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1.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(10): 1932-1940, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34189782

RESUMO

The inherent hydrodynamic resistance force, or passive drag, of a swimmer directly influences how they move through the water. For swimmers with physical impairments, the strength of association between passive drag and swimming performance is unknown. Knowledge on this factor could improve the World Para Swimming classification process. This study established the relationship between passive drag and 100 m freestyle race performance in Para swimmers with physical impairments. Using a cross-sectional study design, an electrical-mechanical towing device was used to measure passive drag force in 132 international-level Para swimmers. There was a strong, negative correlation between normalized passive drag force and 100 m freestyle race speed in the combined participant cohort (ρ = -0.77, p < 0.001). Type of physical impairment was found to affect the relationship between passive drag and 100 m freestyle race speed when included in linear regression (R2  = 0.65, χ2  = 11.5, p = 0.025). These findings contribute to the body of evidence that passive drag can provide an objective assessment of activity limitation in Para swimmers with physical impairments. The effect of physical impairment type on the relationship between passive drag and swimming performance should be accounted for in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 62-72, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092196

RESUMO

The current protocol for classifying Para swimmers with hypertonia, ataxia and athetosis involves a physical assessment where the individual's ability to coordinate their limbs is scored by subjective clinical judgment. The lack of objective measurement renders the current test unsuitable for evidence-based classification. This study evaluated a revised version of the Para swimming assessment for motor coordination, incorporating practical, objective measures of movement smoothness, rhythm error and accuracy. Nineteen Para athletes with hypertonia and 19 non-disabled participants performed 30 s trials of bilateral alternating shoulder flexion-extension at 30 bpm and 120 bpm. Accelerometry was used to quantify movement smoothness; rhythm error and accuracy were obtained from video. Para athletes presented significantly less smooth movement and higher rhythm error than the non-disabled participants (p < 0.05). Random forest algorithm successfully classified 89% of participants with hypertonia during out-of-bag predictions. The most important predictors in classifying participants were movement smoothness at both movement speeds, and rhythm error at 120 bpm. Our results suggest objective measures of movement smoothness and rhythm error included in the current motor coordination test protocols can be used to infer impairment in Para swimmers with hypertonia. Further research is merited to establish the relationship of these measures with swimming performance.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Hipertonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Algoritmos , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atetose/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Hipertonia Muscular/classificação , Paratletas/classificação , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 39(sup1): 73-80, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092197

RESUMO

This study examined the reliability of instrumented trunk assessment methods across two experiments to develop and improve evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Trunk coordination, range of motion (ROM), and strength were assessed in 38 non-disabled participants. Each test battery was completed on two occasions to determine inter-session reliability. Intra-session reliability was also determined in Experiment Two. Absolute agreement of two-way mixed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 3,1) was calculated to assess reliability. Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were also reported to facilitate comparisons between different outcomes. Trunk coordination measures had low-to-moderate reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.00-0.60; intra-session ICCs = 0.14-0.65) and variable SEMs (5-60%). Trunk ROM demonstrated moderate-to-excellent reliability (inter-session ICCs = 0.61-0.93; intra-session ICCs = 0.87-0.95) and good SEMs (<10%). Trunk strength measures demonstrated good-to-excellent reliability (ICCs = 0.87-0.98) and good SEMs (<10%). The strength values obtained for the load cell and hand-held dynamometer (HHD) were significantly different from each other with the HHD underestimating strength. Modifications provided in Experiment Two improved the reliability of strength and ROM assessments but did not improve coordination measures. Further research involving para swimmers is required to establish the validity of the methods.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Paratletas/classificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Postura Sentada , Coluna Vertebral , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil ; 13(1): 63, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the physique attributes of female netball players from the highest playing standards and the typical body composition changes that occur with training and competition in these athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the body composition of professional female netball players and changes that occur within and between national premier netball seasons. METHODS: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessments were conducted in 20 female netball players (age = 26.5 [4.7] years, body mass = 77.3 [9.7] kg, stature = 182.7 [9.5] cm) contracted to a Suncorp Super Netball team. Total body lean mass, fat mass, bone mass and bone mineral density were derived for 127 assessments collected over three seasons. Linear mixed effects modelling was used to examine changes in body composition measures within and between seasons. RESULTS: Goal circle players were heavier (12.3 [3.5] kg, p < 0.001, g = 1.51) and taller (15.0 [2.7] cm, p < 0.001, g = 2.30) than midcourt players, and midcourt players had greater lean mass (3.1 [1.6] %, p = 0.07, g = 0.85) and less fat mass (-3.3 [1.7] %, p = 0.06, g = -0.84) than goal circle players when values were normalised to body mass. Players achieved increases in lean mass (2,191 [263] g, p < 0.01, g = 0.45) and decreases in fat mass (-835 [351] g, p = 0.09, g = -0.16) following a preseason preparation period. There were no changes in lean mass (-394 [295] g, p = 0.54, g = 0.07) or fat mass (102 [389] g, p = 0.99, g = 0.04) from the start to the end of the 14-week competition period. CONCLUSIONS: Professional female netball players achieve small changes in lean mass and fat mass during preseason preparation and maintain their physique over the competitive season. The results of this study can inform practitioners on the training content necessary to promote or maintain desired body composition changes in these athletes.

