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1.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 104, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077240

RESUMO

After publication of this article [1], it is noticed reference no. 17 was incorrectly provided, details are shown below.

3.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 12, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS: Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS: We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação INDEL , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Masculino , Hipotonia Muscular/patologia , Síndrome de Smith-Magenis/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

5.
J Hand Surg Eur Vol ; : 1753193418807375, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380990

RESUMO

Cleft hand or split hand foot malformation is a sequence of phenotypes, from a minor shortening of the central digit to a complete absence of the third ray and in the most severe cases, absence of two, three or four rays. It is a rare but spectacular presentation usually involving both hands and feet. Inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant but sporadic cases without family history are also reported, resulting from a de novo mutation/deletion/duplication. Intra-familial clinical variability is the rule, with incomplete penetrance. X-linked or autosomal recessive inheritance has also been described. To date, seven subgroups of split hand foot malformation have been identified and seven loci are currently known. Anatomical records have enhanced our knowledge of this group of disorders of the hands and feet and allowed us to improve surgical procedures and long-term outcome.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1246-1261, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924900

RESUMO

Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by scalp aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and transverse terminal limb defects (TTLD). Autosomal dominant forms of AOS are linked to mutations in ARHGAP31, DLL4, NOTCH1 or RBPJ, while DOCK6 and EOGT underlie autosomal recessive inheritance. Data on the frequency and distribution of mutations in large cohorts are currently limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to comprehensively examine the genetic architecture of AOS in an extensive cohort. Molecular diagnostic screening of 194 AOS/ACC/TTLD probands/families was conducted using next-generation and/or capillary sequencing analyses. In total, we identified 63 (likely) pathogenic mutations, comprising 56 distinct and 22 novel mutations, providing a molecular diagnosis in 30% of patients. Taken together with previous reports, these findings bring the total number of reported disease variants to 63, with a diagnostic yield of 36% in familial cases. NOTCH1 is the major contributor, underlying 10% of AOS/ACC/TTLD cases, with DLL4 (6%), DOCK6 (6%), ARHGAP31 (3%), EOGT (3%), and RBPJ (2%) representing additional causality in this cohort. We confirm the relevance of genetic screening across the AOS/ACC/TTLD spectrum, highlighting preliminary but important genotype-phenotype correlations. This cohort offers potential for further gene identification to address missing heritability.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 47, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS) (#OMIM 102500) is a rare, autosomal dominant condition that presents in early childhood. It is caused by mutations in the terminal exon of NOTCH2, which encodes the transmembrane NOTCH2 receptor. This pathway is involved in the coupled processes of bone formation and resorption. The skeletal features of HCS include acro-osteolysis of the digits and osteoporosis commonly affecting vertebrae and long bones. Fractures are a prominent feature and are associated with significant morbidity. There is no specific treatment, but with both acro-osteolysis and generalized osteoporosis, it is possible that anti-resorptive treatment might be of benefit. However, to date only a few case reports have evaluated the effectiveness of bisphosphonate treatment. METHODS: We describe the clinical features, treatment regimens and response to bisphosphonate treatment in 7 newly described patients aged 6-39 with HCS, and pooled the data with that from 8 previously published cases (a total of 17 courses of treatment in 15 individuals). RESULTS: The mean lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) z-score before treatment was - 2.9 (SD 1.2). In 14 courses of treatment (82%), there was an increase in BMD with bisphosphonate treatment, but the impact (in terms of change in spinal BMD z-score) appeared to be less with advancing age (p = 0.01). There was no evidence that acro-osteolysis was prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Although individual response is variable and age-related, the data support a role for bisphosphonates in preventing or treating spinal osteoporosis in HCS, but bone loss from the lumbar spine may be rapid after cessation.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 287-292, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255276

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder mainly due to de novo and private truncating mutations of CHD7 gene. Here we report an intriguing hot spot of intronic mutations (c.5405-7G > A, c.5405-13G > A, c.5405-17G > A and c.5405-18C > A) located in CHD7 IVS25. Combining computational in silico analysis, experimental branch-point determination and in vitro minigene assays, our study explains this mutation hot spot by a particular genomic context, including the weakness of the IVS25 natural acceptor-site and an unconventional lariat sequence localized outside the common 40 bp upstream the acceptor splice site. For each of the mutations reported here, bioinformatic tools indicated a newly created 3' splice site, of which the existence was confirmed using pSpliceExpress, an easy-to-use and reliable splicing reporter tool. Our study emphasizes the idea that combining these two complementary approaches could increase the efficiency of routine molecular diagnosis.

