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1.
Europace ; 23(Supplement_2): ii14-ii22, 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837753

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a highly prevalent and troublesome cardiac arrhythmia, associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm (rhythm-control therapy) is an important element of AF management in symptomatic patients. Despite significant advances and increasing importance of catheter ablation, antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) remain a cornerstone of rhythm-control therapy. During the past 50 years, experimental and clinical research has greatly increased our understanding of AADs. As part of the special issue on paradigm shifts in AF, this review summarizes important milestones in AAD research that have shaped their current role in AF management, including (i) awareness of the proarrhythmic potential of AADs; (ii) increasing understanding of the pleiotropic effects of AADs; (iii) the development of dronedarone; and (iv) the search for AF-specific AADs. Finally, we discuss short- and long-term opportunities for better AF management through advances in AAD therapy, including personalization of AAD therapy based on individual AF mechanisms.

2.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 14(7): 768-780, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826497

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the early versus late benefits and risks of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy With Dabigatran Versus Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial. BACKGROUND: Patients with atrial fibrillation who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention are at increased risk for both bleeding and thrombotic events. METHODS: A total of 2,725 patients with atrial fibrillation underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and were randomized to receive dabigatran 110 mg, or dabigatran 150 mg plus a P2Y12 inhibitor (and no aspirin), or warfarin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor plus aspirin. Landmark analysis was performed at 30 and 90 days. RESULTS: There was a consistent and large reduction in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding in patients randomized to dual therapy during the first 30 days (110 mg: hazard ratio [HR]: 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31 to 0.66; p < 0.0001; 150 mg: HR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.72; p = 0.0006) compared with warfarin triple therapy. There was early net clinical benefit in both dabigatran groups versus warfarin (110 mg: HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.88; p = 0.0062; 150 mg: HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.79; p = 0.0015), due to larger reductions in bleeding than increased thrombotic events for dabigatran 110 mg and bleeding reduction without increased thrombotic risk for dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy. After the removal of aspirin in the warfarin group, bleeding remained lower with dabigatran 110 mg and was similar with dabigatran 150 mg versus warfarin. CONCLUSIONS: In RE-DUAL PCI, in which patients in the dual-therapy arms were treated with aspirin for an average of only 1.6 days, there was early net clinical benefit with both doses of dabigatran dual therapy, without an increase in thrombotic events with dabigatran 150 mg. This could be helpful in the subset of patients with elevated risk for both bleeding and thrombotic events.

3.
Europace ; 23(3): 329-344, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555020

RESUMO

AIMS: The risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) and its complications continues to increase, despite good progress in preventing AF-related strokes. METHODS AND RESULTS: This article summarizes the outcomes of the 7th Consensus Conference of the Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) held in Lisbon in March 2019. Sixty-five international AF specialists met to present new data and find consensus on pressing issues in AF prevention, management and future research to improve care for patients with AF and prevent AF-related complications. This article is the main outcome of an interactive, iterative discussion between breakout specialist groups and the meeting plenary. AF patients have dynamic risk profiles requiring repeated assessment and risk-based therapy stratification to optimize quality of care. Interrogation of deeply phenotyped datasets with outcomes will lead to a better understanding of the cardiac and systemic effects of AF, interacting with comorbidities and predisposing factors, enabling stratified therapy. New proposals include an algorithm for the acute management of patients with AF and heart failure, a call for a refined, data-driven assessment of stroke risk, suggestions for anticoagulation use in special populations, and a call for rhythm control therapy selection based on risk of AF recurrence. CONCLUSION: The remaining morbidity and mortality in patients with AF needs better characterization. Likely drivers of the remaining AF-related problems are AF burden, potentially treatable by rhythm control therapy, and concomitant conditions, potentially treatable by treating these conditions. Identifying the drivers of AF-related complications holds promise for stratified therapy.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386845

