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1.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) can cause severe neurological morbidity but our understanding of the mechanisms that drive CCM formation and growth is still incomplete. Recent experimental data suggest that dysfunctional CCM3-deficient endothelial cell clones form cavernous lesions in conjunction with normal endothelial cells. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we addressed the question whether endothelial cell mosaicism can be found in human cavernous tissue of CCM1 germline mutation carriers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bringing together single-molecule molecular inversion probes in an ultra-sensitive sequencing approach with immunostaining to visualise the lack of CCM1 protein at single cell resolution, we identified a novel late postzygotic CCM1 loss-of-function variant in the cavernous tissue of a de novo CCM1 germline mutation carrier. The extended unilateral CCM had been located in the right central sulcus causing progressive proximal paresis of the left arm at the age of 15 years. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that individual caverns are lined by both heterozygous (CCM1+/- ) and compound heterozygous (CCM1-/- ) endothelial cells. CONCLUSION: We here demonstrate endothelial cell mosaicism within single caverns of human CCM tissue. In line with recent in vitro data on CCM1-deficient endothelial cells, our results provide further evidence for clonal evolution in human CCM1 pathogenesis.

2.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 294(4): 1001-1006, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968248

RESUMO

Otosclerosis is a common form of hearing loss (HL) due to abnormal remodeling of the otic capsule. The genetic causes of otosclerosis remain largely unidentified. Only mutations in a single gene, SERPINF1, were previously published in patients with familial otosclerosis. To unravel the contribution of genetic variation in this gene to otosclerosis, this gene was re-sequenced in a large population of otosclerosis patients and controls. Resequencing of the 5' and 3' UTRs, coding regions, and exon-intron boundaries of SERPINF1 was performed in 1604 unrelated otosclerosis patients and 1538 unscreened controls, and in 62 large otosclerosis families. Our study showed no enrichment of rare variants, stratified by type, in SERPINF1 in patients versus controls. Furthermore, the c.392C > A (p.Ala131Asp) variant, previously reported as pathogenic, was identified in three patients and four controls, not replicating its pathogenic nature. We could also not find evidence for a pathogenic role in otosclerosis for 5' UTR variants in the SERPINF1-012 transcript (ENST00000573763), described as the major transcript in human stapes. Furthermore, no rare variants were identified in the otosclerosis families. This study does not support a pathogenic role for variants in SERPINF1 as a cause of otosclerosis. Therefore, the etiology of the disease remains largely unknown and will undoubtedly be the focus of future studies.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Olho/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Otosclerose/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Serpinas/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
3.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1101-1112, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850703

RESUMO

We aimed to identify novel deletions and variants of TP63 associated with orofacial clefting (OFC). Copy number variants were assessed in three OFC families using microarray analysis. Subsequently, we analyzed TP63 in a cohort of 1072 individuals affected with OFC and 706 population-based controls using molecular inversion probes (MIPs). We identified partial deletions of TP63 in individuals from three families affected with OFC. In the OFC cohort, we identified several TP63 variants predicting to cause loss-of-function alleles, including a frameshift variant c.569_576del (p.(Ala190Aspfs*5)) and a nonsense variant c.997C>T (p.(Gln333*)) that introduces a premature stop codon in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, we identified the first missense variants in the oligomerization domain c.1213G>A (p.(Val405Met)), which occurred in individuals with OFC. This variant was shown to abrogate oligomerization of mutant p63 protein into oligomeric complexes, and therefore likely represents a loss-of-function allele rather than a dominant-negative. All of these variants were inherited from an unaffected parent, suggesting reduced penetrance of such loss-of-function alleles. Our data indicate that loss-of-function alleles in TP63 can also give rise to OFC as the main phenotype. We have uncovered the dosage-dependent functions of p63, which were previously rejected.

