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2.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319886959, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel approach to determine the effect of a treatment is to calculate the delay of event, which estimates the gain of event-free time. The aim of this study was to estimate gains in event-free time for stroke or systemic embolism, death, bleeding events, and the composite of these events, in patients with atrial fibrillation randomized to either warfarin or apixaban in the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation trial (ARISTOTLE). DESIGN: The ARISTOTLE study was a randomized double-blind trial comparing apixaban with warfarin. METHODS: Laplace regression was used to estimate the delay in time to the outcomes between the apixaban and the warfarin group in 6, 12, 18 and 22 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The gain in event-free time for apixaban versus warfarin was 181 (95% confidence interval 76 to 287) days for stroke or systemic embolism and 55 (-4 to 114) days for death after 22 months of follow-up. The corresponding gains in event-free times for major and intracranial bleeding were 206 (130 to 281) and 392 (249 to 535) days, respectively. The overall gain for the composite of all these events was a gain of 116 (60 to 171) days. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with atrial fibrillation, 22 months of treatment with apixaban, as compared with warfarin, provided gains of approximately 6 months in event-free time for stroke or systemic embolism, 7 months for major bleeding and 13 months for intracranial bleeding.

3.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(16): 1553-1561, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439336

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study sought to evaluate the effect of dabigatran dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy across categories of renal function in the RE-DUAL PCI (Randomized Evaluation of Dual Antithrombotic Therapy with Dabigatran versus Triple Therapy with Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial. BACKGROUND: The RE-DUAL PCI (NCT02164864) trial of patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention reported that dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg twice daily, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced the primary endpoint of major bleeding events (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (CRNMBE) compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events. METHODS: Risk of a first MBE or CRNMBE and the composite of death or thromboembolic event (DTE) or unplanned revascularization were evaluated in 2,725 patients according to baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) categories: 30 to <50, 50 to <80, and ≥80 ml/min. RESULTS: Compared with warfarin, dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE across all categories of CrCl (p for interaction = 0.19). Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy reduced risk of MBE or CRNMBE regardless of the CrCl category (p for interaction = 0.31). Risk of DTE or unplanned revascularization was similar to warfarin triple therapy for dabigatran 110 mg dual therapy across all CrCl categories. Dabigatran 150 mg dual therapy versus warfarin triple therapy had similar risk for DTE or unplanned revascularization in patients with CrCl 30 to <80 ml/min and lower risk at CrCl ≥80 ml/min (p for interaction = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events versus warfarin triple therapy irrespective of renal function, with overall similar risks of thromboembolic events but lower risks with dabigatran 150 mg in patients with normal CrCl.

4.
Europace ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324921

RESUMO

Efficacy and safety of dronedarone was shown in the ATHENA trial for paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Further trials revealed safety concerns in patients with heart failure and permanent AF. This review summarizes insights from recent real-world studies and meta-analyses, including reports on efficacy, with focus on liver safety, mortality risk in patients with paroxysmal/persistent AF, and interactions of dronedarone with direct oral anticoagulants. Reports of rapidly progressing liver failure in dronedarone-prescribed patients in 2011 led to regulatory cautions about potential liver toxicity. Recent real-world evidence suggests dronedarone liver safety profile is similar to other antiarrhythmics and liver toxicity could be equally common with many Class III antiarrhythmics. Dronedarone safety concerns (increased mortality in patients with permanent AF) were raised based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) (ANDROMEDA and PALLAS), but comedication with digoxin may have increased the mortality rates in PALLAS, considering the dronedarone-digoxin pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction. Real-world data on apixaban-dronedarone interactions and edoxaban RCT observations suggest no significant safety risks for these drug combinations. Median trough plasma concentrations of dabigatran 110 mg during concomitant use with dronedarone are at acceptable levels, while PK data on the rivaroxaban-dronedarone interaction are unavailable. In RCTs and real-world studies, dronedarone significantly reduces AF burden and cardiovascular hospitalizations, and demonstrates a low risk for proarrhythmia in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. The concerns on liver safety must be balanced against the significant reduction in hospitalizations in patients with non-permanent AF and low risk for proarrhythmias following dronedarone treatment.