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD), especially mitral stenosis, are assumed to be at high risk of stroke, irrespective of other factors. We aimed to re-evaluate stroke risk factors in a contemporary cohort of AF patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data of 15,400 AF patients presenting to an emergency department and who were enrolled in the global RE-LY AF registry, representing 47 countries from all inhabited continents. Follow-up occurred at 1 year after enrollment. A total of 1,788 (11.6%) patients had RHD. These patients were younger (51.4 ± 15.7 vs. 67.8 ± 13.6 years), more likely to be female (66.2% vs. 44.7%) and had a lower mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (2.1 ± 1.7 vs. 3.7 ± 2.2) as compared to patients without RHD (all p < 0.001). Significant mitral stenosis (average mean transmitral gradient 11.5 ± 6.5 mmHg) was the predominant valve lesion in those with RHD (59.6%). Patients with RHD had a higher baseline rate of anticoagulation use (60.4% vs. 45.2%, p < 0.001). Unadjusted stroke rates at 1 year were 2.8% and 4.1% for patients with and without RHD, respectively. The performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was modest in both groups (stroke at 1 year, c-statistics 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.78 and 0.63, 95% CI 0.61-0.66, respectively). In the overall cohort, advanced age, female sex, prior stroke, tobacco use and non-use of anticoagulation were predictors for stroke (all p < 0.05). Mitral stenosis was not associated with stroke risk (adjusted odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 0.67-1.72, p = 0.764). CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the CHA2DS2-VASc score was modest in AF patients both with and without RHD. In this cohort, moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis was not an independent risk factor for stroke. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Based on studies conducted several decades ago, the presence of moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis has been associated with a very high risk of stroke in patients with AF. Our results, based on a large, global sample of contemporary patients with AF that contained a significant proportion of individuals with RHD, challenge the assumption that mitral stenosis is a major, independent risk factor for stroke. The performance of the widely used CHA2DS2-VASc score was modest in both patients with and without RHD. At least one ongoing randomized trial is evaluating the optimal antithrombotic strategy in patients with AF and RHD.

5.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are the preferred class of medications for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation unless contraindications exist. Five large, international, randomized, controlled trials of NOACs versus either warfarin or aspirin have been completed to date. DESIGN: COMBINE AF incorporates de-identified individual patient data from 77,282 patients with atrial fibrillation at risk for stroke randomized to NOAC, warfarin, or aspirin from 5 pivotal randomized controlled trials. All patients randomized in the constituent trials are included. Variables common to ≥3 of the constituent trials are included in the master database. Individual trial data sets from the 4 coordinating centers were combined at the Duke Clinical Research Institute. The final database will be securely shared with the 4 academic coordinating centers. The combined master database will be used to perform statistical analyses aimed at better understanding underlying risk factors and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants, with a special focus on patient subgroups and uncommon outcomes. The initial analysis from COMBINE AF will be a network meta-analysis investigating the relative efficacy and safety of pooled higher-dose NOACs versus pooled lower-dose NOACs versus warfarin with respect to multiple time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes. COMBINE AF is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020178771). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, COMBINE AF provides a rich and robust database consisting of individual patient data and will offer opportunities to investigate oral anticoagulants across many patient subgroups. Data sharing and collaboration across academic institutions and investigators will serve as overarching themes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258897

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing coronary intervention are at higher bleeding risk due to the concomitant need for oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy. The RE-DUAL PCI trial demonstrated better safety with dual antithrombotic therapy (DAT: dabigatran 110 or 150 mg bid, clopidogrel or ticagrelor) compared to triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT: warfarin, clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin). We explored the impact of baseline bleeding risk based on the PRECISE-DAPT score for decision-making regarding DAT vs. TAT. METHODS AND RESULTS: A score ≥25 points qualified high bleeding-risk (HBR). Comparisons were made for the primary safety endpoint ISTH major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding, and the composite efficacy endpoint of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularization, analyzed by time-to-event analysis. PRECISE-DAPT was available in 2,336/2,725 patients, and 37.9% were HBR. Compared to TAT, DAT with dabigatran 110 mg reduced bleeding risk both in non-HBR (HR 0.42, 95%CI, 0.31-0.57) and HBR (HR 0.70, 95%CI, 0.52-0.94), with a greater magnitude of benefit among non-HBR (Pint=0.02). DAT with dabigatran 150 mg vs. TAT reduced bleeding in non-HBR (HR 0.60, 95%CI, 0.45-0.80), with a trend toward less benefit in HBR patients (HR 0.92, 95%CI, 0.63-1.34, Pint=0.08). Risk of ischaemic events was similar on DAT with dabigatran (both 110 and 150 mg) vs. TAT in non-HBR and HBR patients (Pint=0.45 and Pint=0.56, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: PRECISE-DAPT score appeared useful to identify AF patients undergoing PCI at further increased risk of bleeding complications, and may help clinicians identifying the antithrombotic regimen intensity with the best benefit-risk ratio in an individual patient.

