence have also linked increased BPV to a higher risk of cognitive decline and incident dementia. The estimated number of dementia cases worldwide is nearly 50 million, and this number continues to grow with increasing life expectancy. Because there is no effective treatment to modify the course of dementia, targeting modifiable vascular factors continues as a top priority for dementia prevention. A clear understanding of the role of BPV in dementia may shed light on the etiology, early prevention, and novel therapeutic targets of dementia, and has therefore gained substantial attention from researchers and clinicians. This review summarizes state-of-art evidence on the relationship between BPV and dementia, with a specific focus on the epidemiological evidence, the underlying mechanisms, and potential intervention strategies. We also discuss challenges and opportunities for future research to facilitate optimal BP management and the clinical translation of BPV for the risk assessment and prevention of dementia.

8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 685-697, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383070

RESUMO

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (ß = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (ß = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/genética , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1871-1879, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386230

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A protective association of dietary carotenoids with cognitive function has been suggested, but most studies have been relatively small with limited periods of follow-up. OBJECTIVES: We examined prospectively long-term intakes of carotenoids in relation to subjective cognitive function (SCF), a self-reported, validated indicator of cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: Among 49,493 female registered nurses with a mean age of 48 y in 1984, we used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs relating intakes of carotenoids to self-reported SCF in 2012 and 2014. Mean intakes of carotenoids were calculated from 7 repeated FFQs collected in 1984, 1986, and every 4 y afterwards until 2006. Self-reported SCF was assessed by a 7-item questionnaire on changes in memory and cognition; validity was supported by strong associations with Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype and concurrent cognitive function and cognitive decline measured by telephone-based neuropsychological tests. The mean values of scores assessed in 2012 and 2014 were categorized as "good" (0 points, 40.8%), "moderate" (0.5-2.5 points, 46.9%), and "poor" (3-7 points, 12.3%). RESULTS: Higher intake of total carotenoids was associated with substantially lower odds of moderate or poor cognitive function after controlling for other dietary and nondietary risk factors and total energy intake. Comparing the top with the bottom quintile of total carotenoids, the multivariable ORs were 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.93; P-trend < 0.001) for moderate SCF and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.75; P-trend < 0.001) for poor SCF. This lower OR was also seen for carotenoids consumed 28 y before SCF assessment. Similar associations were found for total ß-carotene, dietary ß-carotene, α-carotene, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, and ß-cryptoxanthin. The significant associations for ß-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin persisted after mutual adjustment for each other. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a long-term beneficial role of carotenoid consumption on cognitive function in women.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(7): 699-707, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Live donor nephrectomy is a safe procedure. However, long-term donor prognosis is debated, necessitating high-quality studies. METHODS: A follow-up study of 761 living kidney donors was conducted, who visited the outpatient clinic and were propensity score matched and compared to 1522 non-donors from population-based cohort studies. Primary outcome was kidney function. Secondary outcomes were BMI (kg/m2), incidences of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and overall mortality, and quality of life. RESULTS: Median follow-up after donation was 8.0 years. Donors had an increase in serum creatinine of 26 µmol/l (95% CI 24-28), a decrease in eGFR of 27 ml/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI - 29 to - 26), and an eGFR decline of 32% (95% CI 30-33) as compared to non-donors. There was no difference in outcomes between the groups for ESRD, microalbuminuria, BMI, incidence of diabetes or cardiovascular events, and mortality. A lower risk of new-onset hypertension (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.33-0.62) was found among donors. The EQ-5D health-related scores were higher among donors, whereas the SF-12 physical and mental component scores were lower. CONCLUSION: Loss of kidney mass after live donation does not translate into negative long-term outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality compared to non-donors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR3795.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Rim/fisiologia , Doadores Vivos/psicologia , Nefrectomia/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/etiologia , Incidência , Testes de Função Renal , Doadores Vivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Nefrectomia/psicologia , Vigilância da População , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pontuação de Propensão , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(19): 2387-2399, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large blood pressure (BP) variability may contribute to stroke and dementia, but the mechanisms are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the association of BP variation, considering its magnitude and direction, with the presence and progression of subclinical brain disease in the general population. METHODS: This study included 2,348 participants age ≥55 years from a prospective cohort study. BP was measured at each visit every 3 to 4 years from 1990 onward. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at all visits from 2005 onward. The authors primarily assessed variation as the absolute difference in BP divided by the mean over 2 sequential visits for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and further assessed the direction of the variation. The authors investigated the multivariate-adjusted associations of BP variation with subsequent measurements of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease, brain tissue volumes, and white matter microstructural integrity. Longitudinal changes in these markers also were assessed. RESULTS: A large SBP variation (top vs. bottom tertiles), measured on average 7 years preceding brain MRI, was associated with higher odds of having severe white matter hyperintensities (WMH) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21 to 1.43), lacunes (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.48), and microbleeds (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.31). Similarly, this variation was associated with smaller total brain volume and worse white matter microstructural integrity (all p < 0.001). A large SBP variation was also associated with the progression of WMH (rate ratio [RR]: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.27). Higher burdens of these brain imaging markers were observed with both large rises and falls in SBP. Similar findings were observed for DBP variation. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BP variation was associated with a wide range of subclinical brain structural changes, including MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease, smaller brain tissue volumes, and worse white matter microstructural integrity. These subclinical brain changes could be the underlying mechanisms linking BP variation to dementia and stroke.