5.
Adapt Phys Activ Q ; 38(2): 215-231, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596539

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to monitor the changes in breathing pattern, trunk muscle stabilization, and upper-body muscular power in Paralympic swimmers throughout a competitive season over three time points: October (T1), March (T2), and August (T3). Six top-level Paralympic swimmers voluntarily participated in this study. The Friedman test, the Bonferroni-Dunn multiple comparison post hoc analysis, and Kendall's W concordance coefficient for the measure of effect were used. A significant difference was found in the breathing pattern, trunk stability, and upper-body power variables from the T1 to T3 season (p < .05). However, no significant changes were found in the T2 season. A long-term assessment of these fitness parameters may be of practical importance for better tailoring the training programs of top-level Paralympic swimmers.


Assuntos
Respiração , Natação , Humanos , Estações do Ano
6.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(5): 719-726, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study established the relationship between isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) peak force and court-based jumping, sprinting, and change of direction (COD) performance in professional netball players. The change in IMTP peak force in response to sport-specific training was also examined. METHODS: IMTP peak force and court-based jumping, sprinting, and COD were collected in 18 female athletes contracted to a Suncorp Super Netball team. Linear regression models established the relationship between absolute and normalized strength values and court-based performance measures in the participant cohort. Changes in IMTP peak force and court-based performance measures were examined following 2 consecutive preseason training blocks in a subset of participants. RESULTS: The IMTP peak force values normalized to body mass were found to be determinants of court-based jumping, sprinting, and COD performance in the participant cohort (R2 = .34-.65, P ≤ .016). The participants showed increases in absolute (mean ± SE = 398 ± 68.5 N, P < .001, Hedge g = 0.70 [-0.05 to 1.35]) and normalized IMTP peak force (mean ± SE = 4.6 ± 0.78 N·kg-1, P < .001, Hedge g = 0.47 [-0.04 to 0.97]) over 2 consecutive training blocks that coincided with improvements in jumping, sprinting, and COD performances. CONCLUSION: IMTP peak force is a determinant of court-based jumping, sprinting, and COD performance and is sensitive to training in professional netball players. These results support the utility of the IMTP test to monitor the development and maintenance of maximal lower body muscular strength in these athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Atletas , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético
7.
Appl Ergon ; 93: 103369, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493871

RESUMO

Within the last decade, Para sport has experienced increased growth, global popularity, and scientific research. Likewise, there is increasing application of systems ergonomics methods to optimise sports performance. Despite this, few studies have attempted to analyse Para sport as a complex system. The aim of this study was to apply a systems ergonomics framework to redesign a current Para sport system via a multi staged approach. The Cognitive Work Analysis framework was used to model and redesign the Para sport system, via the insertion of design interventions. The findings offer insights into the complexity of the Para sport system via the multiple interacting factors that influence the performance of the system. In addition, the design interventions had substantial influence on the Para sport system by creating multiple new processes, functions, measures, and purposes, and enhanced multiple components of the existing system. This study provides a unique contribution to ergonomic science and extends system ergonomics theory and methods in sport. This study has practical implications for policy development by providing a template that can be used by others wanting to optimise able-bodied sport, Para sport, and non-sport systems.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Cognição , Meio Ambiente , Ergonomia , Humanos
8.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(4): 925-935, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345411

RESUMO

This study is the first to provide information on the age-related trajectories of performance in Para swimmers with physical, vision and intellectual impairment. Race times from long-course swim meets between 2009 and 2019 were obtained for Para swimmers with an eligible impairment. A subset of 10 661 times from 411 Para swimmers were included in linear mixed effects modelling to establish the relationship between age and performance expressed relative to personal best time and world record time. The main findings were: (a) age has the most noticeable influence on performance between the ages of 12-20 years before performances stabilize and peak in the early to late twenties, (b) women have faster times relative to personal best and world record time than men during early adolescence and their performances stabilize, peak and decline at younger ages, and (c) Para swimmers from different sport classes show varying age-related trajectories in performance after maturation and when training-related factors are more likely to explain competitive swim performance. The results of this study can guide talent identification and development of Para swimmers at various stages of their career and help to inform decision-making on the allocation of sport class and sport class status in Para swimming classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Comportamento Competitivo , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(6): 816-824, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131047