7.
Can J Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33271225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is often detected during hospitalization for surgery or medical illness and is often assumed to be due to the acute condition. METHODS: ASSERT enrolled patients >65 years old without AF. Pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators recorded device-detected AF. We identified participants who were hospitalized and compared the prevalence of AF before and after hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 2580 participants, 436 (16.9%) had a surgical or medical hospitalization. In the 30 days following a first hospitalization, 43 participants (9.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2%-13.1%) had >6 minutes of device-detected AF; 20 (4.6%, 95% CI 2.8%-7.0%) had >6 hours. More participants had AF >6 minutes in the 30 days following hospitalization, as compared to the period 30-60 days before hospitalization (9.9% versus 4.4%, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed for episodes >6 hours (4.6% versus 2.3%, P = 0.03). Roughly half of participants with device-detected AF in the 30 days following hospitalization had ≥1 episodes of the same duration in the 6 months prior (50% [95% CI 31.3%-68.7%] for >6 minutes; 68.8% [95% CI 41.3%-89.0%] for >6 hours). Those with AF in the 30 days following hospitalization were more likely to have had AF in the past (adjusted OR 7.2 95%CI 3.2-15.8 for episodes >6 minutes; adjusted OR 32.6, 95%CI 10.3-103.4 for >6 hours). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of device-detected AF increases around the time of hospitalization for non-cardiac surgery or medical illness. About half of patients with AF around the time of hospitalization previously had similar episodes.

8.
Europace ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249467

RESUMO

AIMS : This post hoc analysis of ELIMINATE-AF evaluated requirements of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and procedure-related bleeding in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing ablation with uninterrupted edoxaban or vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS : Patients were randomized 2:1 to once-daily edoxaban 60 mg (or dose-reduced 30 mg) or dose-adjusted VKA (target international normalized ratio: 2.0-3.0). Uninterrupted anticoagulation was mandated for 21-28 days' pre-ablation and 90 days' post-ablation. During ablation, UFH administration targeted an activated clotting time (ACT) of 300-400 s. Periprocedural bleeding was differentiated between procedure-related (bleeding at puncture side, cardiac tamponade) and unrelated events. Of 614 randomized patients, 553 received study drug and underwent catheter ablation (edoxaban n = 375; VKA n = 178). The median (Q1-Q3) time from last dose to ablation procedure was 14.8 (13.3-16.5) vs. 16.5 (14.8-19.5) h (edoxaban vs. VKA group, respectively). Mean ACT (SD) ≥300 s was observed in 52% edoxaban- vs. 76% VKA-treated patients, despite a higher mean (SD) UFH dose in the edoxaban vs. VKA group [14 261 (6397) IU vs. 11 473 (4300) IU; exploratory P-value < 0.0001]. In the edoxaban group, 13 patients (3.5%) had procedure-related bleeds of whom 9 had received an UFH dose above the median (13 000 IU). In the VKA arm, 7 patients (3.9%) had procedure-related bleeds of whom 3 had received an UFH dose above the median (10 225 IU). CONCLUSION : The rate of procedure-related major/clinically relevant non-major bleeding did not differ between the treatment arms despite higher doses of UFH used with edoxaban vs. VKA to achieve a target ACT during AF ablation.