4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(7): 1044-1053, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796334

RESUMO

Progressive dilatation of the thoracic aorta leads to thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), which is often asymptomatic but predisposes to lethal aortic dissections and ruptures. TAA is a common complication in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Recently, rare loss-of-function SMAD6 variants were shown to contribute significantly to the genetic aetiology of BAV/TAA. Intriguingly, patients with craniosynostosis have also been reported to be explained molecularly by similar loss-of-function SMAD6 variants. While significantly reduced penetrance of craniosynostosis has been reported for the SMAD6 variants as such, near-complete penetrance is reached upon co-occurrence with a common BMP2 SNP risk allele. Here, we report on the results of a SMAD6-variant analysis in 473 unrelated non-syndromic TAA patients, of which the SMAD6-positive individuals were also studied for the presence of the BMP2 risk allele. Although only 14% of the TAA patients also presented BAV, all novel likely pathogenic SMAD6 variants (N = 7) were identified in BAV/TAA individuals, further establishing the role of SMAD6 variants to the aetiology of BAV/TAA and revealing limited contribution to TAA development in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve. Familial segregation studies confirmed reduced penetrance (82%) and variable clinical expressivity, with coarctation of the aorta being a common comorbidity. None of our six BMP2+/SMAD6+ patients presented with craniosynostosis. Hence, the proposed digenic model for craniosynostosis was not supported in the presented BAV/TAA cohort, suggesting that additional factors are at play. Finally, our data provide improved insights into the clinical spectrum of SMAD6-related BAV/TAA and has important implications for molecular diagnostics.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(8): 1719-1725, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568311

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The interpretation of genetic variants after genome-wide analysis is complex in heterogeneous disorders such as intellectual disability (ID). We investigate whether algorithms can be used to detect if a facial gestalt is present for three novel ID syndromes and if these techniques can help interpret variants of uncertain significance. METHODS: Facial features were extracted from photos of ID patients harboring a pathogenic variant in three novel ID genes (PACS1, PPM1D, and PHIP) using algorithms that model human facial dysmorphism, and facial recognition. The resulting features were combined into a hybrid model to compare the three cohorts against a background ID population. RESULTS: We validated our model using images from 71 individuals with Koolen-de Vries syndrome, and then show that facial gestalts are present for individuals with a pathogenic variant in PACS1 (p = 8 × 10-4), PPM1D (p = 4.65 × 10-2), and PHIP (p = 6.3 × 10-3). Moreover, two individuals with a de novo missense variant of uncertain significance in PHIP have significant similarity to the expected facial phenotype of PHIP patients (p < 1.52 × 10-2). CONCLUSION: Our results show that analysis of facial photos can be used to detect previously unknown facial gestalts for novel ID syndromes, which will facilitate both clinical and molecular diagnosis of rare and novel syndromes.

6.
Genet Med ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287925

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize new molecular factors implicated in a hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP) family and otosclerosis. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a four-generation family presenting nonprogressive HCFP and mixed hearing loss (HL). MEPE was analyzed using either Sanger sequencing or molecular inversion probes combined with massive parallel sequencing in 89 otosclerosis families, 1604 unrelated affected subjects, and 1538 unscreened controls. RESULTS: Exome sequencing in the HCFP family led to the identification of a rare segregating heterozygous frameshift variant p.(Gln425Lysfs*38) in MEPE. As the HL phenotype in this family resembled otosclerosis, we performed variant burden and variance components analyses in a large otosclerosis cohort and demonstrated that nonsense and frameshift MEPE variants were significantly enriched in affected subjects (p = 0.0006-0.0060). CONCLUSION: MEPE exerts its function in bone homeostasis by two domains, an RGD and an acidic serine aspartate-rich MEPE-associated (ASARM) motif inhibiting respectively bone resorption and mineralization. All variants associated with otosclerosis are predicted to result in nonsense mediated decay or an ASARM-and-RGD-truncated MEPE. The HCFP variant is predicted to produce an ASARM-truncated MEPE with an intact RGD motif. This difference in effect on the protein corresponds with the presumed pathophysiology of both diseases, and provides a plausible molecular explanation for the distinct phenotypic outcome.

7.
Nat Genet ; 50(11): 1615, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291356

RESUMO

In the version of this article published, the P values for the enrichment of single mutation categories were inadvertently not corrected for multiple testing. After multiple-testing correction, only two of the six mutation categories mentioned are still statistically significant. To reflect this, the text "More specifically, paternally derived DNMs are enriched in transitions in A[.]G contexts, especially ACG>ATG and ATG>ACG (Bonferroni-corrected P = 1.3 × 10-2 and P = 1 × 10-3, respectively). Additionally, we observed overrepresentation of ATA>ACA mutations (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4.28 × 10-2) for DNMs of paternal origin. Among maternally derived DNMs, CCA>CTA, GCA>GTA and TCT>TGT mutations were significantly overrepresented (Bonferroni-corrected P = 4 × 10-4, P = 5 × 10-4, P = 1 × 10-3, respectively)" should read "More specifically, CCA>CTA and GCA>GTA mutations were significantly overenriched on the maternal allele (Bonferroni-corrected P = 0.0192 and P = 0.048, respectively)." Additionally, the last sentence to the legend for Fig. 3b should read "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ significantly" instead of "Green boxes highlight the mutation categories that differ more than 1% of mutation load with a bootstrapping P value <0.05." Corrected versions of Fig. 3b and Supplementary Table 25 appear with the Author Correction.