RESUMO

The assessment of swimming propulsion should be a cornerstone of Paralympic swimming classification. However, current methods do not objectively account for this component. PURPOSE: To evaluate the swimming propulsion of swimmers with and without physical impairment using a 30-second maximal fully tethered freestyle swim test. METHODS: Tethered forces were recorded during maximal fully tethered swimming in 80 competitive swimmers with (n = 70) and without (n = 10) physical impairment. The relationships between absolute and normalized tether forces and maximal freestyle swim speed were established using general additive models. RESULTS: Para swimmers with physical impairment had lower absolute and normalized tether forces than able-bodied swimmers, and there were moderate positive correlations found between tether forces and sport class (τ = .52-.55, P < .001). There was a nonlinear relationship between tether force and maximal freestyle swim speed in the participant cohort (adjusted R2 = .78-.80, P < .001). Para swimmers with limb deficiency showed stronger relationships between tether force and maximal freestyle swim speed (adjusted R2 = .78-.82, P < .001) than did Para swimmers with hypertonia (adjusted R2 = .54-.73, P < .001) and impaired muscle power (adjusted R2 = .61-.70, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Physical impairments affect Para swimmers' tether forces during maximal fully tethered freestyle swimming, explaining a significant proportion of their activity limitation. It is recommended that maximal fully tethered swimming be included in Paralympic swimming classification as an objective assessment of swimming propulsion.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/classificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Sports Sci ; 38(8): 839-847, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138613

RESUMO

Swimmers with limb deficiency are a core population within Para Swimming, accordingly this study examined the contribution of limb segments to race performance in these swimmers. Data were obtained for 174 male Para swimmers with limb deficiency. Ensemble partial least squares regression showed accurate predictions when using relative limb segment lengths to estimate Para swimmers' personal best race performances. The contribution of limb segments to performance in swim events was estimated using these regression models. The analysis found swim stroke and event distance to influence the contributions of limb segments to performance. For freestyle swim events, these changes were primarily due to the increased importance of the hand, and decreased importance of the foot and shank, as the distance of the event increased. When comparing swim strokes, higher importance of the thigh and shank in the 100 m breaststroke compared with other swim strokes confirms the separate SB class. Varied contributions of the hand, upper arm and foot suggest that freestyle could also be separated from backstroke and butterfly events to promote fairer classification. This study shows that swim stroke and event distance influence the activity limitation of Para swimmers with limb deficiency suggesting classification should account for these factors.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Natação/classificação
11.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 52(7): 1576-1584, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Paralympic classification should provide athletes with an equitable starting point for competition by minimizing the impact their impairment has on the outcome of the event. As swimming is an event conducted in water, the ability to overcome drag (active and passive) is an important performance determinant. It is plausible that the ability to do this is affected by the type and severity of the physical impairment, but the current World Para Swimming classification system does not objectively account for this component. The aim of this study was to quantify active and passive drag in Para swimmers and evaluate the strength of association between these measures and type of physical impairment, swimming performance, and sport class. METHODS: Seventy-two highly trained Para swimmers from sport classes S1 to S10 and 14 highly trained nondisabled swimmers were towed by a motorized winch while the towing force was recorded. Passive drag was measured with the arms held by the side; active drag was determined during freestyle swimming using an assisted towing method. RESULTS: Active and passive drag were higher in Para swimmers with central motor and neuromuscular impairments than for nondisabled swimmers and were associated with severity of swim-specific impairment (sport class) and maximal freestyle performance in these swimmers (r = -0.40 to -0.50, P ≤ 0.02). Para swimmers with anthropometric impairments showed similar active and passive drag to nondisabled swimmers, and between swimmers from different sport classes. CONCLUSIONS: Para swimmers with central motor and neuromuscular impairments are predisposed to high active drag during freestyle swimming that impacts on their performance. It is recommended that drag measures be considered in revised classification for these swimmers, but not for those with anthropometric impairments.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/classificação , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Antropometria , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Masculino , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto Jovem
12.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 48(5): 308-313, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management of spinal pain in Australia is a common problem that often requires input from a range of health providers. Interdisciplinary care can be difficult to access, and care can easily become fragmented. A novel approach of setting up an interdisciplinary clinic in a primary care setting was analysed in this study. METHODS: Follow-up of patients 2­3 years after attending the clinic was undertaken. Specialist general practitioners (GPs) referring to the clinic were invited to give feedback. RESULTS: Forty-three patients participated in the study. Approximately half of patients reported clinically significant reductions in their overall pain and disability levels. GPs and participants broadly supported the clinic approach. DISCUSSION: Complex spinal pain interdisciplinary assessment in a primary care setting shows reasonable long-term outcomes comparable to more intensive interventions. Further exploration and fine-tuning of this model would seem a sensible option as current models of care are under strain.