12.
Brain ; 143(4): 1220-1232, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32206776

RESUMO

CSF biomarkers, including total-tau, neurofilament light chain (NfL) and amyloid-ß, are increasingly being used to define and stage Alzheimer's disease. These biomarkers can be measured more quickly and less invasively in plasma and may provide important information for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. We used stored plasma samples and clinical data obtained from 4444 non-demented participants in the Rotterdam study at baseline (between 2002 and 2005) and during follow-up until January 2016. Plasma concentrations of total-tau, NfL, amyloid-ß40 and amyloid-ß42 were measured using the Simoa NF-light® and N3PA assays. Associations between biomarker plasma levels and incident all-cause and Alzheimer's disease dementia during follow-up were assessed using Cox proportional-hazard regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, cardiovascular risk factors and APOE ε4 status. Moreover, biomarker plasma levels and rates of change over time of participants who developed Alzheimer's disease dementia during follow-up were compared with age and sex-matched dementia-free control subjects. During up to 14 years follow-up, 549 participants developed dementia, including 374 cases with Alzheimer's disease dementia. A log2 higher baseline amyloid-ß42 plasma level was associated with a lower risk of developing all-cause or Alzheimer's disease dementia, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.61 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-0.78; P < 0.0001] and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = 0.0006), respectively. Conversely, a log2 higher baseline plasma NfL level was associated with a higher risk of all-cause dementia [adjusted HR 1.59 (95% CI, 1.38-1.83); P < 0.0001] or Alzheimer's disease [adjusted HR 1.50 (95% CI, 1.26-1.78); P < 0.0001]. Combining the lowest quartile group of amyloid-ß42 with the highest of NfL resulted in a stronger association with all-cause dementia [adjusted HR 9.5 (95% CI, 2.3-40.4); P < 0.002] and with Alzheimer's disease [adjusted HR 15.7 (95% CI, 2.1-117.4); P < 0.0001], compared to the highest quartile group of amyloid-ß42 and lowest of NfL. Total-tau and amyloid-ß40 levels were not associated with all-cause or Alzheimer's disease dementia risk. Trajectory analyses of biomarkers revealed that mean NfL plasma levels increased 3.4 times faster in participants who developed Alzheimer's disease compared to those who remained dementia-free (P < 0.0001), plasma values for cases diverged from controls 9.6 years before Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Amyloid-ß42 levels began to decrease in Alzheimer's disease cases a few years before diagnosis, although the decline did not reach significance compared to dementia-free participants. In conclusion, our study shows that low amyloid-ß42 and high NfL plasma levels are each independently and in combination strongly associated with risk of all-cause and Alzheimer's disease dementia. These data indicate that plasma NfL and amyloid-ß42 levels can be used to assess the risk of developing dementia in a non-demented population. Plasma NfL levels, although not specific, may also be useful in monitoring progression of Alzheimer's disease dementia.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Demência/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Proteínas tau/sangue , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/sangue , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Stroke ; 51(3): STROKEAHA119027198, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078785

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The introduction of stroke units and the implementation of evidence-based interventions have been a breakthrough in the management of patients with stroke over the past decade. Survival following stroke is an important indicator in monitoring stroke burden. Recent data on survival by stroke subtype in the general population is scarce. We assessed (1) recent temporal time trends in survival; (2) age-standardized death rates; (3) survival probabilities at 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years following first hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke. Methods- Within the population-based Rotterdam Study between 1991 and 2015, we assessed time trends in survival among 162 with first-ever hemorrhagic and 988 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke across 3 time periods (1991-1998; 1999-2007; 2008-2015) using time-varying Cox regression model and calculated age-standardized death rates according to the European 2010 census population. Results- In the hemorrhagic stroke group, a total of 144 deaths occurred during 386 person-years. Following a hemorrhagic stroke, we observed similar mortality rates over the years with 30 per 100 person-years in 2015 compared with 25/100 person-years in 1991. Similarly, compared with the earliest study period (1991-1998), mortality rates remained unchanged in the latest study period (2008-2015; hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.61-1.57]; P=0.93). In the ischemic stroke group, a total of 711 deaths occurred during 4897 person-years. We observed a decline in mortality rates in 2015 (11 per 100 person-years) compared with 1991 (29/100 person-years). This translated to favorable trends in the latest study period 2008 to 2015 (hazard ratio, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.56-0.90]; P<0.01). Conclusions- Survival following ischemic stroke has improved over the past decade, while no change was observed in survival following hemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/complicações , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Probabilidade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(7): 634-639, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003778

