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1.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833112

RESUMO

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a strongly recommended and effective treatment for people with chronic lung disease. However, access to pulmonary rehabilitation is poor. Globally, pulmonary rehabilitation is accessed by less than 3% of people with chronic lung disease. Barriers to referral, uptake and completion of pulmonary rehabilitation are well documented and linked with organizational, practitioner and patient-related factors. Enhancing the knowledge of health care professionals, family carers, and people with chronic lung disease about the program and its benefits produces modest increases in referral and uptake rates, but evidence of the sustainability of such approaches is limited. Additionally, initiatives focusing on addressing organizational barriers to access, such as expanding services and implementing alternative models to the conventional center-based setting, are not yet widely used in clinical practice. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for health care systems to deliver pulmonary rehabilitation programs remotely, safely, and efficiently. This paper will discuss the pressing need to address the issue of the low accessibility of pulmonary rehabilitation. It will also highlight the distinctive challenges to pulmonary rehabilitation delivery in rural and remote regions, as well as low-income countries.

2.
Respirology ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In Australia, little is known about delivery of care for people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study examined the organization of IPF care across Australia, how it aligns with guidance for best practice, and identified barriers and facilitators to best care. METHODS: Data on the organization of IPF care in Australia were collected from public hospitals using a study-specific questionnaire between February and July 2020. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with respiratory physicians from around Australia between April and December 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis was undertaken. RESULTS: Almost all hospitals (n = 38, 97%) held multidisciplinary meetings (MDMs) for diagnosing IPF, with 90% of multidisciplinary teams including expert respiratory physicians and radiologists; however, rheumatologists, interstitial lung disease nurses and a histopathologist were often not available. More than 90% of institutions had access to oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation and advanced care planning, but access to psychological support and clinical trials was limited (53% and 58%, respectively). Fifteen respiratory physicians (27% regional) were interviewed. Approaches to diagnosis, treatment and access to referral services were generally consistent with best practice guidance; however, regional respondents reported barriers related to inadequate staffing, lack of a nurse coordinator, inadequate access to clinical trials and funding models. Telehealth technologies were perceived as facilitators to best care. CONCLUSION: Clinical management of IPF in Australia generally aligns with best practice guidance, but there may be some inequity of access to specialist services, particularly in regional areas, that should be addressed to ensure optimal care for all.

3.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819323

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by exacerbations of respiratory disease, frequently requiring hospital admission. Pulmonary rehabilitation can reduce the likelihood of future hospitalisation, but programme uptake is poor. This study aims to compare hospital readmission rates, clinical outcomes and costs between people with COPD who undertake a home-based programme of pulmonary rehabilitation commenced early (within 2 weeks) of hospital discharge with usual care. METHODS: A multisite randomised controlled trial, powered for superiority, will be conducted in Australia. Eligible patients admitted to one of the participating sites for an exacerbation of COPD will be invited to participate. Participants will be randomised 1:1. Intervention group participants will undertake an 8-week programme of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation commencing within 2 weeks of hospital discharge. Control group participants will receive usual care and a weekly phone call for attention control. Outcomes will be measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, after the intervention (week 9-10 posthospital discharge), and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is hospital readmission at 12 months follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Human Research Ethics approval for all sites provided by Alfred Health (Project 51216). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals, conferences and lay publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12619001122145.

4.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 361, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a debilitating condition associated with significant dyspnoea, fatigue, and poor exercise tolerance. Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective and key intervention in people with interstitial lung disease. However, despite the best efforts of patients and clinicians, many of those who participate are not achieving clinically meaningful benefits. This assessor-blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial aims to compare the clinical benefits of high intensity interval exercise training versus the standard pulmonary rehabilitation method of continuous training at moderate intensity in people with fibrotic interstitial lung disease. METHODS: Eligible participants will be randomised to either a standard pulmonary rehabilitation group using moderate intensity continuous exercise training or high intensity interval exercise training. Participants in both groups will undertake an 8-week pulmonary rehabilitation program of twice-weekly supervised exercise training including aerobic (cycling) and strengthening exercises. In addition, participants in both groups will be prescribed a home exercise program. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, upon completion of the intervention and at six months following the intervention by a blinded assessor. The primary outcome is endurance time on a constant work rate test. Secondary outcomes are functional capacity (6-min walk distance), health-related quality of life (Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis specific version (SGRQ-I), breathlessness (Dyspnoea 12, Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale), fatigue (fatigue severity scale), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), physical activity level (GeneActiv), skeletal muscle changes (ultrasonography) and completion and adherence to pulmonary rehabilitation. DISCUSSION: The standard exercise training strategies used in pulmonary rehabilitation may not provide an optimal exercise training stimulus for people with interstitial lung disease. This study will determine whether high intensity interval training can produce equivalent or even superior changes in exercise performance and symptoms. If high intensity interval training proves effective, it will provide an exercise training strategy that can readily be implemented into clinical practice for people with interstitial lung disease. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT03800914). Registered 11 January 2019, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03800914 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619000019101. Registered 9 January 2019, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376050&isReview=true.