Assuntos
Manejo da Dor/métodos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Clínicas de Dor/organização & administração , Clínicas de Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Dor/tendências , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Queensland , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Sci Med Sport ; 22(5): 526-531, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The International Paralympic Committee has mandated that International Sport Federations develop sport-specific classification systems that are evidence-based. This study examined the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimming. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Thirty non-disabled participants and twenty-one Para swimmers with brain injury completed several instrumented tapping tasks as an assessment of upper and lower limb motor coordination. Para swimmers also completed a maximal freestyle swim to obtain a performance measure. The predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks was examined by establishing differences in test measures between participants with and without brain injury and defining the strength of association between test measures and maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers, respectively. RESULTS: Random forest successfully classified 96% of participants with and without brain injury using test measures derived from instrumented tapping tasks. Most test measures had moderate to high correlations (r=0.54 to 0.72; p<0.01) with maximal freestyle swim speed and collectively explained up to 72% of the variance in maximal freestyle swim performance in Para swimmers with brain injury. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study evidence the predictive and convergent validity of instrumented tapping tasks to classify motor coordination impairments in Para swimmers with brain injury. These tests can be included in revised Para swimming classification to improve the objectivity and transparency in determining athlete eligibility and sport class for these Para athletes.


Assuntos
Ataxia/diagnóstico , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ataxia/fisiopatologia , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Sports Sci ; 37(4): 404-413, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058953

RESUMO

This study examined the validity of isometric strength tests for evidence-based classification in Para swimming. Thirty non-disabled participants and forty-two Para swimmers with physical impairment completed an isometric strength test battery designed to explain activity limitation in the freestyle discipline. Measures pertaining to dominant and non-dominant limb strength and symmetry were derived from four strength tests that were found to be reliable in a cohort of non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.97; CV = 6.4-9.1%). Para swimmers had lower scores in strength tests compared with non-disabled participants (d = 0.14-1.00) and the strength test battery successfully classified 95% of Para swimmers with physical impairment using random forest algorithm. Most of the strength measures had low to moderate correlations (r = 0.32 to 0.53; p ≤ 0.05) with maximal freestyle swim speed in Para swimmers. Although, fewer correlations were found when Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power were analysed independently, highlighting the impairment-specific nature of activity limitation in Para swimming. Collectively, the strength test battery has utility in Para swimming classification to infer loss of strength in Para swimmers, guide minimum eligibility criteria, and to define the impact that strength impairment has on Para swimming performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Teste de Esforço , Força Muscular , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Atletas/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
Phys Ther Sport ; 32: 34-41, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730533

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reliability of swimming-specific range of movement tests developed in order to permit evidenced-based classification in the sport of para swimming. DESIGN: Test-retest intra- and inter-examiner reliability. SETTING: International Swimming training camps and university exercise science departments. PARTICIPANTS: 42 non-disabled participants (mean age 23.2 years) and 24 Para swimmers (mean age 28.5 years). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability of a battery of novel active range of motion tests. RESULTS: Good to excellent intra-examiner reliability was found for the majority (32/34) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values ranged from 1.18° to 6.11°. Similarly, good to excellent inter-examiner reliability was found for the majority (35/42) of tests in non-disabled participants (ICC = 0.85-0.98). SEM values range from 0.73° to 6.52°. Para swimmers exhibited significantly reduced range of motion compared to non-disabled participants. CONCLUSIONS: The large majority of ROM tests included in this novel battery were reliable both within and between examiners in non-disabled participants. The tests were found to differentiate between non-disabled participants and Para swimmers with hypertonia or impaired muscle power.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular , Pessoas com Deficiência , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Natação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Natação/classificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am ; 29(2): 333-346, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627092

RESUMO

Swimming is one of the inaugural sports within the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic games being the classification system. The aim of this study was to investigate how effective the current classification system creates clearly differentiated Paralympic competition classes, based on performance time for all swimming strokes and events. Based on the performance characteristics of swimmers within the current classification system, the relationship between impairment and swimming performance is inconsistent, potentially disadvantaging some athletes. Appropriate sports medicine tests are required for the development of an evidence-based swimming classification system.


