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1.
Drugs Aging ; 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is relatively common among nursing home residents, and decisions regarding anticoagulant therapy in this setting may be complicated by resident frailty and other factors. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine trends and correlates of oral anticoagulant use among newly admitted nursing home residents with AF following the approval of direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults aged > 65 years with AF who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada, between 2011 and 2018 (N = 36,466). Health administrative databases were linked with comprehensive clinical assessment data captured shortly after admission, to ascertain resident characteristics. Trends in prevalence of anticoagulant use (any, warfarin, DOAC) at admission were captured with prescription claims and examined by frailty and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Log-binomial regression models estimated crude percentage changes in use over time and modified Poisson regression models assessed factors associated with anticoagulant use and type. RESULTS: The prevalence of anticoagulant use at admission increased from 41.1% in 2011/2012 to 58.0% in 2017/2018 (percentage increase = 41.1%, p < 0.001). Warfarin use declined (- 67.7%, p < 0.001), while DOAC use increased. Anticoagulant use was less likely among residents with a prior hospitalization for hemorrhagic stroke (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.70) or gastrointestinal bleed (aRR 0.80, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), liver disease (aRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89), severe cognitive impairment (aRR 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.94), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.71-0.81) or antiplatelet (aRR 0.25, 95% CI 0.23-0.27) use, but more likely for those with a prior hospitalization for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism (aRR 1.30, 95% CI 1.27-1.33). CKD was associated with a reduced likelihood of DOAC versus warfarin use in both the early (aRR 0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) and later years (aRR 0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83) of our study period. Frail residents were significantly less likely to receive an anticoagulant at admission, although this association was modest (aRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Frailty was not associated with anticoagulant type. CONCLUSIONS: While the proportion of residents with AF receiving oral anticoagulants at admission increased following the approval of DOACs, over 40% remained untreated. Among those treated, use of a DOAC increased, while warfarin use declined. The impact of these recent treatment patterns on the balance between benefit and harm among residents warrant further investigation.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250567, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multimorbidity is increasing among older adults, but the impact of these recent trends on the extent and complexity of polypharmacy and possible variation by sex remains unknown. We examined sex differences in multimorbidity, polypharmacy (5+ medications) and hyper-polypharmacy (10+ medications) in 2003 vs 2016, and the interactive associations between age, multimorbidity level, and time on polypharmacy measures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We employed a repeated cross-sectional study design with linked health administrative databases for all persons aged ≥66 years eligible for health insurance in Ontario, Canada at the two index dates. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were conducted; models included interaction terms between age, multimorbidity level, and time period to estimate polypharmacy and hyper-polypharmacy probabilities, risk differences and risk ratios for 2016 vs 2003. Multimorbidity, polypharmacy and hyper-polypharmacy increased significantly over the 13 years. At both index dates prevalence estimates for all three were higher in women, but a greater absolute increase in polypharmacy over time was observed in men (6.6% [from 55.7% to 62.3%] vs 0.9% [64.2%-65.1%] for women) though absolute increases in multimorbidity were similar for men and women (6.9% [72.5%-79.4%] vs 6.2% [75.9%-82.1%], respectively). Model findings showed that polypharmacy decreased over time among women aged < 90 years (especially for younger ages and those with fewer conditions), whereas it increased among men at all ages and multimorbidity levels (with larger absolute increases typically at older ages and among those with 4 or fewer conditions). CONCLUSIONS: There are sex and age differences in the impact of increasing chronic disease burden on changes in measures of multiple medication use among older adults. Though the drivers and health consequences of these trends warrant further investigation, the findings support the heterogeneity and complexity in the evolving association between multimorbidity and polypharmacy measures in older populations.

3.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(2): 48-56, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a rich, nationally representative population-based resource that can be used for multiple purposes. Although municipalities may wish to use CLSA data to address local policy needs, how well localized CLSA cohorts reflect municipal populations is unknown. Because Calgary, Alberta, is home to one of 11 CLSA data collection sites, our objective was to explore how well the Calgary CLSA sample represented the general Calgary population on select sociodemographic variables. METHODS: Baseline characteristics (i.e. sex, marital status, ethnicity, education, retirement status, income, immigration, internal migration) of CLSA participants who visited the Calgary data collection site between 2011 and 2015 were compared to analogous profiles derived from the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and 2016 Census datasets, which spanned the years when data were collected on the CLSA participants. RESULTS: Calgary CLSA participants were representative of the Calgary population for age, sex and Indigenous identity. Discrepancies of over 5% with the NHS and/or 2016 Census were found for marital status, measures of ethnic diversity (i.e. immigrant status, place of birth, non-official language spoken at home), internal migration, income, retirement status and education. CONCLUSION: Voluntary studies face challenges in recruiting fully representative cohorts. Communities opting to use CLSA data at a municipal level, including the 10 other CLSA data collection sites, should exercise caution when interpreting the results of these analyses, as CLSA participants may not be fully representative of the local population on select characteristics of interest.

