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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676952

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is a neglected infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus species, affecting millions of people, in several countries. The current available treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has presented many side effects. In this way, micro- and nanotechnology are important processes, since they may be useful for release profile modulation of CL drugs improving their bioavailability. Amphotericin B (AmB) is a macrolide antibiotic used as a second-choice treatment. This study aimed the development of oil-water nanoemulsions (NEs) containing AmB for topical administration to treat CL. Furthermore, NEs were characterized by their droplet size, morphology, drug content, stability, in vitro release profile, and ex vivo skin permeation. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity using Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was also evaluated. NEs containing AmB presented droplet size lower than 60 nm with a polydispersity index lower than 0.5. The best AmB-NEs were submitted to stability tests and these formulations presented excellent results after 365 days under refrigeration, confirming the maintenance of the drug content higher than 95%. AmB-NEs displayed slow and controlled AmB kinetic release and low skin permeation. These formulations presented lower cytotoxicity in comparison with free AmB and higher anti-leishmanial effect against L. amazonensis promastigotes. Therefore, the selected AmB-NE formulations, especially AmB-NE01, presented promising results as novel alternatives for CL treatment. Graphical abstract.

2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 215, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a hemiparasitic plant traditionally used in complementary cancer treatment. Its antitumor potential is mostly attributed to the presence of aqueous soluble metabolites; however, the use of ethanol as solvent also permits the extraction of pharmacological compounds with antitumor potential. The clinical efficacy of mistletoe therapy inspired the present work, which focuses on ethanolic extracts (V. album "mother tinctures", MT) prepared from different host trees. METHODS: Samples from three European subspecies (album, austriacum, and abietis) were harvested, and five different V. album-MT strains were prepared. The following phytochemical analyses were performed: thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The proliferation assay was performed with WST-1 after incubation of tumor (Yoshida and Molt-4) and fibroblast cell lines (NIH/3 T3) with different MT concentrations (0.5 to 0.05% v/v). The cell death mechanism was investigated by flow cytometry (FACS) using Annexin V-7AAD. RESULTS: Chemical analyses of MT showed the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans. The MT flavonoid and viscotoxin contents (mg/g fresh weight) were highest in Quercus robur (9.67 ± 0.85 mg/g) and Malus domestica (3.95 ± 0.58 mg/mg), respectively. The viscotoxin isoform proportions (% total) were also different among the VA subspecies with a higher content of A3 in V. album growing on Abies alba (60.57 ± 2.13). The phytochemical compounds as well as the viscotoxin contents are probably related to the antitumor effects of MT. The cell death mechanisms evaluated by colorimetric and FACS methodologies involved necrotic damage, which was host tree-, time- and dose- dependent, with different selectivity to tumor cells. Mother tincture from V. album ssp. abietis was the most effective at inducing in vitro cellular effects, even when incubated at the smallest concentration tested, probably because of the higher content of VT A3. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate the promising antitumor potential of Viscum album ethanolic extracts and the importance of botanical and phytochemical characterization for in vitro anti-proliferative effects.

3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17666, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1089217

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide and the natural products could be a source of bioactive compounds. Passiflora mucronata (PM) belongs to a very known vegetal genus, although, there are no studies about cytotoxic activity or isolated compounds. Different extracts from PM were obtained by liquid-liquid partition (P), Soxhlet (Sox) and supercritical fluid (SFE1-5) extraction techniques, being compared concerning their yields, chemical profile and cytotoxicity. The Sox extracts showed the highest yields (6.03%: hexane; 2.51%: dichloromethane) followed by SFE (from 4.34 to 1.63%) and partitions (1.06 and 2.26%). The hexane partition (HP) showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 cell line (IC50 = 18.72 µg.mL-1). From HP, the following compounds were identified and analysed its cytotoxic activities: β-amyrin (IC50 = 3.92 µg.mL-1), β-sitosterol (IC50 = 3.37 µg.mL-1), stigmasterol (IC50 = 3.31 µg.mL-1) and oleanolic acid. Stigmasterol induced about 75% of K562 total apoptosis. The compounds were tested against MA-104 cell line and the selective index (SI) attributed (SI >10 for all compounds). This indicates good selectivity to K562 cell line at the expense of MA-104. This is the first time, identifying those compounds to PM .

