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1.
Thorax ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Muscle wasting is a recognised extra-pulmonary complication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and has been associated with increased risk of death. Acute respiratory exacerbations are associated with reduction of muscle function, but there is a paucity of data on their long-term effect. This study explores the relationship between acute respiratory exacerbations and long-term muscle loss using serial measurements of CT derived pectoralis muscle area (PMA). DESIGN AND SETTING: Participants were included from two prospective, longitudinal, observational, multicentre cohorts of ever-smokers with at least 10 pack-year history. PARTICIPANTS: The primary analysis included 1332 (of 2501) participants from Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE) and 4384 (of 10 198) participants from Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) who had complete data from their baseline and follow-up visits. INTERVENTIONS: PMA was measured on chest CT scans at two timepoints. Self-reported exacerbation data were collected from participants in both studies through the use of periodic longitudinal surveys. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-related and excess muscle loss over time. RESULTS: Age, sex, race and body mass index were associated with baseline PMA. Participants experienced age-related decline at the upper end of reported normal ranges. In ECLIPSE, the exacerbation rate over time was associated with an excess muscle area loss of 1.3% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.9, p<0.001) over 3 years and in COPDGene with an excess muscle area loss of 2.1% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.8, p<0.001) over 5 years. Excess muscle area decline was absent in 273 individuals who participated in pulmonary rehabilitation. CONCLUSIONS: Exacerbations are associated with accelerated skeletal muscle loss. Each annual exacerbation was associated with the equivalent of 6 months of age-expected decline in muscle mass. Ameliorating exacerbation-associated muscle loss represents an important therapeutic target.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326441

RESUMO

Common variants in the hepatic lipase (LIPC) gene have been shown to be associated with plasma lipid levels; however, the distribution and functional features of rare and regulatory LIPC variants contributing to the extreme lipid phenotypes are not well known. This study was aimed to catalogue LIPC variants by resequencing the entire LIPC gene in 95 non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and 95 African blacks (ABs) with extreme HDL-C levels followed by in silico functional analyses. A total of 412 variants, including 43 novel variants were identified; 56 were unique to NHWs and 234 were unique to ABs. Seventy-eight variants in NHWs and 89 variants in ABs were present either in high HDL-C group or low HDL-C group. Two non-synonymous variants (p.S289F, p.T405M), found in NHWs with high HDL-C group were predicted to have damaging effect on LIPC protein by SIFT, MT2 and PP2. We also found several non-coding variants that possibly reside in the circRNA and lncRNA binding sites and may have regulatory potential, as identified in rSNPbase and RegulomeDB databases. Our results shed light on the regulatory nature of rare and non-coding LIPC variants as well as suggest their important contributions in affecting the extreme HDL-C phenotypes.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Lipase/genética , Afro-Americanos , Alelos , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/genética , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/sangue , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Lipase/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica/genética , Conformação Proteica , RNA Circular/sangue , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética
3.
Clin Epidemiol ; 12: 1171-1181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149694

RESUMO

Purpose: Medication patterns include all medications in an individual's clinical profile. We aimed to identify chronic co-morbidity treatment patterns through medication use among COPDGene participants and determine whether these patterns were associated with mortality, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and quality of life. Materials and Methods: Participants analyzed here completed Phase 1 (P1) and/or Phase 2 (P2) of COPDGene. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify medication patterns and assign individuals into unobserved LCA classes. Mortality, AECOPD, and the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) health status were compared in different LCA classes through survival analysis, logistic regression, and Kruskal-Wallis test, respectively. Results: LCA identified 8 medication patterns from 32 classes of chronic comorbid medications. A total of 8110 out of 10,127 participants with complete covariate information were included. Survival analysis adjusted for covariates showed, compared to a low medication use class, mortality was highest in participants with hypertension+diabetes+statin+antiplatelet medication group. Participants in hypertension+SSRI+statin medication group had the highest odds of AECOPD and the highest SGRQ score at both P1 and P2. Conclusion: Medication pattern can serve as a good indicator of an individual's comorbidities profile and improves models predicting clinical outcomes.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5562, 2020 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144568