4.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629361
5.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(4): 297-328, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282050

RESUMO

Background: Studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) employ rigorous eligibility criteria, resulting in sampling that may not be representative of the broader clinical population. Objective: To compare the characteristics of MCI patients in a Calgary memory clinic to those of MCI participants in published Canadian studies. Methods: Clinic participants included 555 MCI patients from the PROspective Registry of Persons with Memory SyMPToms (PROMPT) registry in Calgary. Research participants included 4,981 individuals with MCI pooled from a systematic literature review of 112 original, English-language peer-reviewed Canadian studies. Both samples were compared on baseline sociodemographic variables, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, and cognitive performance for MCI due to Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Results: Overall, clinic patients tended to be younger, more often male, and more educated than research participants. Psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, and sensory impairment were commonplace in PROMPT (up to 83% affected) but > 80% studies in the systematic review excluded these conditions. PROMPT patients also performed worse on global cognition measures than did research participants. Conclusion: Stringent eligibility criteria in Canadian research studies excluded a considerable subset of MCI patients with comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. This exclusion may contribute to differences in cognitive performance and outcomes compared to real-world clinical samples.

6.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 6(1): e12056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209971

RESUMO

Introduction: Vascular disease is a common cause of dementia, and often coexists with other brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease to cause mixed dementia. Many of the risk factors for vascular disease are treatable. Our objective was to review evidence for diagnosis and treatment of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) to issue recommendations to clinicians. Methods: A subcommittee of the Canadian Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia (CCCDTD) reviewed areas of emerging evidence. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assign the quality of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. Results: Using standardized diagnostic criteria, managing hypertension to conventional blood pressure targets, and reducing risk for stroke are strongly recommended. Intensive blood pressure lowering in middle-aged adults with vascular risk factors, using acetylsalicylic acid in persons with VCI and covert brain infarctions but not if only white matter lesions are present, and using cholinesterase inhibitors are weakly recommended. Conclusions: The CCCDTD has provided evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and management of VCI for use nationally in Canada, that may also be of use worldwide.

7.
Front Integr Neurosci ; 14: 571683, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33224030

RESUMO

Aging is associated with subjective memory complaints. Approximately half of those with subjective memory complaints have objective cognitive impairment. Previous studies have provided evidence of an association between genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia progression. Also, aging is a significant risk factor for vascular pathology that may underlie at least some of the cognitive changes. This study investigates the relative contribution of subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), vascular function, and genetic risk for dementia in predicting objective cognitive performance. Multiple regression and relative importance analysis were used to investigate the relative contribution of vascular function, self-reported SCC, and dementia genetic risk, in predicting objective cognition in a sample of 238 healthy community-dwelling older adults. Age, sex, premorbid cognitive abilities, subjective verbal memory complaints, higher cerebrovascular blood flow during submaximal exercise, and certain dementia risk alleles were significant predictors of worse objective verbal memory performance (p < 0.001, R 2 = 35.2-36.4%). Using relative importance analysis, subjective verbal memory complaints, and certain dementia risk alleles contributed more variance than cerebrovascular measures. These results suggest that age-related changes in memory in healthy older adults can be predicted by subjective memory complaints, genetic risk, and to a lesser extent, cerebrovascular function.

8.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(3): 228-234, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32904746

RESUMO

A personal top ten list of literature about aging and the practice of geriatrics is offered. This is primarily directed at those completing their training in the care of older patients. While acknowledging the limitations of any such exercise, it is hoped that it will engender interest in prior work by and about older persons and their care. Those at the start of their careers in geriatrics are encouraged to read these and other primary contributions, make their own list of essential literature, and incorporate the lessons learned and the examples of prior practitioners into their professional practice.