4.
Phytomedicine ; 58: 152869, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831467

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present randomized controlled clinical trial evaluated the efficacy of homeopathic medicines of Melissa officinalis (MO), Phytolacca decandra (PD), and the combination of both in the treatment of possible sleep bruxism (SB) in children. STUDY DESIGN: Patients (n = 52) (6.62 ± 1.79 years old) were selected based on the parents report of SB. The study comprised a crossover design that included 4 phases of 30-day treatment (Placebo; MO 12c; PD 12c; and MO 12c + PD 12c), with a wash-out period of 15 days between treatments. METHODS: At baseline and after each phase, the Visual Analogic Scale (VAS) was used as the primary outcome measure to evaluate the influence of treatments on the reduction of SB. The following additional outcome measures were used: a children's sleep diary with parent's/guardian's perceptions of their children's sleep quality, the trait of anxiety scale (TAS) to identify changes in children's anxiety profile, and side effects reports. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Post Hoc LSD test. RESULTS: Significant reduction of SB was observed in VAS after the use of Placebo (-1.72 ± 0.29), MO (-2.36 ± 0.36), PD (-1.44 ± 0.28) and MO + PD (-2.21 ± 0.30) compared to baseline (4.91 ± 1.87). MO showed better results compared to PD (p = 0.018) and Placebo (p = 0.050), and similar result compared to MO+PD (p = 0.724). The sleep diary results and TAS results were not influenced by any of the treatments. No side effects were observed after treatments. CONCLUSION: MO showed promising results in the treatment of possible sleep bruxism in children, while the association of PD did not improve MO results.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Melissa/química , Phytolacca/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bruxismo do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Autorrelato , Sono
5.
Homeopathy ; 108(1): 12-23, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the "silica hypothesis" formulated to explain homeopathy, the information of starting materials would be transferred to cells by silica nanoparticles detached from the glassware walls by serial dilution and agitation through epitaxy. We compared the biological activity, electrical current and silicon microparticle content (by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) of high dilutions (HDs) of arsenic prepared in plastic and glass vials to investigate the role of silica in their biological effects in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Co-cultures of macrophages and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were treated with different HDs of arsenic prepared in plastic and glass vials. Macrophage morphology, phagocytosis index, nitric oxide (NO), and cytokine production were evaluated. RESULTS: Measurable amounts of silicon microparticles were detected only in the HDs prepared in glass vials, but ultra-centrifugation eliminated them. Specific and non-specific results were observed. Non-specific pro-inflammatory effects were seen in all dilutions prepared in plastic vials, including elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO and macrophage phagocytic index. Only the 200th centesimal dilution of arsenic produced specific decrease in interleukin-6 production in macrophages, and it was independent of the vial type or the presence of microparticles of silica in the medicine samples. The nature of the vials had an impact on the electric flow in the respective fluids. CONCLUSION: The non-specific, pro-inflammatory effects might be attributed to organic residuals detached from the vials' plastic walls during manipulation. Instead, specific silica-independent effects of the homeopathic medicine can be attributed to the decrease of interleukin-6 after treatment with the 200th centesimal dilution of arsenic.


Assuntos
Arsenicais/isolamento & purificação , Condutividade Elétrica , Silício/isolamento & purificação , Citocinas/isolamento & purificação , Homeopatia/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/métodos
6.
Saudi Pharm J ; 26(3): 311-322, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556122