RESUMO

Over the past century, the field of epidemiology has evolved and adapted to changing public health needs. Challenges include newly emerging public health concerns across broad and diverse content areas, new methods, and vast data sources. We recognize the need to engage and educate the next generation of epidemiologists and prepare them to tackle these issues of the 21st century. In this commentary, we suggest a skeleton framework upon which departments of epidemiology should build their curriculum. We propose domains that include applied epidemiology, biological and social determinants of health, communication, creativity and ability to collaborate and lead, statistical methods, and study design. We believe all students should gain skills across these domains to tackle the challenges posed to us. The aim is to train smart thinkers, not technicians, to embrace challenges and move the expanding field of epidemiology forward.


Assuntos
Currículo , Epidemiologistas/educação , Epidemiologia/educação , Epidemiologia/tendências , Previsões , Humanos , Saúde Pública/educação , Saúde Pública/tendências
15.
Neurology ; 94(6): 265-272, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) compared with non-AD controls with similar risk profiles. METHODS: A search was conducted on EMBASE and MEDLINE for reports published up to September 26, 2018. Studies were included if they (1) assessed the incidence of stroke in patients diagnosed with AD; (2) included patients with no history of stroke; and (3) reported outcomes by stroke subtype. The main outcome was relative risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Furthermore, the rate of stroke occurrence per 1,000 person-years was assessed. A random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken. The risk of bias in included studies was assessed in terms of selection, comparability, and outcome. RESULTS: A total of 3,605 studies were screened in the title and abstract phase after removing duplicates, and 88 eligible studies were screened for full text. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria representing 121,719 individuals (AD = 73,044; non-AD = 48,675). Five studies were included in the relative risk analysis, among which 4 studies applied formal matching criteria of 44,544 AD and 44,660 non-AD controls. The included studies were based on nationwide registries from Finland, Sweden, Taiwan (2), United Kingdom (2), 1 clinic-based study from the Netherlands, and 1 US population-based cohort. Among patients with AD, the incidence rate of hemorrhagic stroke was 3.41/1000 person-years (95% CI 2.70-4.32) and 2.23 (95% CI 1.72-2.88) among AD cases and non-AD controls, respectively. This is in contrast to 13.98 (95% CI 9.86-19.81) and 12.12 (95% CI 7.55-19.46) for ischemic stroke among AD cases and non-AD controls, respectively. Compared with non-AD controls with similar risk profiles, patients with AD had a relative risk of 1.42 (95% CI 1.23-1.64) for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.15 (95% CI 0.89-1.48) for ischemic stroke. CONCLUSION: Compared with non-AD controls with similar risk profiles, patients with AD are likely at a higher risk of hemorrhagic but not ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Incidência , Risco
16.
Neurology ; 94(2): e123-e132, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To help determine whether midlife obesity is a cause of dementia and whether low body mass index (BMI), low caloric intake, and physical inactivity are causes or merely consequences of the gradual onset of dementia by recording these factors early in a large 20-year prospective study and relating them to dementia detection rates separately during follow-up periods of <5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, and 15+ years. METHODS: A total of 1,136,846 UK women, mean age 56 (SD 5) years, were recruited in 1996 to 2001 and asked about height, weight, caloric intake, and inactivity. They were followed up until 2017 by electronic linkage to National Health Service records, detecting hospital admissions with mention of dementia. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for first dementia detection during particular follow-up periods. RESULTS: Fifteen years after the baseline survey, only 1% were lost to follow-up, and 89% remained alive with no detected dementia, of whom 18,695 had dementia detected later, at a mean age of 77 (SD 4) years. Dementia detection during years 15+ was associated with baseline obesity (BMI 30+ vs 20-24 kg/m2: RR 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.26, p < 0.0001) but not clearly with low BMI, low caloric intake, or inactivity at baseline. The latter 3 factors were associated with increased dementia rates during the first decade, but these associations weakened substantially over time, approaching null after 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: Midlife obesity may well be a cause of dementia. In contrast, behavioral changes due to preclinical disease could largely or wholly account for associations of low BMI, low caloric intake, and inactivity with dementia detection during the first decade of follow-up.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Demência/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Stroke ; 51(1): 82-89, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771460