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide significant loci, including previously unreported loci MAGI2/GNAI1 (rs2714700) and TENM2 (rs1862416), and extend loci reported for other smoking traits to nicotine dependence. Using the heaviness of smoking index from UK Biobank (N = 33,791), rs2714700 is consistently associated; rs1862416 is not associated, likely reflecting nicotine dependence features not captured by the heaviness of smoking index. Both variants influence nearby gene expression (rs2714700/MAGI2-AS3 in hippocampus; rs1862416/TENM2 in lung), and expression of genes spanning nicotine dependence-associated variants is enriched in cerebellum. Nicotine dependence (SNP-based heritability = 8.6%) is genetically correlated with 18 other smoking traits (rg = 0.40-1.09) and co-morbidities. Our results highlight nicotine dependence-specific loci, emphasizing the FTND as a composite phenotype that expands genetic knowledge of smoking.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Tabagismo/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Metanálise como Assunto , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106845

RESUMO

Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is determined by both cigarette smoking and genetic susceptibility, but little is known about gene-by-smoking interactions. We performed a genome-wide association analysis of 179,689 controls and 21,077 COPD cases from UK Biobank subjects of European ancestry recruited from 2006 to 2010, considering genetic main effects and gene-by-smoking interaction effects simultaneously (2-degree-of-freedom test) as well as interaction effects alone (1-degree-of-freedom interaction test). We sought to replicate significant results in the COPDGene study and SpiroMeta Consortium. We considered two smoking variables: (1) ever/never and (2) current/non-current. In the 1-degree-of-freedom interaction test, we identified one genome-wide significant locus on 15q25.1 (CHRNB4) for ever- and current-smoking and identified PI*Z allele (rs28929474) of SERPINA1 for ever-smoking and 3q26.2 (MECOM) for current-smoking in an analysis of previously reported COPD loci. In the 2-degree-of-freedom test, most of the significant signals were also significant for genetic marginal effects, aside from 16q22.1 (SMPD3) and 19q13.2 (EGLN2). The significant effects at 15q25.1 and 19q13.2 loci, both previously described in prior genome-wide association studies of COPD or smoking, were replicated in the COPDGene and SpiroMeta. We identified interaction effects at previously reported COPD loci, however, we failed to identify novel susceptibility loci.

6.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 346-361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877963

RESUMO

Background: Risk factor identification is a proven strategy in advancing treatments and preventive therapy for many chronic conditions. Quantifying the impact of those risk factors on health outcomes can consolidate and focus efforts on individuals with specific high-risk profiles. Using multiple risk factors and longitudinal outcomes in 2 independent cohorts, we developed and validated a risk score model to predict mortality in current and former cigarette smokers. Methods: We obtained extensive data on current and former smokers from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study at enrollment. Based on physician input and model goodness-of-fit measures, a subset of variables was selected to fit final Weibull survival models separately for men and women. Coefficients and predictors were translated into a point system, allowing for easy computation of mortality risk scores and probabilities. We then used the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort for external validation of our model. Results: Of 9867 COPDGene participants with standard baseline data, 17.6% died over 10 years of follow-up, and 9074 of these participants had the full set of baseline predictors (standard plus 6-minute walk distance and computed tomography variables) available for full model fits. The average age of participants in the cohort was 60 for both men and women, and the average predicted 10-year mortality risk was 18% for women and 25% for men. Model time-integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve statistics demonstrated good predictive model accuracy (0.797 average), validated in the external cohort (0.756 average). Risk of mortality was impacted most by 6-minute walk distance, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and age, for both men and women. Conclusions: Current and former smokers exhibited a wide range of mortality risk over a 10- year period. Our models can identify higher risk individuals who can be targeted for interventions to reduce risk of mortality, for participants with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(7): 748-758, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803792