9.
Drugs Aging ; 37(11): 817-827, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In nursing homes, residents with dementia frequently receive potentially inappropriate medications that are associated with an increased risk of adverse events. Despite known sex differences in clinical presentation and sociodemographic characteristics among persons with dementia, few studies have examined sex differences in patterns and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication use. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine sex differences in the patterns of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in the 180 days following admission to a nursing home, estimate clinical and sociodemographic predictors of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine use in male and female residents, and explore the effects of modification by sex on the predictors of using these drug therapies. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35,169 adults aged 66 years and older with dementia who were newly admitted to nursing homes in Ontario, Canada between 2011 and 2014. Health administrative databases were linked to detailed clinical assessment data collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI-MDS 2.0). Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic covariates to estimate the rate of antipsychotic and benzodiazepine initiation and discontinuation in the 180 days following nursing home admission in the total sample and stratified by sex. Sex-covariate interaction terms were used to assess whether sex modified the association between covariates and the rate of drug therapy initiation or discontinuation following nursing home entry. RESULTS: Across 638 nursing homes, our analytical sample included 22,847 females and 12,322 males. At admission, male residents were more likely to be prevalent antipsychotic users than female residents (33.8% vs 28.3%; p < 0.001), and female residents were more likely to be prevalent benzodiazepine users than male residents (17.2% vs 15.3%, p < 0.001). In adjusted models, female residents were less likely to initiate an antipsychotic after admission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73-0.86); however, no sex difference was observed in the rate of benzodiazepine initiation (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.12). Female residents were less likely than males to discontinue antipsychotics (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) and benzodiazepines (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.89). Sex modified the association between some covariates and the rate of changes in drug use (e.g., widowed males exhibited an increased rate of antipsychotic discontinuation (p-interaction = 0.03) compared with married males), but these associations were not statistically significant among females. Sex did not modify the effect of frailty on the rates of initiation and discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females with dementia differed in their exposure to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines at nursing home admission and their patterns of use following admission. A greater understanding of factors driving sex differences in potentially inappropriate medication use may help tailor interventions to reduce exposure in this vulnerable population.

10.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 34(7): 284-294, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639207

RESUMO

Frailty is prevalent in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH), but factors predisposing older PWH to frailty remain uncertain. We examined factors associated with frailty and determined whether there were multiple frailty subtypes in older adults with controlled HIV infection. This was a cross-sectional outpatient study in an urban HIV clinic. Twenty-nine clinical indicators were extracted from medical records to compute a Frailty Index (FI) for 389 older (age 50+) PWH (range = 50-93; mean = 61.1, standard deviation = 7.2; 85% men) receiving HIV treatment in Calgary, Canada. We used regressions to identify factors associated with FI values. Latent class analysis was used to identify FI subtypes. Age, employment status, and duration of known HIV infection were the strongest predictors of FI (p's < 0.05). Four FI subtypes were identified. Subtype 1 (severe metabolic dysfunction+polypharmacy) had the highest mean FI (0.30). Subtype 2 (less severe metabolic dysfunction+polypharmacy) and Subtype 3 (lung and liver dysfunction+polypharmacy) had lower but equivalent mean FIs (0.20 for each). Subtype 4 (least severe metabolic dysfunction) had the lowest mean FI (0.13; p's < 0.001). Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics differed among the subtypes. Individuals with Subtype 1 were older and more frequently unemployed/retired, whereas those with Subtype 3 were more likely to smoke, use crack/cocaine, have heavy alcohol use, and live in temporary/unstable housing. The clinical presentation of frailty in older PWH is heterogeneous. The metabolic syndrome, hepatitis C virus coinfection, cirrhosis, lung disease, and polypharmacy were associated with frailty as were unemployment/retirement, unstable housing, and substance use.


Assuntos
Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(1): 152-154, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550953

RESUMO

Background: The Canadian Geriatrics Society (CGS) fosters the health and well-being of older Canadians and older adults worldwide. Although severe COVID-19 illness and significant mortality occur across the lifespan, the fatality rate increases with age, especially for people over 65 years of age. The dichotomization of COVID-19 patients by age has been proposed as a way to decide who will receive intensive care admission when critical care unit beds or ventilators are limited. We provide perspectives and evidence why alternative approaches should be used. Methods: Practitioners and researchers in geriatric medicine and gerontology have led in the development of alternative approaches to using chronological age as the sole criterion for allocating medical resources. Evidence and ethical based recommendations are provided. Results: Age alone should not drive decisions for health-care resource allocation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Decisions on health-care resource allocation should take into consideration the preferences of the patient and their goals of care, as well as patient factors like the Clinical Frailty Scale score based on their status two weeks before the onset of symptoms. Conclusions: Age alone does not accurately capture the variability of functional capacities and physiological reserve seen in older adults. A threshold of 5 or greater on the Clinical Frailty Scale is recommended if this scale is utilized in helping to decide on access to limited health-care resources such as admission to a critical care unit and/or intubation during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(2): 184-189, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494334