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Blood pressure (BP) variability may increase the risk of stroke and dementia. It remains inconclusive whether BP variability is associated with cerebral small vessel disease, a common and potentially devastating subclinical disease that contributes significantly to both stroke and dementia. Methods- A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that examined the association between BP variability and the presence or progression of established markers of cerebral small vessel disease, including white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Ten studies met the criteria for qualitative synthesis and 7 could be included in the meta-analysis. Data were synthetized using random-effect models. Results- These studies included a total of 2796 individuals aged 74 (mean) ±4 (SD) years, with a median follow-up of 4.0 years. A one SD increase in systolic BP variability was associated with increased odds of the presence or progression of white matter hyperintensities (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.50]). The association of systolic BP variability with the presence of lacunes (odds ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.74-1.16]) and the presence of microbleeds (odds ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 0.89-1.44]) were not statistically significant. Conclusions- A larger BP variability may be associated with a higher risk of having a higher burden of white matter hyperintensities. Targeting large BP variability has the potential to prevent cerebral small vessel disease and thereby reducing the risk of stroke and dementia. The potential issue of reverse causation and the heterogeneity in the assessment of cerebral small vessel disease markers should be better addressed in future studies.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Demência/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Demência/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
18.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; 11(2): 118-126, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that low birth weight and fetal exposure to extreme maternal undernutrition is associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Hyperemesis gravidarum, a clinical entity characterized by severe nausea and excess vomiting leading to a suboptimal maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Several studies also showed that different measures related to hyperemesis gravidarum, such as maternal daily vomiting or severe weight loss, are associated with increased risks of adverse fetal pregnancy outcomes. Not much is known about long-term offspring consequences of maternal hyperemesis gravidarum and related measures during pregnancy. We examined the associations of maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy, as a measure related to hyperemesis gravidarum, with childhood cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards among 4,769 mothers and their children in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we measured childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, preperitoneal fat mass area, blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. We used multiple regression analyses to assess the associations of maternal vomiting during early pregnancy with childhood cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with the children of mothers without daily vomiting during early pregnancy, the children of mothers with daily vomiting during early pregnancy had a higher childhood total body fat mass (difference 0.12 standard deviation score [SDS]; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.20), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (difference 0.13 SDS; 95% CI 0.04-0.23), and preperitoneal fat mass area (difference 0.10 SDS; 95% CI 0-0.20). These associations were not explained by birth characteristics but partly explained by higher infant growth. Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy was not associated with childhood blood pressure, lipids, and insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal daily vomiting during early pregnancy is associated with higher childhood total body fat mass and abdominal fat mass levels, but not with other cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings, to explore the underlying mechanisms and to assess the long-term consequences.

19.
PLoS Med ; 16(11): e1002933, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variation in blood pressure may relate to dementia risk via autonomic disturbance or hemodynamic mechanisms, but the long-term associations are unclear. We aimed to determine whether blood pressure variation over a period of years, considering both magnitude and direction, is associated with the risk of dementia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort study ongoing since 1989 in the Netherlands, 5,273 dementia-free participants (58.1% women; mean [SD] age, 67.6 [8.0] years) were included. As of 2016, 1,059 dementia cases occurred during a median follow-up of 14.6 years. Absolute variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed as the absolute difference in SBP divided by the mean over two sequential visits every 4.2 (median) years, with the first quantile set as the reference level. The direction was the rise or fall in SBP, with the third quantile set as the reference level. We estimated the risk of dementia in relation to SBP variation measured at different time windows (i.e., at least 0, 5, 10, and 15 years) prior to dementia diagnosis, with adjustments for age, sex, education, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, vascular risk factors, and history of cardiovascular disease. We repeated the above analysis for variation in diastolic blood pressure (DBP). A large SBP variation was associated with an increased dementia risk, which became more pronounced with longer intervals between the assessment of SBP variation and the diagnosis of dementia. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with large variation (the highest quintile) increased from 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-1.34, P = 0.337) for risk within 5 years of SBP variation measurement to 3.13 (95% CI 2.05-4.77; P < 0.001) for risk after at least 15 years since the measurement of SBP variation. The increased long-term risk was associated with both large rises (HR for the highest quintile, 3.31 [95% CI 2.11-5.18], P < 0.001) and large falls in SBP (HR for the lowest quintile, 2.20 [95% CI 1.33-3.63], P = 0.002), whereas the higher short-term risk was only associated with large falls in SBP (HR, 1.21 [95% CI 1.00-1.48], P = 0.017). Similar findings were observed for variation in DBP. Despite our assessment of major confounders, potential residual confounding is possible, and the findings on blood pressure variability over periods of years may not be generalizable to variability over periods of days and other shorter periods. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study showed that a large blood pressure variation over a period of years was associated with an increased long-term risk of dementia. The association between blood pressure variation and dementia appears most pronounced when this variation occurred long before the diagnosis. An elevated long-term risk of dementia was observed with both a large rise and fall in blood pressure.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Demência/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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