8.
Alzheimers Dement ; 14(12): 1632-1639, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114415

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A minority of patients with sporadic early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit de novo germ line mutations in the autosomal dominant genes such as APP, PSEN1, or PSEN2. We hypothesized that negatively screened patients may harbor somatic variants in these genes. METHODS: We applied an ultrasensitive approach based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes followed by deep next generation sequencing of 11 genes to 100 brain and 355 blood samples from 445 sporadic patients with AD (>80% exhibited an early onset, <66 years). RESULTS: We identified and confirmed nine somatic variants (allele fractions: 0.2%-10.8%): two APP, five SORL1, one NCSTN, and one MARK4 variants by independent amplicon-based deep sequencing. DISCUSSION: Two of the SORL1 variant might have contributed to the disease, the two APP variants were interpreted as likely benign and the other variants remained of unknown significance. Somatic variants in the autosomal dominant AD genes may not be a common cause of sporadic AD, including early onset cases.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(4): 685-695, 2018 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576219

RESUMO

Biogenesis of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, which produces the bulk of ATP for almost all eukaryotic cells, depends on the translation of 13 mtDNA-encoded polypeptides by mitochondria-specific ribosomes in the mitochondrial matrix. These mitoribosomes are dual-origin ribonucleoprotein complexes, which contain mtDNA-encoded rRNAs and tRNAs and ∼80 nucleus-encoded proteins. An increasing number of gene mutations that impair mitoribosomal function and result in multiple OXPHOS deficiencies are being linked to human mitochondrial diseases. Using exome sequencing in two unrelated subjects presenting with sensorineural hearing impairment, mild developmental delay, hypoglycemia, and a combined OXPHOS deficiency, we identified mutations in the gene encoding the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2, which has not previously been implicated in disease. Characterization of subjects' fibroblasts revealed a decrease in the steady-state amounts of mutant MRPS2, and this decrease was shown by complexome profiling to prevent the assembly of the small mitoribosomal subunit. In turn, mitochondrial translation was inhibited, resulting in a combined OXPHOS deficiency detectable in subjects' muscle and liver biopsies as well as in cultured skin fibroblasts. Reintroduction of wild-type MRPS2 restored mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly. The combination of lactic acidemia, hypoglycemia, and sensorineural hearing loss, especially in the presence of a combined OXPHOS deficiency, should raise suspicion for a ribosomal-subunit-related mitochondrial defect, and clinical recognition could allow for a targeted diagnostic approach. The identification of MRPS2 as an additional gene related to mitochondrial disease further expands the genetic and phenotypic spectra of OXPHOS deficiencies caused by impaired mitochondrial translation.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 27-43, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29276006

RESUMO

Locus heterogeneity characterizes a variety of skeletal dysplasias often due to interacting or overlapping signaling pathways. Robinow syndrome is a skeletal disorder historically refractory to molecular diagnosis, potentially stemming from substantial genetic heterogeneity. All current known pathogenic variants reside in genes within the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway including ROR2, WNT5A, and more recently, DVL1 and DVL3. However, ∼70% of autosomal-dominant Robinow syndrome cases remain molecularly unsolved. To investigate this missing heritability, we recruited 21 families with at least one family member clinically diagnosed with Robinow or Robinow-like phenotypes and performed genetic and genomic studies. In total, four families with variants in FZD2 were identified as well as three individuals from two families with biallelic variants in NXN that co-segregate with the phenotype. Importantly, both FZD2 and NXN are relevant protein partners in the WNT5A interactome, supporting their role in skeletal development. In addition to confirming that clustered -1 frameshifting variants in DVL1 and DVL3 are the main contributors to dominant Robinow syndrome, we also found likely pathogenic variants in candidate genes GPC4 and RAC3, both linked to the Wnt signaling pathway. These data support an initial hypothesis that Robinow syndrome results from perturbation of the Wnt/PCP pathway, suggest specific relevant domains of the proteins involved, and reveal key contributors in this signaling cascade during human embryonic development. Contrary to the view that non-allelic genetic heterogeneity hampers gene discovery, this study demonstrates the utility of rare disease genomic studies to parse gene function in human developmental pathways.