10.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 432-440, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28258187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collagens are one of the major constituents of the pial membrane, which plays a crucial role in neuronal migration and cortical lamination during brain development. Type III procollagen, the chains of which are encoded by COL3A1, is the ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56), also known as adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1. Bi-allelic mutations in GPR56 give rise to cobblestone-like malformation, white matter changes and cerebellar dysplasia. This report shows that bi-allelic mutations in COL3A1 are associated with a similar phenotype. METHODS: Exome analysis was performed in a family consisting of two affected and two non-affected siblings. Brain imaging studies of this family and of two previously reported individuals with bi-allelic mutations in COL3A1 were reviewed. Functional assays were performed on dermal fibroblasts. RESULTS: Exome analysis revealed a novel homozygous variant c.145C>G (p.Pro49Ala) in exon 2 of COL3A1. Brain MRI in the affected siblings as well as in the two previously reported individuals with bi-allelic COL3A1 mutations showed a brain phenotype similar to that associated with mutations in GPR56. CONCLUSION: Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in COL3A1 are associated with cobblestone-like malformation in all three families reported to date. The variability of the phenotype across patients suggests that genetic alterations in distinct domains of type III procollagen can lead to different outcomes. The presence of cobblestone-like malformation in patients with bi-allelic COL3A1 mutations emphasises the critical role of the type III collagen-GPR56 axis and the pial membrane in the regulation of brain development and cortical lamination.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Cistos/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Alelos , Células Cultivadas , Doenças Cerebelares/genética , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistos/patologia , Exoma/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Ligantes , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/patologia , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(12): 3133-3137, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27642715

RESUMO

Acrofacial dysostosis syndrome of Rodriguez is characterized by severe mandibular underdevelopment, upper limb phocomelia with absent fingers, absent fibulae, cleft palate, microtia, and abnormal pulmonary function. First reported in three siblings it was assumed to be an autosomal recessive condition. However, subsequent publication reported a further five simplex occurrences and a living patient with a heterozygous mutation in the SF3B4 gene. Exome sequencing was performed on four fetuses with this disorder, including one of the originally described affected siblings. We identified two heterozygous frameshift mutations in the SF3B4 gene in three of the four fetuses investigated. The observed mutation was apparently de novo in one fetus for whom parental DNA was available. Thus, Acrofacial dysostosis syndrome of Rodriguez is an autosomal dominant condition and the recurrences identified in the initial report were likely due to gonadal mosaicism. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Fatores de Processamento de RNA/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Feto , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Irmãos
12.
Clin Dysmorphol ; 25(4): 135-45, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27465822

RESUMO

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, broad thumbs and great toes, intellectual disability and characteristic craniofacial appearance. Mutations in CREBBP account for around 55% of cases, with a further 8% attributed to the paralogous gene EP300. Comparatively few reports exist describing the phenotype of Rubinstein-Taybi because of EP300 mutations. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from nine patients from the UK and Ireland with pathogenic EP300 mutations, identified either by targeted testing or by exome sequencing. All patients had mild or moderate intellectual impairment. Behavioural or social difficulties were noted in eight patients, including three with autistic spectrum disorders. Typical dysmorphic features of Rubinstein-Taybi were only variably present. Additional observations include maternal pre-eclampsia (2/9), syndactyly (3/9), feeding or swallowing issues (3/9), delayed bone age (2/9) and scoliosis (2/9). Six patients had truncating mutations in EP300, with pathogenic missense mutations identified in the remaining three. The findings support previous observations that microcephaly, maternal pre-eclampsia, mild growth restriction and a mild to moderate intellectual disability are key pointers to the diagnosis of EP300-related RTS. Variability in the presence of typical facial features of Rubinstein-Taybi further highlights clinical heterogeneity, particularly among patients identified by exome sequencing. Features that overlap with Floating-Harbor syndrome, including craniofacial dysmorphism and delayed osseous maturation, were observed in three patients. Previous reports have only described mutations predicted to cause haploinsufficiency of EP300, whereas this cohort includes the first described pathogenic missense mutations in EP300.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Rubinstein-Taybi/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 44-50, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25898926