RESUMO

Cancer is one of the biggest problems in public health worldwide. Plants have been shown important role in anticancer research. Viscum album L. (Santalaceae), commonly known as mistletoe, is a semi-parasitic plant that grows on different host trees. In complementary medicine, extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L.) have been used in the treatment of cancer. The study was conducted to identify chemical composition and antitumor potential of Viscum album tinctures. Chemical analysis performed by high resolution chromatography equipped with high resolution mass spectrometer identified caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, sakuranetin, isosakuranetin, syringenin 4-O-glucoside, syringenin 4-O-apiosyl-glucoside, alangilignoside C and ligalbumoside A compounds. Some of these compounds are probably responsible for the reduction of tumoral cellular growth in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed that melanoma murine cells (B16F10) were more sensitive to V. album tinctures than human leukaemic cells (K562), besides non-tumoral cells (MA-104) had a much lower cytotoxicity to them. Apoptotic-like cells were observed under light microscopy and were confirmed by a typical DNA fragmentation pattern. Additionally, flow cytometry results using Annexin-V/FITC permitted to quantify increased expression of early and late apoptotic markers on tumoral cells, confirming augmented Sub G0 population, which was probably associated with a consistent decrease in G1, and an increase in S or G2/M populations. Results indicate the chemical composition of V. album tinctures influences the mechanisms of in vitro tumoral cell death, suggesting a potential use in cancer pharmacotherapy research.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 8363-8373, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29200848

RESUMO

This study aimed to synthesize and characterize nanoparticles (NPs) of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and evaluate their ability to incorporate plant extracts with antitumor activity and low dissolution in aqueous media. The extract used was n-hexane partition of the methanol extract of Piper cabralanum (PCA-HEX). PMMA NPs were obtained using the mini-emulsion method, which was able to encapsulate almost 100% of PCA-HEX. The synthesized polymeric particles presented with a size of 200 nm and a negative charge. Cytotoxicity tests by MTT and trypan blue assays showed that NPs without PCA-HEX did not kill leukemic cells (K562 cells). NPs containing PCA-HEX were able to enhance cell death when compared to pure extract. The results showed that PMMA NPs could be useful as a drug delivery system as they can enhance the antitumor activity of the PCA-HEX extract by more than 20-fold. PMMA NPs containing plant extracts with antitumor activities may be an alternative to control the evolution of diseases such as leukemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Emulsões/administração & dosagem , Hexanos/química , Humanos , Células K562 , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polimetil Metacrilato/química
8.
Homeopathy ; 106(3): 160-170, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A series of different experimental approaches was applied in Zincum metallicum (Zinc met.) samples and lactose controls. Experiments were designed to elucidate the effect of zinc trituration and dynamization on physicochemical properties of homeopathic formulations, using lactose as excipient. METHODS: Zinc met. potencies (Zinc met 1-3c) were triturated and dynamized using lactose as excipient, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Lactose samples (LAC 1-3c) were also prepared following the same protocol and used as controls. The samples were analyzed structurally by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and thermodynamically by Thermogravimetry (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). RESULTS: AAS analysis detected 97.0 % of zinc in the raw material, 0.75 % (Zinc met 1c) and 0.02% (Zinc met 2c). XRD analysis showed that inter-atomic crystalline spacing of lactose was not modified by dynamization. Amorphous and crystalline lactose spheres and particles, respectively, were observed by TEM in all samples, with mean size from 200 to 800 nm. EDX obtained with TEM identified zinc presence throughout the amorphous matter but individualized zinc particles were not observed. SEM images obtained from dynamized samples (LAC 1c and Zinc met 1c) with electron backscattering could not identify zinc metal grains. The dynamization process induced Derivatives of Thermal Gravimetric (DTg) peak modification, which was previously centered near 158°C to lactose, to a range from 140 to 170°C, suggesting the dynamization process modifies the temperature range of water aggregation. Thermal phenomena were analyzed and visualized by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) statistics. Both indicated that fusion enthalpy of dynamized samples (DynLAC 1-3c; DynZn 1-3c) increased 30.68 J/g in comparison to non-dynamized lactose (LAC; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested no structural changes due to the trituration and dynamization process. However, TG and DSC analyses permit the differentiation of dynamized and non-dynamized groups, suggesting the dynamization process induced a significant increase in the degradation heat. These results call for further calorimetric studies with other homeopathic dilutions and other methodologies, to better understand the dynamics of these systems.