9.
EuroIntervention ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164896

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the safety and efficacy of dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) vs warfarin triple therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI for ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: In RE-DUAL PCI, 305 patients with STEMI were randomised to dabigatran 110 mg (n=113 versus 106 warfarin) or 150 mg (n=86 versus 84 warfarin). Primary endpoint was time to first major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding event (MBE/CRNMBE). The thrombotic endpoint was a composite of death, thromboembolic events, or unplanned revascularisation. In STEMI patients, dabigatran 110 mg (HR 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.74) and 150 mg (0.43, 0.21-0.89) dual therapy reduced the risk of MBE/CRNMBE versus warfarin triple therapy (p interaction vs all other patients = 0.31 and 0.16). Risk of thrombotic events, for dabigatran 110 mg (HR 1.61, 95% CI: 0.85-3.08) and 150 mg (0.56, 0.20-1.51) had p interactions of 0.20 and 0.33, respectively. For net clinical benefit, HRs were 0.74 (95% CI 0.46-1.17) and 0.49 (0.27-0.91) for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg (p interaction = 0.80 and 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: In patients after PCI for STEMI, dabigatran dual therapy had lower risks of bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy with similar risks of thromboembolic events, supporting the use of dabigatran dual therapy even in patients with high thrombotic risk.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: AVERROES, a randomized controlled trial in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation, unsuitable for vitamin K antagonist therapy, demonstrated efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin. At the conclusion of the double-blind phase, an open-label extension was initiated to allow study participants to receive apixaban until it became locally available. This study reports outcomes of patients on apixaban during the open-label extension. METHODS: Rates of stroke or systemic embolism, hemorrhagic stroke, major bleeding, and other outcomes during the open-label extension are reported. RESULTS: Of the 5,599 participants enrolled in AVERROES, 3,275 (58.5%) received apixaban during the open-label extension. Median (interquartile range) follow-up in the open-label extension was 3.0 (2.5-3.5) years. The rate of stroke or systemic embolism during the open-label extension was 1.0% per year, and the annual rates of hemorrhagic stroke and major bleeding were 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. After adjustment for imbalances in patient variables, event rates in patients on apixaban during the open-label extension were similar to those of patients receiving apixaban during AVERROES. Additional analyses in all patients who received apixaban, at any time from the start of AVERROES to the end of the open-label extension, were performed. This cohort (n = 4,414) showed annual event rates of 1.1% for stroke or systemic embolism, 0.3% for hemorrhagic stroke, and 1.2% for major bleeding. CONCLUSION: During the open-label extension, annual rates of stroke or systemic embolism, hemorrhagic stroke, and major bleeding remained as low as those observed during apixaban treatment in AVERROES. These data support the long-term efficacy and safety of apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation.

11.
Clin Cardiol ; 43(12): 1469-1477, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter (AF/AFL) burden increases with increasing duration of AF/AFL history. HYPOTHESIS: Outcomes with dronedarone may also be impacted by duration of AF/AFL history. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of ATHENA, efficacy and safety of dronedarone vs placebo were assessed in groups categorized by time from first known AF/AFL episode to randomization (ie, duration of AF/AFL history): <3 months (short), 3 to <24 months (intermediate), and ≥ 24 months (long). RESULTS: Of 2859 patients with data on duration of AF/AFL history, 45.3%, 29.6%, and 25.1% had short, intermediate, and long histories, respectively. Patients in the long history group had the highest prevalence of structural heart disease and were more likely to be in AF/AFL at baseline. Placebo-treated patients in the long history group also had the highest incidence of AF/AFL recurrence and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalization during the study. The risk of first CV hospitalization/death from any cause was lower with dronedarone vs placebo in patients with short (hazard ratio, 0.79 [95% confidence interval: 0.65-0.96]) and intermediate (0.72 [0.56-0.92]) histories; a trend favoring dronedarone was also observed in patients with long history (0.84 [0.66-1.07]). A similar pattern was observed for first AF/AFL recurrence. No new drug-related safety issues were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with long AF/AFL history had the highest burden of AF/AFL at baseline and during the study. Dronedarone significantly improved efficacy vs placebo in patients with short and intermediate AF/AFL histories. While exploratory, these results support the potential value in initiating rhythm control treatment early in patients with AF/AFL.

