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Polymers (Basel) ; 12(7)2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668613


While environmental concerns have caused polymeric brominated primary flame retardants (PolyBrFRs) to be effective replacement monomeric species, few alternatives for antimony trioxide (ATO) have been developed beyond the zinc stannates (ZnSs). Previous research, which explored the interactions of aluminium (AlW), tin (II) (SnW) and zinc (ZnW) tungstates with several phosphorus-containing flame retardants in polyamide 6.6 (PA66), is extended to two PolyBrFRs: brominated polystyrene (BrPS), and poly(pentabromobenzyl acrylate) (BrPBz). On assessing the effect of each tungstate on the thermal degradation and flammability in combination with each PolyBrFR using TGA, UL94, LOI, cone calorimetry and TGA-FTIR, only ZnW and SnW showed significant increases in LOI (>26 vol.%). Both ZnW-BrPS- and ZnW-BrPBz-containing formulations yielded average UL94 ratings ≥ V-2 and TGA char residues (corrected for metals content at 500 °C) in air > 15 wt.%. BrPS-containing samples, especially those containing ZnW and SnW, generated peak heat release rates approximately 50% lower than the equivalent BrPBz samples. These reductions did not correlate with respective increases in LOI, suggesting that tungstate-PolyBrFR combinations influence pre-ignition differently to post-ignition behaviour. Calculated synergistic effectivities indicate that ZnW functions as a synergist in both pre- and post-ignition stages, especially with BrPS. TGA-FTIR and char analyses showed that, in addition to the vapour-phase activity normally associated with PolyBrFRs, condensed-phase processes occurred, especially for the ZnW-PolyBrFR combinations. Additionally, ZnW demonstrated significant smoke-suppressing properties comparable with zinc stannate (ZnS).

Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13547, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201951


The synthesis of the high performance inorganic materials essential to the quality of modern day life is hindered by traditionalist attitudes and reliance on outdated methods such as batch syntheses. While continuous flow methods have been extensively adopted in pharmaceutical circles, they remain largely unexplored for the preparation of inorganic compounds, despite higher efficiency, safety and versatility. In this publication, we demonstrate a step-change for the synthesis of metal ammonium phosphates through conversion of the extant batch process to a low-temperature continuous regime, exhibiting a tenfold increase in throughput combined with a significant decrease in particle size.