Assuntos
Análise Diferencial Térmica/métodos , Homeopatia/métodos , Lactose/análise , Zinco/análise , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/métodos , Espectrometria por Raios X/métodos
9.
Cytokine ; 95: 97-101, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28254560

RESUMO

The prevalence of Th1/Th2 response, spleen changes and megakaryocytes were investigated in BALB/c mice (n=138) infected with Leishmania infantum, and treated with Leishmania infantum 30× (10-30) biotherapy - BioLi30×. We performed controlled experiments using 8-to-12-week-old mice, infected with 5×107L. infantum promastigotes, divided into eight groups: G1 (healthy), G2 (infected with L. infantum), G3 (BioLi30× pre-treated), G4 (BioLi30× pre/post-treated), G5 (BioLi30× post-treated), G6 (Water 30× post-treated), G7 (Antimonium crudum 30× post-treated) and G8 (Glucantime® post-treated). G3-G7 groups were orally treated with their respective drugs diluted in filtered water (1:10), and G8 received Glucantime® (0.6mg/100µl of PBS), intraperitoneally. Spleen fragments were submitted to double blind histopathological evaluation and the number of megakaryocytes was counted. Besides, animals' serum was measured after 49days of infection, and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12), as well as the Th1/Th2 correlation (IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-10), were analyzed. Spleen histological parameters were classified as: healthy appearance (G1); discreet (G3-G7), moderate (G2) and moderate to severe (G8) white pulp hyperplasia; proliferation of megakaryocytes (G2-G8), and intense disruption (G2-G8). All groups, except for G7, showed higher percentages of megakaryocytes per field ranging from 87% to 15%, when compared to healthy animals (G1). Th1 predominance in IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (comparing to G2) was detected in G4, G5, G6 and G7. Finally, pre/post (BioLi30x) and post-treatment (Antimonium crudum 30x) presented reduction of megakaryocytes/spleen changes due to immunomodulation animal process, controlling the infection process, probably by the Th1 cytokine predominance.


Assuntos
Homeopatia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/terapia , Megacariócitos/patologia , Baço/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2 , Células Th2/imunologia
10.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 38(2): 95-108, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27783424

RESUMO

Available treatments against human fungal pathogens present high levels of resistance, motivating the development of new antifungal therapies. In this context, the present work aimed to analyze direct electric current (DC) antifungal action, using an in vitro apparatus equipped with platinum electrodes. Candida albicans yeast cells were submitted to three distinct conditions of DC treatment (anodic flow-AF; electroionic flow-EIF; and cathodic flow-CF), as well as different charges, ranging from 0.03 to 2.40 C. Our results indicated C. albicans presented distinct sensibility depending on the DC intensity and polarity applied. Both the colony-forming unit assay and the cytometry flow with propidium iodide indicated a drastic reduction on cellular viability after AF treatment with 0.15 C, while CF- and EIF-treated cells stayed alive when DC doses were increased up to 2.40 C. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy revealed important ultrastructural alterations in AF-treated yeasts, including cell structure disorganization, ruptures in plasmatic membrane, and cytoplasmic rarefaction. This work emphasizes the importance of physical parameters (polarity and doses) in cellular damage, and brings new evidence for using electrotherapy to treat C. albicans pathology process. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:95-108, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/citologia , Eletricidade , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Eletrodos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Masculino , Viabilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Platina/química , Propídio/metabolismo
11.
Homeopathy ; 105(3): 257-264, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza affects thousands of people worldwide every year, motivating the development of new therapies. In this work, the effects of two homeopathic preparations (influenza biotherapies and thymulin) were chosen following two different rationales: isotherapy and endo-isotherapy models. The homeopathic effects were evaluated individually considering the inflammatory and behavioral responses against influenza virus antigen were studied in BALB/c mice. METHODS: Male adult mice were treated orally and blindly for 21 days with highly diluted influenza virus or with thymulin, and were divided in two sets of experiments. The first series of experiments aimed to describe their behavior, using an open field (OF) device. In the second series, mice were challenged subcutaneously with influenza hemagglutinin antigen (7 µg/200 µl) at day 21. At day 42, behavior and inflammation response were evaluated. RESULTS: No behavioral changes were seen in OF tests at any time point after treatments. Flow cytometry and morphometry revealed significant changes in T and B cell balance after influenza antigen challenge, varying according to treatment. CONCLUSION: The results show that both homeopathic treatments induced subtle changes in acquired immune anti-viral response regulation. A deeper understanding of the mechanism could elucidate their possible use in influenza epidemiological situations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Inflamação/terapia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/terapia , Fator Tímico Circulante/química , Animais , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Homeopatia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 111: 83-92, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27243447

RESUMO

Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.