5.
Thorax ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34650004

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pulmonary rehabilitation is an effective treatment for people with chronic respiratory disease but is delivered to <5% of eligible individuals. This study investigated whether home-based telerehabilitation was equivalent to centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation in people with chronic respiratory disease. METHODS: A multicentre randomised controlled trial with assessor blinding, powered for equivalence was undertaken. Individuals with a chronic respiratory disease referred to pulmonary rehabilitation at four participating sites (one rural) were eligible and randomised using concealed allocation to pulmonary rehabilitation or telerehabilitation. Both programmes were two times per week for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was change in Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire Dyspnoea (CRQ-D) domain at end-rehabilitation, with a prespecified equivalence margin of 2.5 points. Follow-up was at 12 months. Secondary outcomes included exercise capacity, health-related quality of life, symptoms, self-efficacy and psychological well-being. RESULTS: 142 participants were randomised to pulmonary rehabilitation or telerehabilitation with 96% and 97% included in the intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups for any outcome at either time point. Both groups achieved meaningful improvement in dyspnoea and exercise capacity at end-rehabilitation. However, we were unable to confirm equivalence of telerehabilitation for the primary outcome ΔCRQ-D at end-rehabilitation (mean difference (MD) (95% CI) -1 point (-3 to 1)), and inferiority of telerehabilitation could not be excluded at either time point (12-month follow-up: MD -1 point (95% CI -4 to 1)). At end-rehabilitation, telerehabilitation demonstrated equivalence for 6-minute walk distance (MD -6 m, 95% CI -26 to 15) with possibly superiority of telerehabilitation at 12 months (MD 14 m, 95% CI -10 to 38). CONCLUSION: telerehabilitation may not be equivalent to centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation for all outcomes, but is safe and achieves clinically meaningful benefits. When centre-based pulmonary rehabilitation is not available, telerehabilitation may provide an alternative programme model. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACtelerehabilitationN12616000360415.

7.
Aust Crit Care ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to conduct a scoping review to comprehensively map the breadth of literature related to the rehabilitation of adult patients whilst on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and identify gaps and areas for future research. REVIEW METHOD USED: This review was conducted using recommended frameworks for methods and reporting including the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. DATE SOURCES: We searched seven databases from inception to June 2021 and included all study designs and grey literature. REVIEW METHODS: Eligibility screening was completed by two independent reviewers according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, with any disagreement resolved by consensus or with consultation with a third reviewer. Two independent reviewers extracted data related to intervention characteristics, patient outcomes, feasibility, safety, hospital outcomes, and mortality using a custom-designed piloted form. RESULTS: Of 8507 records, 185 original studies met inclusion criteria, with the majority being small retrospective studies. Rehabilitation was more commonly reported in patients on veno-venous rather than veno-arterial ECMO. Ambulation was the most commonly reported intervention (51% of studies). Critical gaps were identified including incomplete reporting of the intervention along with heterogeneity in the type and timing of outcome measures. Less than 50% of patients met eligibility criteria to participate, but screening for eligibility was infrequently reported (9% of studies). Delivery of rehabilitation during ECMO may be facilitated by an expert multidisciplinary team, along with a strategy that targets low sedation levels and an upper body cannulation approach. CONCLUSIONS: Rehabilitation during ECMO is an emerging area of research and mostly consisted of small retrospective single-centre studies. Future research requires more robust methodological designs that include comprehensive screening of potential candidates with reporting of eligibility, more detailed descriptions of the rehabilitation interventions, inclusion of a core outcome set with defined measurement instruments, and consistent timing of outcome measurement.