RESUMO

Nail-Patella Syndrome (NPS) is a rare autosomal dominant condition comprising nail and skeletal anomalies. Skeletal features include dysplastic patellae and iliac horns, as well as scapula and elbow dysplasia. Nephropathy and glaucoma or intra-ocular hypertension can sometimes be present. NPS is due to variants affecting function in LMX1B, which encodes a LIM-homeodomain protein critical for limb, kidney and eye development. We describe the phenotype and the molecular data of 55 index patients and their 39 relatives presenting with typical NPS. We identified 38 different LMX1B anomalies, 19 of which were not reported before. In our series, 9% of families are not carriers of a LMX1B genomic alteration after extensive study of the coding and non-coding regions of the gene. One of the families showed no linkage to the LMX1B locus, raising the hypothesis of a genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Glaucoma/genética , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Síndrome da Unha-Patela/genética , Nefrite Hereditária/genética , Hipertensão Ocular/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Éxons , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genes Dominantes , Glaucoma/patologia , Humanos , Ílio/anormalidades , Ílio/metabolismo , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Unha-Patela/patologia , Unhas/metabolismo , Unhas/patologia , Nefrite Hereditária/patologia , Hipertensão Ocular/patologia , Patela/anormalidades , Patela/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Escápula/anormalidades , Escápula/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 37-43, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25782671

RESUMO

The expression gradient of the morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is crucial in establishing the number and the identity of the digits during anteroposterior patterning of the limb. Its anterior ectopic expression is responsible for preaxial polydactyly (PPD). Most of these malformations are due to the gain-of-function of the Zone of Polarizing Activity Regulatory Sequence, the only limb-specific enhancer of SHH known to date. We report a family affected with a novel condition associating PPD and hypertrichosis of the upper back, following an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. This phenotype is consistent with deregulation of SHH expression during limb and follicle development. In affected members, we identified a 2 kb deletion located ~240 kb upstream from the SHH promoter. The deleted sequence is capable of repressing the transcriptional activity of the SHH promoter in vitro, consistent with a silencer activity. We hypothesize that the deletion of this silencer could be responsible for SHH deregulation during development, leading to a PPD-hypertrichosis phenotype.


Assuntos
Sequência de Bases , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Hipertricose/genética , Polidactilia/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Elementos Silenciadores Transcricionais , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Dedos/anormalidades , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes Dominantes , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hipertricose/etnologia , Hipertricose/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/etnologia , Polidactilia/patologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Hum Mutat ; 36(8): 743-52, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25907713

RESUMO

Dent disease is a rare X-linked tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis and/or nephrolithiasis, progressive renal failure, and variable manifestations of other proximal tubule dysfunctions. It often progresses over a few decades to chronic renal insufficiency, and therefore molecular characterization is important to allow appropriate genetic counseling. Two genetic subtypes have been described to date: Dent disease 1 is caused by mutations of the CLCN5 gene, coding for the chloride/proton exchanger ClC-5; and Dent disease 2 by mutations of the OCRL gene, coding for the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase OCRL-1. Herein, we review previously reported mutations (n = 192) and their associated phenotype in 377 male patients with Dent disease 1 and describe phenotype and novel (n = 42) and recurrent mutations (n = 24) in a large cohort of 117 Dent disease 1 patients belonging to 90 families. The novel missense and in-frame mutations described were mapped onto a three-dimensional homology model of the ClC-5 protein. This analysis suggests that these mutations affect the dimerization process, helix stability, or transport. The phenotype of our cohort patients supports and extends the phenotype that has been reported in smaller studies.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/genética , Doença de Dent/genética , Mutação , Animais , Canais de Cloreto/química , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Dent/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Linhagem
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 167A(3): 461-75, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25604898