12.
CJC Open ; 2(5): 354-359, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995720

RESUMO

Background: The number of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) infections is increasing due to an increased number of ICD implants, higher-risk patients, and more frequent replacement procedures, which carry a higher risk of infection. Reducing the morbidity, mortality, and cost of ICD-related infections requires an understanding of the current rate of this complication and its predictors. Methods: The Shock Implant Evaluation Trial (SIMPLE) trial randomized 2500 ICD recipients to defibrillation testing or not. Over an average of 3.1 years, patients were seen every 6 months and examined for evidence of ICD infection, which was defined as requiring device removal and/or intravenous antibiotics. Results: Within 24 months, 21 patients (0.8%) developed infection. Fourteen patients (67%) with infection presented within 30 days, 20 patients by 12 months, and only 1 patient beyond 12 months. Univariate analysis demonstrated that patients with primary electrical disorders (3 patients, P = 0.009) and those with a secondary prevention indication (13 patients, P = 0.0009) were more likely to develop infection. Among the 2.2% of patients who developed an ICD wound hematoma, 10.4% developed an infection. Among the 8.3% of patients requiring an ICD reintervention, 1.9% developed an infection. Conclusions: This cohort of ICD recipients at high-volume centres have a low risk of device-related infection. However; strategies to reduce wound hematoma and the need for ICD reintervention could further reduce the rate of infection.

13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(18): e017155, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865097

RESUMO

Background We compared different methods of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and their association with cardiovascular death and major bleeding in 14 980 patients with atrial fibrillation in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Methods and Results eGFR was calculated using equations based on creatinine (Cockcroft-Gault, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI]) and/or cystatin C (CKD-EPICysC and CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine). These 5 eGFR equations, as well as the individual variables that are used in these equations, were assessed for correlation and discriminatory ability for cardiovascular death and major bleeding. The median age was 70.0 years, and 35.6% were women. The median eGFR was highest with Cockcroft-Gault (74.1 mL/min) and CKD-EPICysC (74.2 mL/min), and lowest with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (66.5 mL/min). Correlation between methods ranged from 0.49 (Cockroft-Gault and CKD-EPICysC) to 0.99 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease and CKD-EPI). Among the eGFR equations, those based on cystatin C yielded the highest C indices for cardiovascular death and major bleeding: 0.628 (CKD-EPICysC) and 0.612 (CKD-EPICysC+Creatinine), respectively. A model based on the variables within the different eGFR equations (age, sex, weight, creatinine, and cystatin C) yielded the highest discriminatory value for both outcomes, with a C index of 0.673 and 0.656, respectively. Conclusions In patients with atrial fibrillation on anticoagulation, correlation between eGFR calculated using different methods varied substantially. Cystatin C-based eGFRs seem to provide the most robust information for predicting death and bleeding. A model based on the individual variables within the eGFR equations, however, provided the highest discriminatory value. Our findings may help refine risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and define how renal function should be determined in future atrial fibrillation studies. Registration URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

15.
Drugs ; 80(10): 995-1005, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, if a proton pump inhibitor is used, could that allow the use of warfarin triple therapy, or is there additional reduction in bleeding while using it with dual therapy? METHODS: The RE-DUAL PCI trial randomized 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation post-percutaneous coronary intervention to dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, with clopidogrel or ticagrelor) or warfarin triple therapy (with clopidogrel or ticagrelor, and aspirin for 1-3 months). This prespecified subgroup analysis evaluated risks of a first major bleeding event or clinically relevant non-major bleeding event, all gastrointestinal bleeding, and a composite efficacy endpoint of all-cause mortality/thromboembolic event or unplanned revascularization according to baseline use of a proton pump inhibitor. RESULTS: Of 2678 analyzed patients, 1641 (61.3%) were receiving a proton pump inhibitor at baseline. Dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced the risk of major bleeding events or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events vs warfarin triple therapy regardless of proton pump inhibitor use, with comparable risk of the composite efficacy endpoint (all interaction p values > 0.05). For gastrointestinal bleeding, no interaction was observed between study treatment and proton pump inhibitor use (interaction p values 0.84 and 0.62 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin triple therapy). CONCLUSIONS: Dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced the risk of major bleeding events or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events vs warfarin triple therapy, regardless of proton pump inhibitor use at baseline, in patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Risk of the composite efficacy endpoint appeared to be similar for dabigatran dual therapy vs warfarin triple therapy in patients receiving/not receiving a proton pump inhibitor. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV UNIQUE IDENTIFIER: NCT02164864.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(30): 2848-2859, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385506