11.
Leuk Lymphoma ; 59(7): 1690-1699, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058513

RESUMO

Pathogenic mutations in relapse-associated genes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia may improve risk stratification when detected at subclonal levels at primary diagnosis. However, to detect subclonal mutations upfront, a deep-sequencing approach with high specificity and sensitivity is required. Here, we performed a proof-of-principle study to detect low-level mosaic RAS pathway mutations by deep sequencing using random tagging-based single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs). The smMIP-based approach could sensitively detect variants with allele frequency as low as 0.4%, which could all be confirmed by other techniques. In comparison, with standard deep-sequencing techniques we reached a detection threshold of only 2.5%, which hampered detection of seven low-level mosaic mutations representing 24% of all detected mutations. We conclude that smMIP-based deep-sequencing outperforms standard deep-sequencing techniques by showing lower background noise and high specificity, and is the preferred technology for detecting mutations upfront, particularly in genes in which mutations show limited clustering in hotspots.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(1): 54-63, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209020

RESUMO

Genotype-first combined with reverse phenotyping has shown to be a powerful tool in human genetics, especially in the era of next generation sequencing. This combines the identification of individuals with mutations in the same gene and linking these to consistent (endo)phenotypes to establish disease causality. We have performed a MIP (molecular inversion probe)-based targeted re-sequencing study in 3,275 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) to facilitate a genotype-first approach for 24 genes previously implicated in ID.Combining our data with data from a publicly available database, we confirmed 11 of these 24 genes to be relevant for ID. Amongst these, PHIP was shown to have an enrichment of disruptive mutations in the individuals with ID (5 out of 3,275). Through international collaboration, we identified a total of 23 individuals with PHIP mutations and elucidated the associated phenotype. Remarkably, all 23 individuals had developmental delay/ID and the majority were overweight or obese. Other features comprised behavioral problems (hyperactivity, aggression, features of autism and/or mood disorder) and dysmorphisms (full eyebrows and/or synophrys, upturned nose, large ears and tapering fingers). Interestingly, PHIP encodes two protein-isoforms, PHIP/DCAF14 and NDRP, each involved in neurodevelopmental processes, including E3 ubiquitination and neuronal differentiation. Detailed genotype-phenotype analysis points towards haploinsufficiency of PHIP/DCAF14, and not NDRP, as the underlying cause of the phenotype.Thus, we demonstrated the use of large scale re-sequencing by MIPs, followed by reverse phenotyping, as a constructive approach to verify candidate disease genes and identify novel syndromes, highlighted by PHIP haploinsufficiency causing an ID-overweight syndrome.

13.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 830-835, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is a rare genetic disorder characterised by a recognisable craniofacial appearance and a typical 'BOS' posture. BOS is caused by sporadic mutations ofASXL1. However, several typical patients with BOS have no molecular diagnosis, suggesting clinical and genetic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVES: To expand the phenotypical spectrum of autosomal recessive variants of KLHL7, reported as causing Crisponi syndrome/cold-induced sweating syndrome type 1 (CS/CISS1)-like syndrome. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in two families with a suspected recessive mode of inheritance. We used the Matchmaker Exchange initiative to identify additional patients. RESULTS: Here, we report six patients with microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, including exophthalmos, nevus flammeus of the glabella and joint contractures with a suspected BOS posture in five out of six patients. We identified autosomal recessive truncating mutations in the KLHL7 gene. KLHL7 encodes a BTB-kelch protein implicated in the cell cycle and in protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Recently, biallelic mutations in the KLHL7 gene were reported in four families and associated with CS/CISS1, characterised by clinical features overlapping with our patients. CONCLUSION: We have expanded the clinical spectrum of KLHL7 autosomal recessive variants by describing a syndrome with features overlapping CS/CISS1 and BOS.