5.
Europace ; 21(10): 1543-1549, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324920

RESUMO

AIMS: Some retrospective and prospective studies in heart failure patients with indication for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) suggest better clinical outcomes for quadripolar (QP) left ventricular (LV) leads over bipolar (BP) leads. Although, lead failure remains an important safety concern, when using these more complex, novel electrodes. To evaluate safety and efficacy outcomes for QP vs. BP LV leads in patients receiving CRT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a comprehensive literature search through 2018 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases to identify studies comparing patients with QP and BP LV CRT leads. A total of 12 studies were selected for analysis comprising 31 403 patients (QP lead: 22 429 patients; BP lead: 8974 patients). Eight studies examined the effects of CRT on survival. In these studies, use of QP electrodes was associated with significantly better survival compared to patients with BP LV leads (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50-0.76; P < 0.01). Clinical improval measured in New York Heart Association functional class (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.34-1.01; P = 0.05) and hospitalization rates (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55-0.83; P < 0.01) were also improved in patients receiving QP leads. Lead malfunctions defined as LV lead failure resulting in lead deactivation (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.98; P = 0.04) or LV lead dislodgement requiring LV lead replacement/repositioning (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.31-0.75; P < 0.01) were more often encountered among patients with BP leads compared to patients with QP leads. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis suggests distinct benefits of QP over BP electrodes in patients undergoing CRT.

6.
Europace ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131392

RESUMO

AIMS : Age-induced changes and electrical remodelling are important components of the atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate. To study regional distribution and age-dependent changes in gene expression that may promote AF in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS : Human left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) tissue samples were obtained from donor hearts unsuitable for transplantation and from patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Atrial fibrillation was mimicked in vitro by tachypacing of human atrial tissue slices. Ionic currents were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique; gene expression was analysed by real-time qPCR and immunoblotting. Both healthy RA and RA from older patients showed greater CACNA1c mRNA and CaV1.2 protein expression than LA. No age-dependent changes of Kir2.1 expression in both atria were seen. Remodelling occurred in a qualitatively similar manner in RA and LA. IK1 and Kir2.1 protein expression increased with AF. MiR-1, miR-26a, and miR-26b were down-regulated with AF in both atria. ICa,L was decreased. CACNA1c and CACNA2b expression decreased and miR-328 increased in RA and LA during AF. Ex vivo tachypacing of human atrial slices replicated these findings. There were age-dependent increases in miR-1 and miR-328, while miR-26a decreased with age in atrial tissues from healthy human donor hearts. CONCLUSION : Features of electrical remodelling in man occur in a qualitatively similar manner in both human atria. Age-related miR-328 dysregulation and reduced ICa,L may contribute to increased AF susceptibility with age.

7.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 55(1): 73-81, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of quadripolar (QP) left ventricular leads for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is intended to improve outcomes compared with conventional bipolar leads (BP). Hence, the number of implanted quadripolar CRT systems is increasing despite limited long-term data. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical response and long-term outcomes of CRT recipients who were implanted with quadripolar versus bipolar left ventricular leads. METHODS: Data from consecutive patients receiving a CRT defibrillator in one German and one Hungarian tertiary referral center were retrospectively collected. Long-term survival and response to CRT were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 536 patients with structural heart disease and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 25% received a CRT defibrillator (CRT-D) system for primary (79%) or secondary (21%) prevention of sudden death. Comorbidities did not differ significantly between patients receiving a QP (n = 123) or a BP lead (n = 413). Procedure (101 vs. 120 min) and fluoroscopy times (14 vs. 20 min) were shorter in patients implanted with QP compared with BP (both p < 0.001). At 6 months follow-up, QP patients were more likely to respond to CRT measured as improvement in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (77% vs. 63%; p < 0.001). Use of QP left ventricle/left ventricular (LV) leads was associated with greater reduction in QRS duration compared with patients implanted with BP LV leads (- 21 ± 30 vs. - 8 ± 35 ms, p = 0.004). Mortality was not significantly different between patients with QP and patients with BP LV leads at a mean follow-up of 39 ± 31 months. CONCLUSION: Implantation of quadripolar left ventricular leads was associated with better CRT response compared with bipolar left ventricular leads.