RESUMO

Smoking is a major contributor to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two of the strongest genetic associations of smoking-related phenotypes are the chromosomal regions 15q25.1, encompassing the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and 19q13.2, encompassing the nicotine metabolizing gene CYP2A6. In this study, we examined genetic relations between cigarettes smoked per day, smoking cessation, lung cancer, and COPD. Data consisted of genome-wide association study summary results. Genetic correlations were estimated using linkage disequilibrium score regression software. For each pair of outcomes, z-score-z-score (ZZ) plots were generated. Overall, heavier smoking and decreased smoking cessation showed positive genetic associations with increased lung cancer and COPD risk. The chromosomal region 19q13.2, however, showed a different correlational pattern. For example, the effect allele-C of the sentinel SNP (rs56113850) within CYP2A6 was associated with an increased risk of heavier smoking (z-score = 19.2; p = 1.10 × 10-81 ), lung cancer (z-score = 8.91; p = 5.02 × 10-19 ), and COPD (z-score = 4.04; p = 5.40 × 10-5 ). Surprisingly, this allele-C (rs56113850) was associated with increased smoking cessation (z-score = -8.17; p = 2.52 × 10-26 ). This inverse relationship highlights the need for additional investigation to determine how CYP2A6 variation could increase smoking cessation while also increasing the risk of lung cancer and COPD likely through increased cigarettes smoked per day.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
9.
Radiology ; 296(1): 208-215, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368963

RESUMO

Background Smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have smaller left ventricles (LVs) due to reduced preload. Skeletal muscle wasting is also common in COPD, but less is known about its contribution to LV size. Purpose To explore the relationships between CT metrics of emphysema, venous vascular volume, and sarcopenia with the LV epicardial volume (LVEV) (myocardium and chamber) estimated from chest CT images in participants with COPD and then to determine the clinical relevance of the LVEV in multivariable models, including sex and anthropomorphic metrics. Materials and Methods The COPDGene study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00608764) is an ongoing prospective longitudinal observational investigation that began in 2006. LVEV, distal pulmonary venous blood volume for vessels smaller than 5 mm2 in cross section (BV5), CT emphysema, and pectoralis muscle area were retrospectively extracted from 3318 nongated, unenhanced COPDGene CT scans. Multivariable linear and Cox regression models were used to explore the association between emphysema, venous BV5, pectoralis muscle area, and LVEV as well as the association of LVEV with health status using the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, 6-minute walk distance, and all-cause mortality. Results The median age of the cohort was 64 years (interquartile range, 57-70 years). Of the 2423 participants, 1806 were men and 617 were African American. The median LVEV between Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 1 and GOLD 4 COPD was reduced by 13.9% in women and 17.7% in men (P < .001 for both). In fully adjusted models, higher emphysema percentage (ß = -4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.0, -3.4; P < .001), venous BV5 (ß = 7.0; 95% CI: 5.7, 8.2; P < .001), and pectoralis muscle area (ß = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.1; P < .001) were independently associated with reduced LVEV. Reductions in LVEV were associated with improved health status (ß = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) and 6-minute walk distance (ß = -12.2; 95% CI: -15.2, -9.3). These effects were greater in women than in men. The effect of reduced LVEV on mortality (hazard ratio: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.09) did not vary by sex. Conclusion In women more than men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a reduction in the estimated left ventricle epicardial volume correlated with a loss of pulmonary venous vasculature, greater pectoralis muscle sarcopenia, and lower all-cause mortality. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(5)2020 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32466134

RESUMO

There is great interest in understanding the impact of rare variants in human diseases using large sequence datasets. In deep sequence datasets of >10,000 samples, ~10% of the variant sites are observed to be multi-allelic. Many of the multi-allelic variants have been shown to be functional and disease-relevant. Proper analysis of multi-allelic variants is critical to the success of a sequencing study, but existing methods do not properly handle multi-allelic variants and can produce highly misleading association results. We discuss practical issues and methods to encode multi-allelic sites, conduct single-variant and gene-level association analyses, and perform meta-analysis for multi-allelic variants. We evaluated these methods through extensive simulations and the study of a large meta-analysis of ~18,000 samples on the cigarettes-per-day phenotype. We showed that our joint modeling approach provided an unbiased estimate of genetic effects, greatly improved the power of single-variant association tests among methods that can properly estimate allele effects, and enhanced gene-level tests over existing approaches. Software packages implementing these methods are available online.