8.
Chron Respir Dis ; 18: 14799731211046022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637351

RESUMO

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) referred to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) and to understand their experiences of participation or non-participation. Methods: Adults (>18 years old) with a diagnosis of ILD were identified from the Alfred Health ILD registry in Melbourne. Information regarding PR referral and attendance were collected from medical records. Semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with patients who had been referred to PR. Results: Of 336 patients eligible for inclusion, PR referral was identified in 137 patients (40.7%). Patients referred to PR had worse respiratory function than those not referred (forced vital capacity mean 64 (SD 23) vs 79 (19) % predicted) and more desaturation during a 6-min walk test (86.6 (7.8%) vs 88.5 (7.0%)). Semi-structured interviews identified three major themes: valued components of PR (supervision and individualization, improved confidence with exercise, education and peer support); limited knowledge about PR prior to attendance and barriers to attending PR (lack of perceived benefits, fear of exercise and accessibility). Discussion: Over 40% of patients who attended a specialist ILD clinic were referred to pulmonary rehabilitation, with higher referral rates in those with more severe disease. There are opportunities to improve patient knowledge regarding the role and expected benefits of PR in people with ILD.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Adolescente , Tolerância ao Exercício , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/reabilitação , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Teste de Caminhada
9.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003833, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementing evidence into clinical practice is a key focus of healthcare improvements to reduce unwarranted variation. Dissemination of evidence-based recommendations and knowledge brokering have emerged as potential strategies to achieve evidence implementation by influencing resource allocation decisions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of these two research implementation strategies to facilitate evidence-informed healthcare management decisions for the provision of inpatient weekend allied health services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This multicentre, single-blinded (data collection and analysis), three-group parallel cluster randomised controlled trial with concealed allocation was conducted in Australian and New Zealand hospitals between February 2018 and January 2020. Clustering and randomisation took place at the organisation level where weekend allied health staffing decisions were made (e.g., network of hospitals or single hospital). Hospital wards were nested within these decision-making structures. Three conditions were compared over a 12-month period: (1) usual practice waitlist control; (2) dissemination of written evidence-based practice recommendations; and (3) access to a webinar-based knowledge broker in addition to the recommendations. The primary outcome was the alignment of weekend allied health provision with practice recommendations at the cluster and ward levels, addressing the adoption, penetration, and fidelity to the recommendations. The secondary outcome was mean hospital length of stay at the ward level. Outcomes were collected at baseline and 12 months later. A total of 45 clusters (n = 833 wards) were randomised to either control (n = 15), recommendation (n = 16), or knowledge broker (n = 14) conditions. Four (9%) did not provide follow-up data, and no adverse events were recorded. No significant effect was found with either implementation strategy for the primary outcome at the cluster level (recommendation versus control ß 18.11 [95% CI -8,721.81 to 8,758.02] p = 0.997; knowledge broker versus control ß 1.24 [95% CI -6,992.60 to 6,995.07] p = 1.000; recommendation versus knowledge broker ß -9.12 [95% CI -3,878.39 to 3,860.16] p = 0.996) or ward level (recommendation versus control ß 0.01 [95% CI 0.74 to 0.75] p = 0.983; knowledge broker versus control ß -0.12 [95% CI -0.54 to 0.30] p = 0.581; recommendation versus knowledge broker ß -0.19 [-1.04 to 0.65] p = 0.651). There was no significant effect between strategies for the secondary outcome at ward level (recommendation versus control ß 2.19 [95% CI -1.36 to 5.74] p = 0.219; knowledge broker versus control ß -0.55 [95% CI -1.16 to 0.06] p = 0.075; recommendation versus knowledge broker ß -3.75 [95% CI -8.33 to 0.82] p = 0.102). None of the control or knowledge broker clusters transitioned to partial or full alignment with the recommendations. Three (20%) of the clusters who only received the written recommendations transitioned from nonalignment to partial alignment. Limitations include underpowering at the cluster level sample due to the grouping of multiple geographically distinct hospitals to avoid contamination. CONCLUSIONS: Owing to a lack of power at the cluster level, this trial was unable to identify a difference between the knowledge broker strategy and dissemination of recommendations compared with usual practice for the promotion of evidence-informed resource allocation to inpatient weekend allied health services. Future research is needed to determine the interactions between different implementation strategies and healthcare contexts when translating evidence into healthcare practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618000029291.

10.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34549047

RESUMO

Background: Quality of life has improved dramatically over the past two decades in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Quantification has been enabled by patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs); however, many are lengthy and can be challenging to use in routine clinical practice. We propose a short-form PROM that correlates well with established quality-of-life measures. Methods: We evaluated the utility of a 10-item score (AWESCORE) by measuring reliability, validity and responsiveness in adults with CF. The questions were developed by thematic analysis of survey questions to patients in a single adult CF centre. Each question was scored using a numerical rating scale 0 to 10. Total scores ranged from 0 to 100. Test-retest reliability was assessed over 24 h. To determine validity, comparisons were sought between stable subjects and those in pulmonary exacerbation, and between AWESCORE and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire - Revised (CFQ-R). Responsiveness to pulmonary exacerbation in individual subjects was evaluated. Results: Five domains, each with two questions, were identified for respiratory, physical, nutritional, psychological and general health. A total of 246 consecutive adults attending the outpatient clinic completed the AWESCORE. Scores were higher during clinical stability compared to pulmonary exacerbation (mean± sd): 73±11 versus 48±11 (p<0.001). Each domain scored worse during an acute exacerbation (p<0.001). No differences in reliability were observed in scores on retesting using Bland-Altman comparison. The CFQ-R scores (mean±sd: 813±125) and AWESCORE (81±13) were moderately correlated (Pearson's r=0.649; p=0.002). Conclusions: The AWESCORE is valid, reliable and responsive to altered health status in CF.