8.
Am Heart J ; 212: 13-22, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), dabigatran dual therapy (110 or 150 mg bid, plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor) reduced International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis bleeding events compared with warfarin triple therapy, with noninferiority in overall thromboembolic events. This analysis assessed outcomes in relation to patient bleeding and stroke risk profiles, based on the modified HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. METHODS: The primary endpoint, major bleeding event (MBE) or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event (CRNMBE), was compared across study arms in patients categorized by modified HAS-BLED score 0-2 or ≥3. The composite endpoint of death, thromboembolic event, and unplanned revascularization rates was compared in patients categorized by CHA2DS2-VASc score 0-1, 2, or ≥3. RESULTS: Risk of MBE or CRNMBE was lower with dabigatran dual therapy (both doses) versus warfarin triple therapy, irrespective of modified HAS-BLED category (treatment-by-subgroup interaction P-value 0.584 and 0.273 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Risk of the composite thromboembolic endpoint was similar across CHA2DS2-VASc categories and consistent with overall study results (interaction P-value 0.739 and 0.075 for dabigatran 110 and 150 mg dual therapy, respectively, vs warfarin). Higher HAS-BLED scores were associated with higher risks of bleeding in AF patients after PCI in a treatment-independent analysis. CONCLUSION: Dabigatran dual therapy reduced bleeding events irrespective of bleeding risk category and demonstrated similar efficacy regardless of stroke risk category when compared with warfarin triple therapy.

9.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(7): 1078-1085, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dual-coil leads (DC-leads) were the standard of choice since the first nonthoracotomy implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD). We used contemporary data to determine if DC-leads offer any advantage over single-coil leads (SC-leads), in terms of defibrillation efficacy, safety, clinical outcome, and complication rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Shockless IMPLant Evaluation study, 2500 patients received a first implanted ICD and were randomized to implantation with or without defibrillation testing. Two thousand and four hundred seventy-five patients received SC-coil or DC-coil leads (SC-leads in 1025/2475 patients; 41.4%). In patients who underwent defibrillation testing (n = 1204), patients with both lead types were equally likely to achieve an adequate defibrillation safety margin (88.8% vs 91.2%; P = 0.16). There was no overall effect of lead type on the primary study endpoint of "failed appropriate shock or arrhythmic death" (adjusted HR 1.18; 95% CI, 0.86-1.62; P = 0.300), and on all-cause mortality (SC-leads: 5.34%/year; DC-leads: 5.48%/year; adjusted HR 1.16; 95% CI, 0.94-1.43; P = 0.168). However, among patients without prior heart failure (HF), and SC-leads had a significantly higher risk of failed appropriate shock or arrhythmic death (adjusted HR 7.02; 95% CI, 2.41-20.5). There were no differences in complication rates. CONCLUSION: In this nonrandomized evaluation, there was no overall difference in defibrillation efficacy, safety, outcome, and complication rates between SC-leads and DC-leads. However, DC-leads were associated with a reduction in the composite of failed appropriate shock or arrhythmic death in the subgroup of non-HF patients. Considering riskier future lead extraction with DC-leads, SC-leads appears to be preferable in the majority of patients.

10.
Europace ; 21(6): 879-885, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982849

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe heparin dosing requirements in patients who underwent catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation with uninterrupted anticoagulation using dabigatran etexilate (dabigatran) or warfarin to attain therapeutic activated clotting time (ACT) in the RE-CIRCUIT® study. The RE-CIRCUIT study showed significantly fewer major bleeding events in the dabigatran vs. warfarin treatment group. Unfractionated heparin was administered during the procedure to maintain ACT >300 s. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to dabigatran 150 mg bid or international normalized ratio-adjusted warfarin. Ablation was performed with uninterrupted anticoagulation and continued for 8 weeks after the procedure. Heparin was administered after placement of femoral sheaths before or immediately after transseptal puncture. Ablation was performed in 635 patients (dabigatran, 317; warfarin, 318); data were available from 396 patients administered heparin (dabigatran, 191; warfarin, 205). Most frequent time window from last dose of study drug to septal puncture was 0 to <4 h in the dabigatran (41.3%) and 16 to <24 h in the warfarin arms (44.7%). Overall mean (standard deviation) heparin dose was similar between the dabigatran and warfarin groups [12 402 (10 721) vs. 11 910 (8359) IU, respectively]. Heparin dosing requirement to reach therapeutic ACT was lowest when time from last dose of dabigatran to septal puncture was 0 to <4 h. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with dabigatran required a similar amount of unfractionated heparin as those treated with warfarin to achieve an ACT of >300 s during ablation. More heparin units were required when the time from the last dose of dabigatran to septal puncture increased.