12.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(2): 86-98, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324980

RESUMO

Background: Apparent increased female susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suggests sex hormones modulate disease pathogenesis. Little is known about associations between multiparity and lung function in smokers. Research Question: We hypothesized that multiparity is associated with lung function and measures of emphysema and airway disease. Study Design and Methods: Utilizing female participants from the 5-year follow up of the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study we performed multivariable linear regressions to assess the effect of multiparity and number of pregnancies on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percentage of predicted (% predicted), FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), percent emphysema on computed tomography (CT) scans, and Pi10, a measure of airway thickening. We sampled never smokers and those with lower smoking exposure from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 dataset. Results: We included 1820 participants from COPDGene® and 418 participants from NHANES (321 never smokers, 97 ever smokers). In COPDGene®, multiparity (beta coefficient [ß] = -3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [-6.5, -1.1], p = 0.005) and higher number of pregnancies were associated with lower FEV1 % predicted. Multiparity was not associated with percent emphysema or Pi10. In individuals with no or mild obstruction, multiparity was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted. There was an interaction with multiparity and age on FEV1 % predicted (p = 0.025). In NHANES, there was no association between multiparity and FEV1 % predicted in never smokers or the lower smoking exposure group. Interpretation: Multiparity was associated with lower FEV1 % predicted in current and former smokers in COPDGene® study participants. These preliminary results emphasize the importance of smoking abstinence in women of child-bearing age.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5169, 2020 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198360

RESUMO

One quarter of individuals with Preserved Ratio Impaired Spirometry (PRISm) will develop airflow obstruction, but there are no established methods to identify these individuals. We examined the utility of FVC/TLC in identifying features of obstructive lung disease. The ratio of post-bronchodilator FVC and TLCCT from chest CT (FVC/TLCCT) among current and former smokers with PRISm (FEV1/FVC ≥ 0.7 and FEV1 < 80%) in COPDGene was used to stratify subjects into quartiles: very high, high, low, and very low. We examined the associations between FVC/TLCCT quartiles and (1) baseline characteristics, (2) respiratory exacerbations, (3) progression to COPD at 5 years, and (4) all-cause mortality. Among participants with PRISm at baseline (n = 1,131), the very low FVC/TLCCT quartile was associated with increased gas trapping and emphysema, and higher rates of progression to COPD at 5 years (36% versus 17%; p < 0.001) relative to the very high quartile. The very low FVC/TLCCT quartile was associated with increased total (IRR = 1.65; 95% CI [1.07-2.54]) and severe (IRR = 2.24; 95% CI [1.29-3.89]) respiratory exacerbations. Mortality was lower in the very high FVC/TLCCT quartile relative to the other quartiles combined. Reduced FVC/TLCCT ratio in PRISm is associated with increased symptoms, radiographic emphysema and gas trapping, exacerbations, and progression to COPD.