Assuntos
Terapia por Estimulação Elétrica , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Eletrodos , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial
13.
Arch Oral Biol ; 59(9): 928-37, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24907522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SLPI on the growth and biological processes of Candida albicans. METHODS: Two C. albicans strains were used in this study, a clinical isolate resistant to fluconazole (PRI) and a reference strain ATCC 24433. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined according to the CLSI methodology. The influence of SLPI on secreted serine proteinase activities (SSP) was measured by the cleavage of specific substrate, and surface hydrophobicity was determined by the aqueous-hydrocarbon biphasic separation method. Flow cytometry was performed to investigate receptors for SLPI and variations in the cell wall mannoprotein expression. Interaction between yeast and epithelium was assessed using the MA-104 cells lineage. Ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: MIC values were calculated as 18 and 18.9µM for the PRI and ATCC 24433, respectively. SSP activity was reduced by 48.8% by 18µM of SLPI and cell surface hydrophobicity increased by 11.1%. Flow cytometry suggest the existence of SLPI binding sites on the surface of the yeast. Results showed a reduction in the expression of mannoproteins in 20.8% by the cells treated with 80µM of SLPI, and 18µM reduced the adhesion of yeasts to mammalian cells in 60.1%. TEM revealed ultrastructural changes in cells treated with 80µM of SLPI, such as the presence of membrane-like structures within the cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS: SLPI exerts a significant influence on C. albicans viability and biological processes. Considering its constitutive and physiologic features, SLPI may become a promising tool for the development of new methodologies for the treatment and control of candidiasis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidor Secretado de Peptidases Leucocitárias/farmacologia , Fenômenos Biológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/ultraestrutura , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Citometria de Fluxo , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica , Nistatina/farmacologia
14.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 25(2): 223-34, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23592904

RESUMO

Electrochemical treatment is an alternative modality for tumor treatment based on the application of a low intensity direct electric current to the tumor tissue through two or more platinum electrodes placed within the tumor zone or in the surrounding areas. This treatment is noted for its great effectiveness, minimal invasiveness and local effect. Several studies have been conducted worldwide to evaluate the antitumoral effect of this therapy. In all these studies a variety of biochemical and physiological responses of tumors to the applied treatment have been obtained. By this reason, researchers have suggested various mechanisms to explain how direct electric current destroys tumor cells. Although, it is generally accepted this treatment induces electrolysis, electroosmosis and electroporation in tumoral tissues. However, action mechanism of this alternative modality on the tumor tissue is not well understood. Although the principle of Electrochemical treatment is simple, a standardized method is not yet available. The mechanism by which Electrochemical treatment affects tumor growth and survival may represent more complex process. The present work analyzes the latest and most important research done on the electrochemical treatment of tumors. We conclude with our point of view about the destruction mechanism features of this alternative therapy. Also, we suggest some mechanisms and strategies from the thermodynamic point of view for this therapy. In the area of Electrochemical treatment of cancer this tool has been exploited very little and much work remains to be done. Electrochemical treatment constitutes a good therapeutic option for patients that have failed the conventional oncology methods.

15.
Homeopathy ; 102(1): 31-40, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23290877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses cause highly contagious acute respiratory illnesses with significant mortality, especially among young children, elderly people, and individuals with serious medical conditions. This encourages the development of new treatments for human flu. Biotherapies are diluted solutions prepared from biological products compounded following homeopathic procedures. OBJECTIVES: To develop a biotherapy prepared from the infectious influenza A virus (A/Aichi/2/68 H3N2) and to verify its in vitro response. METHODS: The ultradiluted influenza virus solution was prepared in the homeopathic dilution 30dH, it was termed Influenzinum RC. The cellular alterations induced by this preparation were analyzed by optical and electron microscopy, MTT and neutral red assays. Glycolytic metabolism (PFK-1) was studied by spectrophotometric assay. Additionally, the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) by J774.G8 macrophage cells was quantified by ELISA before and after infection with H3N2 influenza virus and treatment. RESULTS: Influenzinum RC did not cause cytotoxic effects but induced morphological alterations in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. After 30 days, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mitosis rate was detected compared to control. MDCK mitochondrial activity was changed after treatment for 10 and 30 days. Treatment significantly diminished (p < 0.05) PFK-1 activity. TNF-α in biotherapy-stimulated J774.G8 macrophages indicated a significant (p < 0.05) increase in this cytokine when the cell supernatant was analyzed. CONCLUSION: Influenzinum RC altered cellular and biochemical features of MDCK and J774G8 cells.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/fisiologia , Animais , Terapia Biológica , Linhagem Celular/virologia , Cães , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitose , Fosfofrutoquinase-1/metabolismo , Soluções/análise , Espectrofotometria , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo) ; 76(3/4): 20-22, 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-716557