11.
Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol ; 30(2): 229-232, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) resulting in maximal QRS narrowing may be associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: Various atrioventricular (AV) delay settings, including the new SyncAV™ algorithm (St. Jude Medical/Abbott, St. Paul, MN, USA), aimed at maximal QRS narrowing were tested in an 81-year old CRT recipient. RESULTS: Maximal QRS narrowing from 160 to 100 ms was achieved with a manually programmed value of SyncAV™ -30 ms. At 2 months, the patient proved to be a CRT super-responder. CONCLUSION: SyncAV™ algorithm is a new way for effective QRS narrowing with potentially improved outcomes.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bloqueio de Ramo , Dispositivos de Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(36): 3013-3021, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976787

RESUMO

AIMS: Edoxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Uninterrupted edoxaban therapy in patients undergoing AF ablation has not been tested. METHODS AND RESULTS: The ELIMINATE-AF trial, a multinational, multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of once-daily edoxaban 60 mg (30 mg in patients indicated for dose reduction) vs. vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation. Patients were randomized 2:1 to edoxaban vs. VKA. The primary endpoint (per-protocol population) was time to first occurrence of all-cause death, stroke, or International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined major bleeding during the period from the end of the ablation procedure to end of treatment (90 days). Overall, 632 patients were enrolled, 614 randomized, and 553 received study drug and underwent ablation; 177 subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess silent cerebral infarcts. The primary endpoint (only major bleeds occurred) was observed in 0.3% (1 patient) on edoxaban and 2.0% (2 patients) on VKA [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.16 (0.02-1.73)]. In the ablation population (modified intent-to-treat population including patients with ablation), the primary endpoint was observed in 2.7% of edoxaban (N = 10) and 1.7% of VKA patients (N = 3) between start of ablation and end of treatment. There were one ischaemic and one haemorrhagic stroke, both in patients on edoxaban. Cerebral microemboli were detected in 13.8% (16) patients who received edoxaban and 9.6% (5) patients in the VKA group (nominal P = 0.62). CONCLUSION: Uninterrupted edoxaban therapy represents an alternative to uninterrupted VKA treatment in patients undergoing AF ablation.

13.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(6): 882-893, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study assessed changes in anticoagulation therapy over time in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Analyses were performed on a claims-based dataset of 4 million health-insured individuals. The study population consisted of patients newly initiating a non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) or vitamin K antagonist (VKA) for AF between 2013 and 2016. The study outcomes consisted of the proportion of patients who had (1) discontinued OAC treatment, (2) switched from VKA to NOAC, (3) switched from NOAC to VKA or (4) switched from one NOAC to another. Predictors of discontinuation or switching of OAC treatment were determined by Cox proportional hazards regression models with time-independent and time-dependent covariates. RESULTS: The study population comprised 51,606 AF patients initiating VKA (n = 21,468, 41.6%), apixaban (n = 8,832, 17.1%), dabigatran (n = 3,973, 7.7%) or rivaroxaban (n = 17,333, 33.6%). After 1 year, 29.9% of VKA and 29.5% of NOAC patients had discontinued OAC treatment without switching to another anticoagulant. A total of 10.7% of VKA patients switched to NOACs within 1 year, whereas 4.9% NOAC patients had switched to VKA. Of AF patients who were initiated on a NOAC, 5.2% switched to another NOAC. Treatment changes among NOAC starters were strongly associated with occurrence of stroke, myocardial infarction and gastrointestinal bleeding after treatment initiation. For VKA starters switching to a NOAC, stroke and bleeding events were associated with an increased likelihood of switching. CONCLUSION: Overall discontinuation rates of VKA and NOACs are comparable over the first year of therapy, while switching from VKA to NOAC was more common than from NOAC to VKA. The majority of treatment changes were associated with clinical events.

14.
Thromb Haemost ; 119(6): 971-980, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900223

RESUMO

Geriatric characteristics such as high age, multi-morbidity, polypharmacy and frailty are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In a retrospective study using a German claims database, effectiveness (ischaemic stroke/systemic embolism) and safety (intracerebral, gastrointestinal and major extracranial bleeding) were compared in patients with non-valvular AF starting non-vitamin K oral antagonists (NOACs) (apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban) and phenprocoumon. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios, and interaction terms of the treatment group and geriatric status (defined by age ≥75 years, frailty, ≥ 4 co-morbidities and polypharmacy) were entered into the model. A total of 42,562 and 27,939 patients initiated NOAC and phenprocoumon treatment (mean age 74 years ± 11, 51% male) with a follow-up time of 147,785 person-years. Note that 52.9% of patients were elderly, 50.8% were frail, 37.0% were co-morbid and 46.5% had polypharmacy. NOAC use was not associated with effectiveness and gastrointestinal bleeding, neither in geriatric nor in non-geriatric patients. The hazard of major extracranial and intracranial bleeding was significantly decreased for NOAC use, with similar risk reduction in geriatric and non-geriatric patients: major extracranial bleeding 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.87) to 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.89) for the geriatric groups and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.56-0.93) to 0.76 (0.59-0.98) for the non-geriatric groups (p-values for interaction > 0.6); and intracranial bleeding 0.52 (95% CI, 0.39-0.69) to 0.59 (95% CI, 0.47-0.73) for the geriatric groups and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.37-0.79) to 0.65 (95% CI, 0.49-0.86) for the non-geriatric groups (p-values for interaction > 0.2). Hence, NOACs showed similar effectiveness and superior safety in geriatric and non-geriatric patients.