RESUMO

AIMS: A J-shaped association of cardiovascular events to achieved systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure was shown in high-risk patients. This association on oral anticoagulation is unknown. This analysis from RELY assessed the risks of death, stroke or systemic emboli, and bleeding according to mean achieved SBP and DBP in atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: RE-LY patients were followed for 2 years and recruited between 22 December 2005 until 15 December 2007. 18.113 patients were randomized in 951 centres in 54 countries and 18,107 patients with complete blood pressure (BP) data were analysed with a median follow-up of 2.0 years and a complete follow-up in 99.9%. The association between achieved mean SBP and DBP on all-cause death, stroke and systemic embolic events (SSE), major, and any bleeding were explored. On treatment, SBP >140 mmHg and <120 mmHg was associated with all-cause death compared with SBP 120-130 mmHg (reference). For SSE, risk was unchanged at SBP <110 mmHg but increased at 140-160 mmHg (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.81; 1.40-2.33) and SBP ≥160 mmHg (HR 3.35; 2.09-5.36). Major bleeding events were also increased at <110 mmHg and at 110 to <120 mmHg. Interestingly, there was no increased risk of major bleeding at SBP >130 mmHg. Similar patterns were observed for DBP with an increased risk at <70 mmHg (HR 1.55; 1.35-1.78) and >90 mmHg (HR 1.88; 1.43-2.46) for all-cause death compared to 70 to <80 mmHg (reference). Risk for any bleeding was increased at low DBP <70 mmHg (HR 1.46; 1.37-1.56) at DBP 80 to <90 mmHg (HR 1.13; 1.06-1.31) without increased risk at higher achieved DBP. Dabigatran 150 mg twice daily showed an advantage in all patients for all-cause death and SSE and there was an advantage for 110 mg dabigatran twice daily for major bleeding and any bleeding irrespective of SBP or DBP achieved. Similar results were obtained for baseline BP, time-updated BP, and BP as time-varying covariate. CONCLUSION: Low achieved SBP associates with increased risk of death, SSE, and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation on oral anticoagulation. Major bleeding events did not occur at higher BP. Low BP might identify high-risk patients not only for death but also for high bleeding risks. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov-Identifier: NCT00262600.

17.
Am J Med ; 133(11): 1302-1312, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) affects drug levels of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants. We sought to assess whether BMI affected outcomes in the RE-DUAL PCI trial. METHODS: RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) evaluated the safety and efficacy of a dual-antithrombotic-therapy regimen using dabigatran (110 mg or 150 mg twice daily and a P2Y12 platelet antagonist) in comparison with triple therapy of warfarin, aspirin, and a P2Y12 platelet inhibitor in 2725 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We compared the risk of first International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)-defined major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (primary endpoint) and the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, or unplanned revascularization (main efficacy endpoint) in relation to baseline BMI. RESULTS: Median (range) BMI was 28.1 (14-66) kg/m2. Dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had relevantly and similarly lower rates of bleeding at both 110 mg and 150 mg twice-daily doses, irrespective of BMI. Thromboembolic event rates appeared consistent across categories of BMI, including those <25 and ≥35 kg/m2 (P for interaction: 0.806 and 0.279, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in bleeding with dabigatran dual therapy compared with warfarin triple therapy in patients here evaluated appears consistent across BMI categories.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(4): e008349, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The REDUAL PCI trial (Evaluation of Dual Therapy With Dabigatran vs Triple Therapy With Warfarin in Patients With AF That Undergo a PCI With Stenting) demonstrated that, in patients with atrial fibrillation following percutaneous coronary intervention, bleeding risk was lower with dabigatran plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor (dual therapy) than warfarin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor and aspirin (triple therapy). Dual therapy was noninferior for risk of thromboembolic events. Whether these results apply equally to patients at higher risk of ischemic events due to lesion complexity or clinical risk factors is unclear. METHODS: The primary end point was time to first major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event. The composite efficacy end point was death, thromboembolic event, or unplanned revascularization. Our prespecified subgroup analysis categorized patients by presence of procedural complexity and/or clinical complexity factors at baseline. A modified dual antiplatelet therapy score categorized patients according to degree of clinical risk. RESULTS: Of 2725 patients, 43.1% had clinical complexity factors alone, 9.9% procedural factors alone, 10.0% both, and 37.0% neither. Risk of the primary bleeding end point was lower in both dabigatran dual therapy groups than warfarin triple therapy groups, regardless of procedural and/or clinical lesion complexity (interaction P values: 0.90 and 0.37, respectively). Importantly, a similar risk of the efficacy end point was observed between dabigatran dual and warfarin triple therapy, regardless of the presence of clinical or procedural complexity factors (interaction P values: 0.67 and 0.54, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively). Similar benefit was seen for each dose of dabigatran dual therapy for bleeding events regardless of dual antiplatelet therapy score (interaction P values: 0.53 and 0.54, respectively), with similar risk of thromboembolic events (interaction P values: 0.20 and 0.08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy reduced bleeding risk compared with warfarin triple therapy, with a similar risk of thromboembolic outcomes, irrespective of procedural and/or clinical complexity and modified dual antiplatelet therapy score. Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/; Unique identifier: NCT02164864.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antitrombinas/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Stents , Tromboembolia/mortalidade , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
19.
Circulation ; 141(17): 1384-1392, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared with the general population, patients with advanced chronic kidney disease have a >10-fold higher burden of atrial fibrillation. Limited data are available guiding the use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in this population. METHODS: We compared the safety of apixaban with warfarin in 269 patients with atrial fibrillation and advanced chronic kidney disease (defined as creatinine clearance [CrCl] 25 to 30 mL/min) enrolled in the ARISTOTLE trial (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation). Cox proportional models were used to estimate hazard ratios for major bleeding and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. We characterized the pharmacokinetic profile of apixaban by assessing differences in exposure using nonlinear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Among patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min, apixaban caused less major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.14-0.80]) and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.35 [95% CI, 0.17-0.72]) compared with warfarin. Patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min randomized to apixaban demonstrated a trend toward lower rates of major bleeding when compared with those with CrCl >30 mL/min (P interaction=0.08) and major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding (P interaction=0.05). Median daily steady-state areas under the curve for apixaban 5 mg twice daily were 5512 ng/(mL·h) and 3406 ng/(mL·h) for patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min or >30 mL/min, respectively. For apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily, the median exposure was 2780 ng/(mL·h) for patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min. The area under the curve values for patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min fell within the ranges demonstrated for patients with CrCl >30 mL/min. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atrial fibrillation and CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min, apixaban caused less bleeding than warfarin, with even greater reductions in bleeding than in patients with CrCl >30 mL/min. We observed substantial overlap in the range of exposure to apixaban 5 mg twice daily for patients with or without advanced chronic kidney disease, supporting conventional dosing in patients with CrCl 25 to 30 mL/min. Randomized, controlled studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of apixaban are urgently needed in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00412984.