16.
Radiology ; 295(1): 218-226, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013794

RESUMO

Background CT is used to quantify abnormal changes in the lung parenchyma of smokers that might overlap chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but studies on the progression of expiratory air trapping in smokers are scarce. Purpose To evaluate the relationship between longitudinal changes in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and CT-quantified emphysema and air trapping in smokers. Materials and Methods Cigarette smokers with and those without COPD participating in the multicenter observational COPDGene study were evaluated. Subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT and spirometry at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Emphysema was quantified by using adjusted lung density (ALD). Air trapping was quantified by using mean lung density at expiratory CT and CT-measured functional residual capacity-to-total lung volume ratio. Linear models were used to regress quantitative CT measurements taken 5 years apart, and models were fit with and without adding FEV1 as a predictor. Analyses were stratified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage (GOLD 0, no COPD; GOLD 1, mild COPD; GOLD 2, moderate COPD; GOLD 3, severe COPD; GOLD 4, very severe COPD). Subjects with preserved FEV1-to-forced vital capacity ratio and reduced FEV1 percentage predicted were categorized as having preserved ratio impaired spirometry (PRISm). Results A total of 4211 subjects (503 with PRISm; 2034 with GOLD 0, 388 with GOLD 1, 816 with GOLD 2, 381 with GOLD 3, 89 with GOLD 4) were evaluated. ALD decreased by 1.7 g/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.5, -0.9) in subjects with GOLD 0 at baseline and by 5.3 g/L (95% CI: -6.2, -4.4) in those with GOLD 1-4 (P < .001 for both). When adjusted for changes in FEV1, corresponding numbers were -2.2 (95% CI: -3.0, -1.3) and -4.6 g/L (95% CI: -5.6, -3.4) (P < .001 for both). Progression in air trapping was identified only in GOLD stage 2-4. Approximately 33%-50% of changes in air trapping in GOLD stages 2-4 were accounted for by changes in FEV1. Conclusion CT measures of emphysema and air trapping increased over 5 years in smokers. Forced expiratory volume in one second accounted for less than 10% of emphysema progression and less than 50% of air trapping progression detected at CT. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Idoso , Ar , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(6): 900-909, 2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tabagismo/genética , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Metanálise como Assunto , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Chest ; 157(5): 1147-1157, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887283

RESUMO

COPD is a heterogeneous syndrome. Many COPD subtypes have been proposed, but there is not yet consensus on how many COPD subtypes there are and how they should be defined. The COPD Genetic Epidemiology Study (COPDGene), which has generated 10-year longitudinal chest imaging, spirometry, and molecular data, is a rich resource for relating COPD phenotypes to underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms. In this article, we place COPDGene clustering studies in context with other highly cited COPD clustering studies, and summarize the main COPD subtype findings from COPDGene. First, most manifestations of COPD occur along a continuum, which explains why continuous aspects of COPD or disease axes may be more accurate and reproducible than subtypes identified through clustering methods. Second, continuous COPD-related measures can be used to create subgroups through the use of predictive models to define cut-points, and we review COPDGene research on blood eosinophil count thresholds as a specific example. Third, COPD phenotypes identified or prioritized through machine learning methods have led to novel biological discoveries, including novel emphysema genetic risk variants and systemic inflammatory subtypes of COPD. Fourth, trajectory-based COPD subtyping captures differences in the longitudinal evolution of COPD, addressing a major limitation of clustering analyses that are confounded by disease severity. Ongoing longitudinal characterization of subjects in COPDGene will provide useful insights about the relationship between lung imaging parameters, molecular markers, and COPD progression that will enable the identification of subtypes based on underlying disease processes and distinct patterns of disease progression, with the potential to improve the clinical relevance and reproducibility of COPD subtypes.

19.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(5): 400-413, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710795