RESUMO

Background: Biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) are recommended for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but older patients reportedly experience more adverse events (AEs) and show variable treatment response. The objective of this study was to evaluate AEs and effectiveness of bDMARDs in a cohort of older patients. Methods: AE and treatment effectiveness (based on DAS28 scores) data from a prospective provincial pharmacovigilance program for the years 2006-2009 in patients 55-64, 65-74, and 75+ years of age were compared. An intention to treat analysis with chi-square and unpaired t-testing for significance was performed. Results: There were a total of 333 patients (156 were aged 55-64, 125 were 65-74, 52 were 75+). Those 75+ had higher disease activity and worse functional status at baseline. Among those 75+, AEs with bDMARDs were more common and likely to lead to discontinuation of therapy, be graded as severe, and classified as infectious (p < .05). Remission rate among those 75+ was significantly higher than patients 65-74. Etanercept was the most commonly used drug in all age groups. Conclusion: Patients 75+ treated with bDMARDs are at a significantly greater risk of AEs, including infectious ones. The higher remission found in the oldest age group warrants further study.

13.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(2): 205-209, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494337

RESUMO

In 2017, Hypertension Canada removed advanced age and frailty as considerations for caution when deciding on intensive therapy in their guidelines for the diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults. Dementia is not mentioned. In this commentary, we review why advanced age and frailty were removed, and examine what is currently known about the relationship between hypertension and both incident and prevalent dementia. We make the case that the presence of frailty (especially when severe) and dementia should be considered when deciding on intensive therapy in future iterations of Hypertension Canada guidelines.

14.
J Eval Clin Pract ; : e13413, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452089

RESUMO

RATIONAL, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: The FallProof Balance and Mobility Program is a multifactorial fall prevention intervention that targets intrinsic risk factors such as muscle strength, balance, gait, and posture. Using mixed methods, we evaluated the implementation of the program for older adults at high risk of falling in the community. METHODS: A pre-post program evaluation and semi-structured interviews were used to evaluate FallProof Balance and Mobility Program offered to older adults who were recurrent fallers. Over a 1-year period, the 12-week program was offered five times. Feasibility, acceptability, and outcome evaluation along with semi-structured interviews were done. Over the course of the evaluation, participants were evaluated three times (baseline, 12, and 16 weeks). RESULTS: Of the 19 participants, who enrolled in the program, 16 completed the program and 12 attended at least 80% of the classes. Fourteen participants had mildly impaired cognition (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26). Large gains (effect size 0.90) were seen with self-management (Partner-in-Health Scale). Participants were very satisfied with the program. Three themes emerged from the semi-structured interviews: (a) fall-related benefits, (b) variety of activities and motivating instructors, and (c) deterrents to participation. CONCLUSION: Findings provided insights into pragmatic issues of implementing a balance and mobility program for older adults at risk of falling. The FallProof program was found to be feasible and acceptable in a small cohort of older adults from the community.

15.
Neurology ; 94(21): e2245-e2257, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise is associated with improvements in cognition and cerebrovascular regulation, we enrolled 206 healthy low-active middle-aged and older adults (mean ± SD age 65.9 ± 6.4 years) in a supervised 6-month aerobic exercise intervention and assessed them before and after the intervention. METHODS: The study is a quasi-experimental single group pre/postintervention study. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess cognition before and after the intervention. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to measure cerebral blood flow velocity. Cerebrovascular regulation was assessed at rest, during euoxic hypercapnia, and in response to submaximal exercise. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association between changes in cognition and changes in cerebrovascular function. RESULTS: The intervention was associated with improvements in some cognitive domains, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cerebrovascular regulation. Changes in executive functions were negatively associated with changes in cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi) during submaximal exercise (ß = -0.205, p = 0.013), while fluency improvements were positively associated with changes in CVRi during hypercapnia (ß = 0.106, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The 6-month aerobic exercise intervention was associated with improvements in some cognitive domains and cerebrovascular regulation. Secondary analyses showed a novel association between changes in cognition and changes in cerebrovascular regulation during euoxic hypercapnia and in response to submaximal exercise.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
17.
Can J Psychiatry ; 65(11): 790-801, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274934

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and memantine are approved for Alzheimer disease in Canada. Regional drug reimbursement policies are associated with cross-provincial variation in ChEI use, but it is unclear how these policies influence predictors of use. Using standardized data from two provinces with differing policies, we compared resident-level characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy at long-term care (LTC) admission. METHODS: Using linked clinical and administrative databases, we examined characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy use among residents with dementia and/or significant cognitive impairment admitted to LTC facilities in Saskatchewan (more restrictive reimbursement policies; n = 10,599) and Ontario (less restrictive; n = 93,331) between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to assess resident demographic, functional, and clinical characteristics associated with dementia pharmacotherapy. RESULTS: On admission, 8.1% of Saskatchewan residents were receiving dementia pharmacotherapy compared to 33.2% in Ontario. In both provinces, residents with severe cognitive impairment, aggressive behaviors, and recent antipsychotic use were more likely to receive dementia pharmacotherapy; while those who were unmarried, admitted in later years, had a greater degree of frailty, and recent hospitalizations were less likely. The direction of the association for older age, rural residency, medication number, and anticholinergic therapy differed between provinces. CONCLUSIONS: While more restrictive criteria for dementia pharmacotherapy coverage in Saskatchewan resulted in fewer residents entering LTC on dementia pharmacotherapy, there were relatively few differences in the factors associated with use across provinces. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess how differences in prevalence and characteristics associated with use impact patient outcomes.