RESUMO

Type 2 collagen disorders encompass a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias that are commonly associated with orthopedic, ocular, and hearing problems. However, the frequency of many clinical features has never been determined. We retrospectively investigated the clinical, radiological, and genotypic data in a group of 93 patients with molecularly confirmed SEDC or a related disorder. The majority of the patients (80/93) had short stature, with radiological features of SEDC (n = 64), others having SEMD (n = 5), Kniest dysplasia (n = 7), spondyloperipheral dysplasia (n = 2), or Torrance-like dysplasia (n = 2). The remaining 13 patients had normal stature with mild SED, Stickler-like syndrome or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Over 50% of the patients had undergone orthopedic surgery, usually for scoliosis, femoral osteotomy or hip replacement. Odontoid hypoplasia was present in 56% (95% CI 38-74) and a correlation between odontoid hypoplasia and short stature was observed. Atlanto-axial instability, was observed in 5 of the 18 patients (28%, 95% CI 10-54) in whom flexion-extension films of the cervical spine were available; however, it was rarely accompanied by myelopathy. Myopia was found in 45% (95% CI 35-56), and retinal detachment had occurred in 12% (95% CI 6-21; median age 14 years; youngest age 3.5 years). Thirty-two patients complained of hearing loss (37%, 95% CI 27-48) of whom 17 required hearing aids. The ophthalmological features and possibly also hearing loss are often relatively frequent and severe in patients with splicing mutations. Based on clinical findings, age at onset and genotype-phenotype correlations in this cohort, we propose guidelines for the management and follow-up in this group of disorders.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo II/genética , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/congênito , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Radiografia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Med Genet ; 58(3): 140-7, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25596525

RESUMO

Proximal region of chromosome 15 long arm is rich in duplicons that, define five breakpoints (BP) for 15q rearrangements. 15q11.2 microdeletion between BP1 and BP2 has been previously associated with developmental delay and atypical psychological patterns. This region contains four highly-conserved and non-imprinted genes: NIPA1, NIPA2, CYFIP1, TUBGCP5. Our goal was to investigate the phenotypes associated with this microdeletion in a cohort of 52 patients. This copy number variation (CNV) was prevalent in 0.8% patients presenting with developmental delay, psychological pattern issues and/or multiple congenital malformations. This was studied by array-CGH at six different French Genetic laboratories. We collected data from 52 unrelated patients (including 3 foetuses) after excluding patients with an associated genetic alteration (known CNV, aneuploidy or known monogenic disease). Out of 52 patients, mild or moderate developmental delay was observed in 68.3%, 85.4% had speech impairment and 63.4% had psychological issues such as Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder, Autistic Spectrum Disorder or Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Seizures were noted in 18.7% patients and associated congenital heart disease in 17.3%. Parents were analysed for abnormalities in the region in 65.4% families. Amongst these families, 'de novo' microdeletions were observed in 18.8% and 81.2% were inherited from one of the parents. Incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity were observed amongst the patients. Our results support the hypothesis that 15q11.2 (BP1-BP2) microdeletion is associated with developmental delay, abnormal behaviour, generalized epilepsy and congenital heart disease. The later feature has been rarely described. Incomplete penetrance and variability of expression demands further assessment and studies.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Cardiopatias/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Criança , Transtornos Globais do Desenvolvimento Infantil/genética , Pré-Escolar , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cardiopatias/congênito , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(8): 1010-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25351778

RESUMO

6q16 deletions have been described in patients with a Prader-Willi-like (PWS-like) phenotype. Recent studies have shown that certain rare single-minded 1 (SIM1) loss-of-function variants were associated with a high intra-familial risk for obesity with or without features of PWS-like syndrome. Although SIM1 seems to have a key role in the phenotype of patients carrying 6q16 deletions, some data support a contribution of other genes, such as GRIK2, to explain associated behavioural problems. We describe 15 new patients in whom de novo 6q16 deletions were characterised by comparative genomic hybridisation or single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis, including the first patient with fetopathological data. This fetus showed dysmorphic facial features, cerebellar and cerebral migration defects with neuronal heterotopias, and fusion of brain nuclei. The size of the deletion in the 14 living patients ranged from 1.73 to 7.84 Mb, and the fetus had the largest deletion (14 Mb). Genotype-phenotype correlations confirmed the major role for SIM1 haploinsufficiency in obesity and the PWS-like phenotype. Nevertheless, only 8 of 13 patients with SIM1 deletion exhibited obesity, in agreement with incomplete penetrance of SIM1 haploinsufficiency. This study in the largest series reported to date confirms that the PWS-like phenotype is strongly linked to 6q16.2q16.3 deletions and varies considerably in its clinical expression. The possible involvement of other genes in the 6q16.2q16.3-deletion phenotype is discussed.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Obesidade/genética , Penetrância , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Feto Abortado , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 6/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/complicações , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/patologia , Gravidez
19.
Cardiol Young ; 25(4): 712-7, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24932728