RESUMO

Introdução: O gênero Candida spp é responsável por cerca de 80% das infecções fúngicas no ambiente hospitalar e constitui causa relevante de infecções sistêmicas em pacientes hospitalizados, especialmente em doentes graves e em imunocomprometidos, com predominância da Candida albicans. A adesão das leveduras às células epiteliais do hospedeiro é um potente estimulador para a formação de hifas, forma invasiva do fungo [1]. Os bioterápicos são medicamentos preparados a partir de produtos biológicos, elaborados conforme a Farmacopeia Homeopática Brasileira (FHB)[2], indicados para tratamento de infecções de etiologia conhecida, empregados com grande sucesso no tratamento clínico destas infecções. Os bioterápicos RC, desenvolvidos pelo médico brasileiro Roberto Costa (RC) são preparados a partir do agente etiológico íntegro e, segundo suas pesquisas, possuem maior capacidade de estimular o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro.


Assuntos
Bioterápicos , Bioterápicos/isolamento & purificação , Respiração Celular , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação
17.
J Med Microbiol ; 61(Pt 4): 463-9, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22116983

RESUMO

Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an unusually virulent coagulase-negative species, which causes serious infection similar to S. aureus. We evaluated the expression of virulence factors such as S. lugdunensis synergistic haemolysin (SLUSH), fibrinogen-binding protein (Fbl), biofilm production and biofilm-production-related genes in 23 S. lugdunensis clinical isolates and one type strain that had been previously characterized for their genotypes. In addition, the biofilm composition and the ability of isolates to adhere to and invade human epithelial lung cells were also investigated. The PCR method used detected the presence of slush and intercellular adhesin (ica) virulence genes in all isolates. All isolates produced the Fbl protein and, with the exception of the type strain, all isolates produced the SLUSH haemolysin. Fourteen (60.9 %) isolates produced biofilms. The detachment assay, using sodium metaperiodate or proteolytic enzymes to analyse the biofilm composition, showed protein-mediated biofilms in two representative isolates, one for each colony type (rough and smooth). All strongly biofilm-producing isolates, including three with rough colony morphology, had the same prevalent PFGE pattern. However, among the representative strains tested, only the S. lugdunensis isolate that formed rough colonies was able to adhere to and invade A549 cell monolayers in the same quantities as those observed with S. aureus isolates (P = 1.000). No significant adhesion or invasion was observed for the other isolates in comparison with the S. aureus isolate, independent of biofilm production or clonality. Our results could explain the incredible ability of this pathogen to cause infections that are as aggressive as S. aureus. In addition, the ability of S. lugdunensis to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells was also noticed for isolates with rough colony morphology, reinforcing the increased virulence in this species.


Assuntos
Aderência Bacteriana/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/citologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/genética , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus lugdunensis/fisiologia
18.
Bioelectromagnetics ; 33(4): 334-45, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22012884