15.
Europace ; 21(7): 1023-1030, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848783

RESUMO

AIMS: Hospitalizations are common among patients with atrial fibrillation. This article aimed to analyse the causes and consequences of hospitalizations occurring during the Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: The RE-LY database was used to evaluate predictors of hospitalization using multivariate regression modelling. The relationship between hospitalization and subsequent major adverse cardiac events was evaluated in a time dependent Cox proportional-hazard modelling. Of the 18 113 patients in RE-LY, 7200 (39.8%) were hospitalized at least once during a mean follow-up of 2 years. First hospitalization rates were 2312 (39.5%) for dabigatran etexilate (DE) 110, 2430 (41.6%) for DE 150, and 42.6% (N = 2458) for warfarin. Hospitalization was associated with post-discharge death [absolute event rate 9.1% vs. 2.2%; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.2-4.0, P < 0.0001], vascular death (adjusted HR 2.9, 95% CI 2.5-3.3, P < 0.0001), and sudden cardiac death (adjusted HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-2.9, P < 0.0001). Cardiovascular hospitalization was also associated with an increased risk of post-discharge death (adjusted HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.5-3.2, P < 0.0001), vascular death (adjusted HR 2.8, 95% CI 2.4-3.2, P < 0.0001), and sudden cardiac death (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7, P < 0.0001) compared with patients not hospitalized for any cardiovascular reason. CONCLUSION: Hospitalizations are associated an increased risk of with death and cardiovascular death in patients with atrial fibrillation.

16.
Europace ; 21(7): 993-994, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882143

RESUMO

Clinicians accept that there are many unknowns when we make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Acceptance of uncertainty is essential for the pursuit of the profession: bedside decisions must often be made on the basis of incomplete evidence. Over the years, physicians sometimes even do not realize anymore which the fundamental gaps in our knowledge are. As clinical scientists, however, we have to halt and consider what we do not know yet, and how we can move forward addressing those unknowns. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) believes that scanning the field of arrhythmia / cardiac electrophysiology to identify knowledge gaps which are not yet the subject of organized research, should be undertaken on a regular basis. Such a review (White Paper) should concentrate on research which is feasible, realistic, and clinically relevant, and should not deal with futuristic aspirations. It fits with the EHRA mission that these White Papers should be shared on a global basis in order to foster collaborative and needed research which will ultimately lead to better care for our patients. The present EHRA White Paper summarizes knowledge gaps in the management of atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia/sudden death and heart failure.

17.
Eur Heart J ; 40(19): 1553-1562, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793734

RESUMO

AIMS: After percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with atrial fibrillation, safety and efficacy with dabigatran dual therapy were evaluated in pre-specified subgroups of patients undergoing PCI due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or elective PCI, and those receiving ticagrelor or clopidogrel treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In the RE-DUAL PCI trial, 2725 patients were randomized to dabigatran 110 mg or 150 mg with P2Y12 inhibitor, or warfarin with P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin. Mean follow-up was 14 months, 50.5% had ACS, and 12% received ticagrelor. The risk of the primary endpoint, major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding event, was reduced with both dabigatran dual therapies vs. warfarin triple therapy in patients with ACS [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), 0.47 (0.35-0.63) for 110 mg and 0.67 (0.50-0.90) for 150 mg]; elective PCI [0.57 (0.43-0.76) for 110 mg and 0.76 (0.56-1.03) for 150 mg]; receiving ticagrelor [0.46 (0.28-0.76) for 110 mg and 0.59 (0.34-1.04) for 150 mg]; or clopidogrel [0.51 (0.41-0.64) for 110 mg and 0.73 (0.58-0.91) for 150 mg], all interaction P-values >0.10. Overall, dabigatran dual therapy was comparable to warfarin triple therapy for the composite endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, systemic embolism, or unplanned revascularization, with minor variations across the subgroups, all interaction P-values >0.10. CONCLUSION: The benefits of both dabigatran 110 mg and 150 mg dual therapy compared with warfarin triple therapy in reducing bleeding risks were consistent across subgroups of patients with or without ACS, and patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel.