RESUMO

Supravalvular aortic aneurysms are less frequent than abdominal ones. Among Supravalvular aortic aneurysm aetiologies, we focused on dystrophic lesions as they can be secondary to genetic causes such as elastin anomaly. We report on a familial 7q11.23 triplication - including the ELN gene - segregating with a supravalvular aortic aneurysm. During her first pregnancy, our index patient was diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis and with a Supravalvular aortic aneurysm. The foetus was affected equally. For the second pregnancy, parents applied for preimplantation diagnosis, and a subsequent prenatal diagnosis was offered to the couple, comprising TSC1 molecular analysis, karyotype, and multiplex ligation probe amplification. TSC1 mutation was not found on foetal deoxyribo nucleic acid. Foetal karyotype was normal, but multiplex ligation probe amplification detected a 7q11.23 duplication. Quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and array-comparative genomic hybridisation carried out to further assess this chromosome imbalance subsequently identified a 7q11.23 triplication involving ELN and LIMK1. Foetal heart ultrasound identified a Supravalvular aortic aneurysm. A familial screening was offered for the 7q11.23 triplication and, when found, heart ultrasound was performed. The triplication was diagnosed in our index case as well as in her first child. Of the 17 individuals from this family, 11 have the triplication. Of the 11 individuals with the triplication, 10 were identified to have a supravalvular aortic aneurysm. Of them, two individuals received a medical treatment and one individual needed surgery. We provide evidence of supravalvular aortic aneurysm segregating with 7q11.23 triplication in this family. We would therefore recommend cardiac surveillance for individuals with 7q11.23 triplication. It would also be interesting to offer a quantitative-polymerase chain reaction or an array-comparative genomic hybridisation to a larger cohort of patients presenting with isolated supravalvular aortic aneurysm, as it may provide further information.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esclerose Tuberosa/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
20.
Hum Mutat ; 35(4): 478-85, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24470203

RESUMO

Mandibulofacial dysostosis, Guion-Almeida type (MFDGA) is a recently delineated multiple congenital anomalies/mental retardation syndrome characterized by the association of mandibulofacial dysostosis (MFD) with external ear malformations, hearing loss, cleft palate, choanal atresia, microcephaly, intellectual disability, oesophageal atresia (OA), congenital heart defects (CHDs), and radial ray defects. MFDGA emerges as a clinically recognizable entity, long underdiagnosed due to highly variable presentations. The main differential diagnoses are CHARGE and Feingold syndromes, oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, and other MFDs. EFTUD2, located on 17q21.31, encodes a component of the major spliceosome and is disease causing in MFDGA, due to heterozygous loss-of-function (LoF) mutations. Here, we describe a series of 36 cases of MFDGA, including 24 previously unreported cases, and we review the literature in order to delineate the clinical spectrum ascribed to EFTUD2 LoF. MFD, external ear anomalies, and intellectual deficiency occur at a higher frequency than microcephaly. We characterize the evolution of the facial gestalt at different ages and describe novel renal and cerebral malformations. The most frequent extracranial malformation in this series is OA, followed by CHDs and skeletal abnormalities. MFDGA is probably more frequent than other syndromic MFDs such as Nager or Miller syndromes. Although the wide spectrum of malformations complicates diagnosis, characteristic facial features provide a useful handle.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Anus Imperfurado/patologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/patologia , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Disostose Mandibulofacial/patologia , Microcefalia/patologia , Oftalmoplegia/patologia , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/metabolismo , Trombocitopenia/patologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Anus Imperfurado/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Orelha Externa/patologia , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Haploinsuficiência , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Disostose Mandibulofacial/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Mutação , Oftalmoplegia/genética , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Trombocitopenia/genética
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