Assuntos
Autoantígenos/genética , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Craniossinostoses/genética , Genes Recessivos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(11): 1246-1252, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875981

RESUMO

Recognition of individuals with a genetic predisposition to gastric cancer (GC) enables preventive measures. However, the underlying cause of genetic susceptibility to gastric cancer remains largely unexplained. We performed germline whole-exome sequencing on leukocyte DNA of 54 patients from 53 families with genetically unexplained diffuse-type and intestinal-type GC to identify novel GC-predisposing candidate genes. As young age at diagnosis and familial clustering are hallmarks of genetic tumor susceptibility, we selected patients that were diagnosed below the age of 35, patients from families with two cases of GC at or below age 60 and patients from families with three GC cases at or below age 70. All included individuals were tested negative for germline CDH1 mutations before or during the study. Variants that were possibly deleterious according to in silico predictions were filtered using several independent approaches that were based on gene function and gene mutation burden in controls. Despite a rigorous search, no obvious candidate GC predisposition genes were identified. This negative result stresses the importance of future research studies in large, homogeneous cohorts.


Assuntos
Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos CD , Caderinas/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico
15.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1592-1605, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801929

RESUMO

Microdeletions of the Y chromosome (YCMs), Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), and CFTR mutations are known genetic causes of severe male infertility, but the majority of cases remain idiopathic. Here, we describe a novel method using single molecule Molecular Inversion Probes (smMIPs), to screen infertile men for mutations and copy number variations affecting known disease genes. We designed a set of 4,525 smMIPs targeting the coding regions of causal (n = 6) and candidate (n = 101) male infertility genes. After extensive validation, we screened 1,112 idiopathic infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. In addition to five chromosome YCMs and six other sex chromosomal anomalies, we identified five patients with rare recessive mutations in CFTR as well as a patient with a rare heterozygous frameshift mutation in SYCP3 that may be of clinical relevance. This results in a genetic diagnosis in 11-17 patients (1%-1.5%), a yield that may increase significantly when more genes are confidently linked to male infertility. In conclusion, we developed a flexible and scalable method to reliably detect genetic causes of male infertility. The assay consolidates the detection of different types of genetic variation while increasing the diagnostic yield and detection precision at the same or lower price compared with currently used methods.


Assuntos
Azoospermia/diagnóstico , Azoospermia/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Oligospermia/diagnóstico , Oligospermia/genética , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Aberrações dos Cromossomos Sexuais , Contagem de Espermatozoides
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(1): 50-64, 2017 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28669404

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis results from somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells, which give an advantage to mutant cells, driving their clonal expansion and potentially leading to leukemia. The acquisition of clonal hematopoiesis-driver mutations (CHDMs) occurs with normal aging and these mutations have been detected in more than 10% of individuals ≥65 years. We aimed to examine the prevalence and characteristics of CHDMs throughout adult life. We developed a targeted re-sequencing assay combining high-throughput with ultra-high sensitivity based on single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs). Using smMIPs, we screened more than 100 loci for CHDMs in more than 2,000 blood DNA samples from population controls between 20 and 69 years of age. Loci screened included 40 regions known to drive clonal hematopoiesis when mutated and 64 novel candidate loci. We identified 224 somatic mutations throughout our cohort, of which 216 were coding mutations in known driver genes (DNMT3A, JAK2, GNAS, TET2, and ASXL1), including 196 point mutations and 20 indels. Our assay's improved sensitivity allowed us to detect mutations with variant allele frequencies as low as 0.001. CHDMs were identified in more than 20% of individuals 60 to 69 years of age and in 3% of individuals 20 to 29 years of age, approximately double the previously reported prevalence despite screening a limited set of loci. Our findings support the occurrence of clonal hematopoiesis-associated mutations as a widespread mechanism linked with aging, suggesting that mosaicism as a result of clonal evolution of cells harboring somatic mutations is a universal mechanism occurring at all ages in healthy humans.


Assuntos
Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Hematopoese/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Bases , Células Clonais , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sondas Moleculares/metabolismo , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Mapeamento por Restrição , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15190, 2017 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474677

RESUMO

Whole-transcriptome or RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is a powerful and versatile tool for functional analysis of different types of RNA molecules, but sample reagent and sequencing cost can be prohibitive for hypothesis-driven studies where the aim is to quantify differential expression of a limited number of genes. Here we present an approach for quantification of differential mRNA expression by targeted resequencing of complementary DNA using single-molecule molecular inversion probes (cDNA-smMIPs) that enable highly multiplexed resequencing of cDNA target regions of ∼100 nucleotides and counting of individual molecules. We show that accurate estimates of differential expression can be obtained from molecule counts for hundreds of smMIPs per reaction and that smMIPs are also suitable for quantification of relative gene expression and allele-specific expression. Compared with low-coverage RNA-Seq and a hybridization-based targeted RNA-Seq method, cDNA-smMIPs are a cost-effective high-throughput tool for hypothesis-driven expression analysis in large numbers of genes (10 to 500) and samples (hundreds to thousands).