20.
TH Open ; 4(1): e20-e32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984306

RESUMO

Introduction This X-VeRT (eXplore the efficacy and safety of once-daily oral riVaroxaban for the prevention of caRdiovascular events in patients with nonvalvular aTrial fibrillation scheduled for cardioversion) substudy evaluated the effects of treatment with rivaroxaban or a vitamin-K antagonist (VKA) on levels of biomarkers of coagulation (D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and prothrombin fragment [F1.2]) and inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] and high-sensitivity interleukin-6 [hs-IL-6]) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who were scheduled for cardioversion and had not received adequate anticoagulation at baseline (defined as, in the 21 days before randomization: no oral anticoagulant; international normalized ratio <2.0 with VKA treatment; or <80% compliance with non-VKA oral anticoagulant treatment). Methods Samples for biomarker analysis were taken at baseline ( n = 958) and treatment completion (42 days after cardioversion; n = 918). The influence of clinical characteristics on baseline biomarker levels and the effect of treatment on changes in biomarker levels were evaluated using linear and logistic models. Results Baseline levels of some biomarkers were significantly associated with type of AF (D-dimer and hs-IL-6) and with history of congestive heart failure (hs-CRP, D-dimer, and hs-IL-6). Rivaroxaban and VKA treatments were associated with reductions from baseline in levels of D-dimer (-32.3 and -37.6%, respectively), TAT (-28.0 and -23.1%, respectively), hs-CRP (-12.5 and -17.9%, respectively), and hs-IL-6 (-9.2 and -9.8%, respectively). F1.2 levels were reduced from baseline in patients receiving a VKA (-53.0%) but not in those receiving rivaroxaban (2.7%). Conclusion Anticoagulation with rivaroxaban reduced levels of key inflammation and coagulation biomarkers to a similar extent as VKAs, with the exception of F1.2. Further investigation to confirm the value of these biomarkers in patients with AF is merited.

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