18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 47(3): 345-352, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790160

RESUMO

Warfarin is dependent on multiple hepatic enzymes for metabolism while apixaban is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport and hepatic CYP3A4 metabolism. The aim of this analysis was to assess the impact of interacting medication use on the treatment effects of apixaban versus warfarin. Outcomes were compared between apixaban and warfarin using Cox proportional hazards modeling according to the use of interacting medications at randomization in ARISTOTLE (n = 18,201). Interacting medications for apixaban were identified as combined P-gp and 3A4 inhibitors or inducers while interacting medications for warfarin were defined as those highly probable for warfarin potentiation or inhibition. At randomization, 5547 (30.5%) patients were on an interacting medication, including 2722 on apixaban and 2825 on warfarin. Patients using an interacting medication were more likely to be female, taking aspirin, and have a history of prior bleeding and were less likely to have a prior stroke or transient ischemic attack. No significant differences were observed on the treatment effect of apixaban compared with warfarin in patients on and off interacting medications for outcomes including the primary efficacy outcome of stroke or systemic embolism (P for interaction = 0.79) or the primary safety outcome of major bleeding (P for interaction = 0.75). Use of interacting medications with anticoagulants occurs often in patients with atrial fibrillation. Despite the potential for altered exposure, interacting medication use was not associated with a significant change in the efficacy or safety of apixaban compared with warfarin in the ARISTOTLE trial.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00412984.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Interações de Medicamentos , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Embolia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 55(2): 145-152, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30758702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe regional differences in patient characteristics, ablation procedures, and bleeding events in the RE-CIRCUIT study. RE-CIRCUIT was a prospective, multicenter study that captured data from different regions, providing an opportunity to understand the practices followed in various regions. The incidence of major bleeding events (MBEs) was significantly lower with uninterrupted dabigatran versus uninterrupted warfarin. METHODS: Patients were randomized to receive dabigatran 150 mg twice daily or warfarin. Ablation was performed with uninterrupted anticoagulation for 8 weeks after the procedure. Regions were Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, and Asia. RESULTS: Of 704 patients screened across 104 sites, 635 underwent catheter ablation (dabigatran, 317; warfarin, 318). Patient characteristics were different across various regions. Patients from North America had the highest prevalence of atrial flutter (33%), coronary artery disease (29%), diabetes mellitus (18%), and previous myocardial infarction (9%). Hypertension was most prevalent in Eastern Europe (75%), as was congestive heart failure (40% vs 2% in Western Europe). Pulmonary vein isolation alone was the preferred technique used in most patients (86% in North America and 75-83% elsewhere) and radio frequency was the preferred energy source. The major outcome measure, incidence of MBEs during and up to 2 months after the procedure, was consistently lower with uninterrupted dabigatran versus warfarin, irrespective of regions and their procedural differences, and different ablation techniques utilized. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis shows that the benefits of dabigatran over a vitamin K antagonist in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation are consistent across all geographic regions studied. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02348723 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02348723).

20.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(9): 1042-1052, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underuse of oral anticoagulation (OAC) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) results in thousands of preventable strokes in Germany each year. This study aimed to assess changes in antithrombotic therapy in AF patients after increased use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in Germany and to evaluate whether the adoption of DOAC therapy was associated with changes in AF-related stroke and bleeding over time. METHODS: Analyses were carried out on a large claims-based dataset of 4 million health-insured Germans. The study population consisted of 601,261 prevalent AF patients between 2011 and 2016 who were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: DOAC, VKA, antiplatelets or no antithrombotic treatment. Treatment patterns were descriptively analysed and represented by cohort and CHA2DS2-VASc score. Clinical outcomes before and after the adoption of DOAC therapy were assessed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Use of OAC increased from 42 to 61% between 2011 and 2016, mainly due to more frequent prescription of DOACs. However, some underuse of OAC therapy remained even in high risk AF patients. In parallel with the increased prescription rate of OAC, there was an overall 24% incidence reduction in stroke between 2011 and 2016 which was mainly driven by reductions in ischemic strokes. Over the same time period the risk for major bleeding remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Between 2011 and 2016, the use of guideline-conform antithrombotic therapy in Germany has significantly increased. This was associated with a significant decline in strokes without an increased incidence of bleeding complications.

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