RESUMO

Background: Previous attempts to explore the heterogeneity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clustered individual patients using clinical, demographic, and disease features. We developed continuous multidimensional disease axes based on radiographic and spirometric variables that split into an airway-predominant axis and an emphysema-predominant axis. Methods: The COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene®) is a cohort of current and former smokers, > 45 years, with at least 10 pack years of smoking history. Spirometry measures, blood pressure and body mass were directly measured. Mortality was assessed through continuing longitudinal follow-up and cause of death was adjudicated. Among 8157 COPDGene® participants with complete spirometry and computed tomography (CT) measures, the top 2 deciles of the airway-predominant and emphysema-predominant axes previously identified were used to categorize individuals into 3 groups having the highest risk for mortality using Cox proportional hazard ratios. These groups were also assessed for causal mortality. Biomarkers of COPD (fibrinogen, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products [sRAGE], C-reactive protein [CRP], clara cell secretory protein [CC16], surfactant-D [SP-D]) were compared by group. Findings: High-risk subtype classification was defined for 2638 COPDGene® participants who were in the highest 2 deciles of either the airway-predominant and/or emphysema-predominant axis (32% of the cohort). These high-risk participants fell into 3 groups: airway-predominant disease only (APD-only), emphysema-predominant disease only (EPD-only) and combined APD-EPD. There was 26% mortality for the APD-only group, 21% mortality for the EPD-only group, and 54% mortality for the combined APD-EPD group. The APD-only group (n=1007) was younger, had a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) percent (%) predicted and a strong association with the preserved ratio-impaired spirometry (PRISm) quadrant. The EPD-only group (n=1006) showed a relatively higher FEV1 % predicted and included largely GOLD stage 0, 1 and 2 partipants. Individuals in each of the 3 high-risk groups were at greater risk for respiratory mortality, while those in the APD-only group were additionally at greater risk for cardiovascular mortality. Biomarker analysis demonstrated a significant association of the APD-only group with CRP, and sRAGE demonstrated greatest significance with both the EPD-only and the combined APD-EPD groups. Interpretation: Among current and former smokers, individuals in the highest 2 deciles for mortality risk on the airway-predominant axis and the emphysema-predominant axis have unique associations to spirometric patterns, different imaging characteristics, biomarkers and causal mortality.

20.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 6(5): 384-399, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710793

RESUMO

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Present-day diagnostic criteria are largely based solely on spirometric criteria. Accumulating evidence has identified a substantial number of individuals without spirometric evidence of COPD who suffer from respiratory symptoms and/or increased morbidity and mortality. There is a clear need for an expanded definition of COPD that is linked to physiologic, structural (computed tomography [CT]) and clinical evidence of disease. Using data from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology study (COPDGene®), we hypothesized that an integrated approach that includes environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, chest CT imaging and spirometry better defines disease and captures the likelihood of progression of respiratory obstruction and mortality. Methods: Four key disease characteristics - environmental exposure (cigarette smoking), clinical symptoms (dyspnea and/or chronic bronchitis), chest CT imaging abnormalities (emphysema, gas trapping and/or airway wall thickening), and abnormal spirometry - were evaluated in a group of 8784 current and former smokers who were participants in COPDGene® Phase 1. Using these 4 disease characteristics, 8 categories of participants were identified and evaluated for odds of spirometric disease progression (FEV1 > 350 ml loss over 5 years), and the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was examined. Results: Using smokers without symptoms, CT imaging abnormalities or airflow obstruction as the reference population, individuals were classified as Possible COPD, Probable COPD and Definite COPD. Current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria would diagnose 4062 (46%) of the 8784 study participants with COPD. The proposed COPDGene® 2019 diagnostic criteria would add an additional 3144 participants. Under the new criteria, 82% of the 8784 study participants would be diagnosed with Possible, Probable or Definite COPD. These COPD groups showed increased risk of disease progression and mortality. Mortality increased in patients as the number of their COPD characteristics increased, with a maximum hazard ratio for all cause-mortality of 5.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.15-6.48) in those with all 4 disease characteristics. Conclusions: A substantial portion of smokers with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities do not manifest spirometric obstruction as defined by population normals. These individuals are at significant risk of death and spirometric disease progression. We propose to redefine the diagnosis of COPD through an integrated approach using environmental exposure, clinical symptoms, CT imaging and spirometric criteria. These expanded criteria offer the potential to stimulate both current and future interventions that could slow or halt disease progression in patients before disability or irreversible lung structural changes develop.

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