Assuntos
DNA Complementar/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Transformação Celular Viral , Células HEK293 , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese
18.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178169, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542371

RESUMO

Adult male germline stem cells (spermatogonia) proliferate by mitosis and, after puberty, generate spermatocytes that undertake meiosis to produce haploid spermatozoa. Germ cells are under evolutionary constraint to curtail mutations and maintain genome integrity. Despite constant turnover, spermatogonia very rarely form tumors, so-called spermatocytic tumors (SpT). In line with the previous identification of FGFR3 and HRAS selfish mutations in a subset of cases, candidate gene screening of 29 SpTs identified an oncogenic NRAS mutation in two cases. To gain insights in the etiology of SpT and into properties of the male germline, we performed whole-genome sequencing of five tumors (4/5 with matched normal tissue). The acquired single nucleotide variant load was extremely low (~0.2 per Mb), with an average of 6 (2-9) non-synonymous variants per tumor, none of which is likely to be oncogenic. The observed mutational signature of SpTs is strikingly similar to that of germline de novo mutations, mostly involving C>T transitions with a significant enrichment in the ACG trinucleotide context. The tumors exhibited extensive aneuploidy (50-99 autosomes/tumor) involving whole-chromosomes, with recurrent gains of chr9 and chr20 and loss of chr7, suggesting that aneuploidy itself represents the initiating oncogenic event. We propose that SpT etiology recapitulates the unique properties of male germ cells; because of evolutionary constraints to maintain low point mutation rate, rare tumorigenic driver events are caused by a combination of gene imbalance mediated via whole-chromosome aneuploidy. Finally, we propose a general framework of male germ cell tumor pathology that accounts for their mutational landscape, timing and cellular origin.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Genoma Humano , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Espermatócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Masculino , Receptor Tipo 3 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Maturidade Sexual , Espermatócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 7: 46105, 2017 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28440294

RESUMO

A significant proportion of children have unexplained problems acquiring proficient linguistic skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. Developmental language disorders are highly heritable with substantial societal impact. Molecular studies have begun to identify candidate loci, but much of the underlying genetic architecture remains undetermined. We performed whole-exome sequencing of 43 unrelated probands affected by severe specific language impairment, followed by independent validations with Sanger sequencing, and analyses of segregation patterns in parents and siblings, to shed new light on aetiology. By first focusing on a pre-defined set of known candidates from the literature, we identified potentially pathogenic variants in genes already implicated in diverse language-related syndromes, including ERC1, GRIN2A, and SRPX2. Complementary analyses suggested novel putative candidates carrying validated variants which were predicted to have functional effects, such as OXR1, SCN9A and KMT2D. We also searched for potential "multiple-hit" cases; one proband carried a rare AUTS2 variant in combination with a rare inherited haplotype affecting STARD9, while another carried a novel nonsynonymous variant in SEMA6D together with a rare stop-gain in SYNPR. On broadening scope to all rare and novel variants throughout the exomes, we identified biological themes that were enriched for such variants, including microtubule transport and cytoskeletal regulation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Mutação/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Feminino , Ontologia Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Oncotarget ; 8(15): 24533-24547, 2017 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28445943

RESUMO

The currently known Mendelian colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndromes account for ~5-10% of all CRC cases, and are caused by inherited germline mutations in single CRC predisposing genes. Using molecular inversion probes (MIPs), we designed a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to identify mutations in seven CRC predisposing genes: APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MUTYH and NTHL1. From a consecutive series of 2,371 Chinese CRC patients, 140 familial and non-familial cases were selected that were diagnosed with CRC at or below the age of 35 years. Through MIP-based sequencing we identified pathogenic variants in six genes in 16 out of the 140 (11.4%) patients selected. In 10 patients, known pathogenic mutations in APC (five patients), MLH1 (three patients), or MSH2 (two patients) were identified. Three additional patients were found to carry novel, likely pathogenic truncating (n = 2) and missense (n = 1) mutations in the MSH2 gene and a concomitant loss of expression of both the MSH2 and MSH6 proteins in their respective tumor tissues. From our data, we conclude that targeted MIP-based sequencing is a reliable and cost-efficient approach to identify patients with a Mendelian CRC syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Sondas Moleculares , Adulto Jovem
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