Assuntos
Atletas , Pessoas com Deficiência , Natação , Atletas/classificação , Desempenho Atlético , Pessoas com Deficiência/classificação , Humanos , Natação/classificação , Natação/fisiologia
17.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 12(7): 977-983, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27967276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantify the influence of the assistive pole, seat configuration, and upper-body and trunk strength on seated-throwing performance in athletes with a spinal-cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Ten Paralympic athletes competing in wheelchair rugby, basketball, or athletics (seated throws) participated in 2 randomized sessions: seated throwing and strength tests. Participants threw a club from a custom-built throwing chair, with and without a pole. 3D kinematic data were collected (150 Hz) for both conditions using standardized and self-selected seat configurations. Dominant and nondominant grip strength were measured using a dynamometer, and upper-body and trunk strength were measured using isometric contractions against a load cell. RESULTS: Seated throwing with an assistive pole resulted in significantly higher hand speed at release than throwing without a pole (pole = 6.0 ± 1.5 m/s, no pole = 5.3 ± 1.5 m/s; P = .02). There was no significant difference in hand speed at release between standardized and self-selected seating configurations during seated throwing with or without an assistive pole. Grip strength (r = .59-.77), push/pull synergy (r = .81-.84), and trunk-flexion (r = .50-.58) strength measures showed large and significant correlations with hand speed at release during seated throwing with and without an assistive pole. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated the importance of the pole for SCI athletes in seated throwing and defined the relationship between strength and seated-throwing performance, allowing us to better understand the activity of seated throws and provide measures for assessing strength that may be valid for evidence-based classification.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Pessoas com Deficiência , Força Muscular , Postura , Equipamentos Esportivos , Esportes para Pessoas com Deficiência , Adulto , Atletas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Masculino , Esportes , Tronco , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144554, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26642320

RESUMO

This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0140547, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26465599

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to: a) identify changes in jump height and perceived well-being as indirect markers of fatigue, b) determine the internal and external workloads performed by players, and c) examine the influence of Yo-Yo IR2 on changes in jump height, perceived well-being and internal and external workloads during a tag football tournament. Microtechnology devices combined with heart rate (HR) chest straps provided external and internal measures of match work-rate and workload for twelve male tag football players during the 2014 Australian National Championships. Jump height and perceived well-being were assessed prior to and during the tournament as indirect measures of fatigue. Changes in work-rate, workload and fatigue measures between high- and low-fitness groups were examined based on players' Yo-Yo IR2 score using a median split technique. The low- and high-fitness groups reported similar mean HR, PlayerloadTM/min, and distance/min for matches, however the low-fitness group reported higher perceived match-intensities (ES = 0.90-1.35) for several matches. Further, the high-fitness group reported higher measures of tournament workload, including distance (ES = 0.71), PlayerloadTM (ES = 0.85) and Edwards' training impulse (TRIMP) (ES = 1.23) than the low-fitness group. High- and low-fitness groups both showed large decreases (ES = 1.46-1.49) in perceived well-being during the tournament, although jump height did not decrease below pre-tournament values. Increased Yo-Yo IR2 appears to offer a protective effect against player fatigue despite increased workloads during a tag football tournament. It is vital that training programs adequately prepare tag football players for tournament competition to maximise performance and minimise player fatigue.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Fadiga Muscular , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 10(5): 559-65, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25405280

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue responses to consecutive tag football matches played on the same day and determine the relationship between fatigue and match running performance. METHODS: Neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue responses of 15 national tag football players were assessed before and during the 2014 State of Origin tournament. Global positioning systems (GPS) provided data on players' match running performance, and a vertical-jump test and subjective questionnaire were used to assess players' neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue, respectively. RESULTS: There were small to moderate reductions in the majority of match-running-performance variables over consecutive matches, including distance (ES=-0.81), high-speed-running (HSR) distance (ES=-0.51), HSR efforts (ES=-0.64), and maximal accelerations (ES=-0.76). Prematch vertical jump was initially below baseline values before the first match (ES=0.68-0.88). There were no substantial reductions in vertical-jump performance from baseline values over consecutive matches, although there was a small decline from after match 2 to after match 3 (3.3%; ES=-0.45±0.62). There were progressive reductions in perceived well-being scores after matches 1 (ES=-0.38), 2 (ES=-0.70), and 3 (ES=-1.14). There were small to moderate associations between changes in fatigue measures and match running performance. CONCLUSIONS: Perceptual fatigue accumulates over consecutive tag football matches, although there were only marginal increases in neuromuscular fatigue. However, both neuromuscular and perceptual fatigue measures were found to contribute to reduced match running performance in the final match.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Psicometria , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Adulto Jovem
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