18.
J Sleep Res ; : e13037, 2020 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281182

RESUMO

To determine the relationship between sleep spindle characteristics (density, power and frequency), executive functioning and cognitive decline in older adults, we studied a convenience subsample of healthy middle-aged and older participants of the Brain in Motion study. Participants underwent a single night of unattended in-home polysomnography with neurocognitive testing carried out shortly afterwards. Spectral analysis of the EEG was performed to derive spindle characteristics in both central and frontal derivations during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) Stage 2 and 3. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine associations between spindle characteristics and cognitive outcomes, with age, body mass index (BMI), periodic limb movements index (PLMI) and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) as covariates. NREM Stage 2 total spindle density was significantly associated with executive functioning (central: ß = .363, p = .016; frontal: ß = .408, p = .004). NREM Stage 2 fast spindle density was associated with executive functioning (central: ß = .351, p = .022; frontal: ß = .380, p = .009) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score (MoCA, central: ß = .285, p = .037; frontal: ß = .279, p = .032). NREM Stage 2 spindle frequency was also associated with MoCA score (central: ß = .337, p = .013). Greater spindle density and fast spindle density were associated with better executive functioning and less cognitive decline in our study population. Our cross-sectional design cannot infer causality. Longitudinal studies will be required to assess the ability of spindle characteristics to predict future cognitive status.

19.
Can Geriatr J ; 23(1): 116-122, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226570

RESUMO

Background: Benzodiazepine receptor agonist (BZRA) use disorder among older adults is a relatively common and challenging clinical condition. Method: The Canadian Coalition for Seniors' Mental Health, with financial support from Health Canada, has produced evidence-based guidelines on the prevention, identification, assessment, and management of this form of substance use disorder. Results: Inappropriate use of BZRAs should be avoided by considering non-pharmacological approaches to the management of late life insomnia, anxiety, and other common indications for the use of BZRA. Older persons should only be prescribed BZRAs after they are fully informed of alternatives, benefits, and risks associated with their use. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for the presence of BZRA use disorders. The full version of these guidelines can be accessed at www.ccsmh.ca. Conclusions: A person-centred, stepped care approach utilizing gradual dose reductions should be used in the management of BZRA use disorder.

20.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 128(4): 748-756, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105521

RESUMO

Oxidative stress may be involved in disease pathology and dependent on both modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. This study aimed to assess exercise-induced changes in markers of oxidative stress among older, sedentary adults and to determine the effects of metabolic syndrome (MetS) status, aerobic capacity, age, sex, and weight on these biomarkers. Two hundred and six participants (means ± SE; 66.8 ± 6.4 yr, 104 women) of the Brain in Motion study underwent a 6-mo aerobic exercise intervention. At three time points, venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for markers of oxidative stress [advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and antioxidant status: catalase, uric acid (UA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)]. AOPP levels significantly decreased after 6 mo of aerobic exercise (P = 0.003). This decrease was not modified by MetS status (P = 0.183). Subjects with MetS possessed significantly higher levels of AOPP (P < 0.001), MDA (P = 0.004), and FRAP (P = 0.049) across the intervention (months 0-6). Men possessed significantly higher levels of FRAP (P < 0.001), catalase (P = 0.023), and UA (P = 0.037) across the intervention (months 0-6). Sex-MetS status interaction analyses revealed that the effect of MetS is highly sex dependent. These findings are multifaceted because the effect of MetS status seems distinctly different between sexes, pointing to the importance of acknowledging modifiable and nonmodifiable factor differences in individuals who possess conditions where oxidative stress may be part of the etiology.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Oxidative stress is implicated in a myriad of conditions, namely cardiovascular disease risk factors. This article details the effect of aerobic exercise, sex, and metabolic syndrome on markers of oxidative stress. We conclude that 6 mo of aerobic exercise significantly decreased oxidative stress, and further, that there is an effect of metabolic syndrome status on oxidative stress and antioxidant status levels, which are highly dependent on the sex of the individual.

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