RESUMO

The literature shows that the effects of direct electric currents on biological material are numerous, including bactericidal, fungicidal, parasiticidal, and anti-tumoral, among others. Non-pathogenic trypanosomatids, such as Herpetomonas samuelpessoai, have emerged as important models for the study of basic biological processes performed by a eukaryotic cell. The present study reports a dose-dependent anti-protozoan effect of direct electric treatment with both cathodic and anodic current flows on H. samuelpessoai cells. The damaging effects can be attributable to the electrolysis products generated during electric stimulation. The pH of the cell suspension was progressively augmented from 7.4 to 10.5 after the cathodic treatment. In contrast, the anodic treatment caused a pH decrease varying from 7.4 to 6.5. Transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed profound alterations in vital cellular structures (e.g., mitochondrion, kinetoplast, flagellum, flagellar pocket, nucleus, and plasma membrane) after exposure to both cathodic and anodic current flows. Specifically, cathodic current flow treatment induced the appearance of autophagic-like structures on parasite cells, while those submitted to an anodic current flow presented marked disorganization of plasma membrane and necrotic appearance. However, parasites treated in the intermediary chamber (without contact with the electrodes) did not present significant changes in viability or morphology, and no pH variation was detected in this system. The use of H. samuelpessoai as a biological model and the direct electric current experimental approach used in our study provide important information for understanding the mechanisms involved in the cytotoxic effects of this physical agent.


Assuntos
Condutividade Elétrica/efeitos adversos , Trypanosomatina/ultraestrutura , Sobrevivência Celular , Trypanosomatina/citologia
19.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 174-176, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10676

RESUMO

In Brazil, homeopathy was implemented in the Public Health Service through the National Policy on Complementary and Integrative Practices of the Health Ministry, published in 2006. Homeopathy appears as a very interesting therapy to be used in the Public Health Services since its medicines are compounded at a very low cost. Considering this interesting scenario to develop research in the Public Health, the Family Health Program (FHP) in Petropolis and the Faculty of Pharmacy at UFRJ started a partnership with the Roberto Costa Institute.(AU)


No Brasil, a homeopatia foi implementada no Serviço Público de Saúde, através da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares do Ministério da Saúde, publicada em 2006. A homeopatia surge como uma terapia muito interessante para ser usada no serviço público de saúde uma vez que seus medicamentos tem um custo muito baixo. Considerando este cenário interessante para desenvolver uma pesquisa em Saúde Pública, o Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF) de Petrópolis e a Faculdade de Farmácia da UFRJ iniciaram uma parceria com o Instituto Roberto Costa. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Bioterápicos , Complexos Farmacêuticos Homeopáticos , Infecções Respiratórias
20.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 10(36): 283-285, september 30, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: hom-10682

RESUMO

Introduction: Homeopathy is a pharmaceutical and medical specialty practiced in Brazil since 1840 and known by the Federal Council of Medicine since 1980. The homeopathic pharmacy is a recognized part of the pharmaceutical profession regulated and supervised by the Federal Council of Pharmacy (CFF) and the Regional Councils of Pharmacy throughout Brazil (CFF 319/97 and CFF 440/05). Despite the existence of a Federal Law (number 1552, published in 1952) which implemented the teaching of ?Notions of Homeopathic Pharmaceutical Techniques? in all colleges of pharmacy, these lectures are still not present in the majority of Brazilian Pharmacy curricula. This reluctance in the implementation of the teaching of homeopathy consists in an obstacle to the formation of new pharmaceutical homeopaths in Rio de Janeiro. Aim: To evaluate how the teaching of homeopathy is being taught in undergraduate courses in pharmacy in Rio de Janeiro and register through a specific questionnaire, the students' interest, as well as the availability of internships in the of homeopathy. Methodology: The survey was started in May 2011 with a sample of ten pharmacy colleges in the state of Rio de Janeiro (UNIG, UNIGRANRIO, UNIABEU, UNIPLI, Universo Niterói, Universo São Gonçalo, UFRJ, UNISUAM, Estácio de Sá and UFF). A specific previously developed questionnaire was applied to undergraduate students to register their interest and availability for internships in the of homeopathy. Moreover, the students were interviewed for relevant information about their interests in the area of homeopathy. Results: Preliminary results showed that 57% of the respondents presented interest so far in qualifying in homeopathy pharmacy, 32% of them did not show any interest in the area and 11% reported not having a definite position. Regarding working with homeopathy, 51% expressed interest in working in this area, 36% showed no interest and 13% were indecisive. As far as conducting a refresher course in homeopathy, 57% showed interest, 35% showed no interest and 8% expressed no definite opinion. The traineeship of at least 240 hours, required by the Federal Council of Pharmacy to all pharmacists who wish to assume responsibility for technical laboratory or industrial homeopathic pharmacy, has not been offered by the majority of Pharmacy Faculties, considering that 89% of the respondents have not done this traineeship. Data collection will be finished by the second half of June.Conclusion: The spread of homeopathy should be done from the beginning of the undergraduate course in pharmacy to evoke the interest in the discipline, especially in colleges where it is not compulsory. Most of interviewed students were not informed about the legal obligation of the training in the laboratory or pharmacy of homeopathy. Almost all colleges used in this study do not provide the internship for the students who show an interest in homeopathy. This scenario draws our attention to the necessity of new projects that enable a comprehensive and systematic teaching of homeopathy, providing new possibilities for homeopathic professional activities.(AU)


Introdução: A homeopatia é uma especialidade médica e farmacêutica praticada no Brasil desde 1840 e reconhecida pelo Conselho Federal de Medicina desde 1980. A farmácia homeopática é uma parte reconhecida da profissão farmacêutica regulada e supervisionada pelo Conselho Federal de Farmácia (CFF) e os conselhos regionais de farmácia em todo o Brasil (CFF 319/97 e CFF 440/05). Apesar da existência de uma Lei Federal (número 1552, publicada em 1952), que implementou o ensino de "Noções de Farmacotécnica Homeopática" em todas as faculdades de farmácia, esta disciplina ainda não está presente na maioria dos currículos de Farmácia do Brasil. Esta relutância na implementação do ensino da homeopatia consiste em um obstáculo para a formação de novos farmacêuticos homeopatas no Rio de Janeiro. Objetivo: Mostrar como o ensino da homeopatia está sendo ministrado em cursos de graduação em farmácia no Rio de Janeiro e registrar através de um questionário específico, o interesse dos alunos, bem como a disponibilidade de estágios na área de homeopatia. Metodologia: A pesquisa foi iniciada em maio de 2011, com uma amostra de dez faculdades de farmácia no estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIG, UNIGRANRIO, UNIABEU, UNIPLI, UNIVERSO Niterói, UNIVERSO São Gonçalo, UFRJ, UNISUAM, ESTÁCIO DE SÁ e UFF). Um questionário específico desenvolvido anteriormente foi aplicado a alunos de graduação para registrar seu interesse e disponibilidade para estágios na área de homeopatia. Além disso, os alunos foram entrevistados para obter informações relevantes sobre os seus interesses na área da homeopatia. Resultados: Os resultados preliminares mostraram que 57% dos entrevistados apresentaram até agora o interesse na qualificação em farmácia homeopática, 32% deles não mostrou qualquer interesse na área e 11% relataram não ter uma posição definitiva. Ao trabalhar com a homeopatia, 51% manifestaram interesse em trabalhar nesta área, 36% não mostrou nenhum interesse e 13% estavam indecisos. No que diz respeito à realização de um curso de reciclagem em homeopatia, 57% mostraram interesse, 35% não mostraram interesse e 8% não expressou nenhuma opinião definitiva. O estágio profissional de pelo menos 240 horas, exigido pelo Conselho Federal de Farmácia a todos os farmacêuticos que desejam assumir a responsabilidade técnica em farmácia ou laboratório industrial homeopáticos não vem sendo viabilizado pela maioria das Faculdades de Farmácia, considerando que 89% dos entrevistados não realizaram até o momento este estágio curricular obrigatório. A coleta de dados deverá estar concluída até a segunda metade de junho.Conclusão: A divulgação da homeopatia deve ser feita desde o início do curso de graduação em farmácia para evocar o interesse na disciplina, especialmente em escolas onde não é obrigatório. A maioria dos alunosentrevistados não foi informada sobre a obrigação legal do treinamento no laboratório de farmácia de homeopatia. Quase todas as faculdades utilizadas neste estudo não oferecem o estágio para os alunos que demonstram interesse em homeopatia. Este cenário, chama a nossa atenção para a necessidade de novos projetos que permitam um ensino abrangente e sistemático da homeopatia, oferecendo novas possibilidades para as atividades profissionais.(AU)


Assuntos
Farmácia Homeopática , Educação Superior , Instituições de Ensino Superior
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