11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD006322, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is characterised by reduced functional capacity, dyspnoea and exercise-induced hypoxia. Pulmonary rehabilitation is often used to improve symptoms, health-related quality of life and functional status in other chronic lung conditions. There is accumulating evidence for comparable effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in people with ILD. However, further information is needed to clarify the long-term benefit and to strengthen the rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation to be incorporated into standard clinical management of people with ILD. This review updates the results reported in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether pulmonary rehabilitation in people with ILD has beneficial effects on exercise capacity, symptoms, quality of life and survival compared with no pulmonary rehabilitation in people with ILD. To assess the safety of pulmonary rehabilitation in people with ILD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO) and PEDro from inception to April 2020. We searched the reference lists of relevant studies, international clinical trial registries and respiratory conference abstracts to look for qualifying studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials in which pulmonary rehabilitation was compared with no pulmonary rehabilitation or with other therapy in people with ILD of any origin. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors to request missing data and information regarding adverse effects. We specified a priori subgroup analyses for participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and participants with severe lung disease (low diffusing capacity or desaturation during exercise). There were insufficient data to perform the prespecified subgroup analysis for type of exercise training modality. MAIN RESULTS: For this update, we included an additional 12 studies resulting in a total of 21 studies. We included 16 studies in the meta-analysis (356 participants undertook pulmonary rehabilitation and 319 were control participants). The mean age of participants ranged from 36 to 72 years and included people with ILD of varying aetiology, sarcoidosis or IPF (with mean transfer factor of carbon dioxide (TLCO) % predicted ranging from 37% to 63%). Most pulmonary rehabilitation programmes were conducted in an outpatient setting, with a small number conducted in home-based, inpatient or tele-rehabilitation settings. The duration of pulmonary rehabilitation ranged from three to 48 weeks. There was a moderate risk of bias due to the absence of outcome assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analyses and the inadequate reporting of randomisation and allocation procedures in 60% of the studies. Pulmonary rehabilitation probably improves the six-minute walk distance (6MWD) with mean difference (MD) of 40.07 metres, 95% confidence interval (CI) 32.70 to 47.44; 585 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be improvements in peak workload (MD 9.04 watts, 95% CI 6.07 to 12.0; 159 participants; low-certainty evidence), peak oxygen consumption (MD 1.28 mL/kg/minute, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.05; 94 participants; low-certainty evidence) and maximum ventilation (MD 7.21 L/minute, 95% CI 4.10 to 10.32; 94 participants; low-certainty evidence). In the subgroup of participants with IPF, there were comparable improvements in 6MWD (MD 37.25 metres, 95% CI 26.16 to 48.33; 278 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), peak workload (MD 9.94 watts, 95% CI 6.39 to 13.49; low-certainty evidence), VO2 (oxygen uptake) peak (MD 1.45 mL/kg/minute, 95% CI 0.51 to 2.40; low-certainty evidence) and maximum ventilation (MD 9.80 L/minute, 95% CI 6.06 to 13.53; 62 participants; low-certainty evidence). The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on maximum heart rate was uncertain. Pulmonary rehabilitation may reduce dyspnoea in participants with ILD (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.36, 95% CI -0.58 to -0.14; 348 participants; low-certainty evidence) and in the IPF subgroup (SMD -0.41, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.09; 155 participants; low-certainty evidence). Pulmonary rehabilitation probably improves health-related quality of life: there were improvements in all four domains of the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for participants with ILD and for the subgroup of people with IPF. The improvement in SGRQ Total score was -9.29 for participants with ILD (95% CI -11.06 to -7.52; 478 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and -7.91 for participants with IPF (95% CI -10.55 to -5.26; 194 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Five studies reported longer-term outcomes, with improvements in exercise capacity, dyspnoea and health-related quality of life still evident six to 12 months following the intervention period (6MWD: MD 32.43, 95% CI 15.58 to 49.28; 297 participants; moderate-certainty evidence; dyspnoea: MD -0.29, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.10; 335 participants; SGRQ Total score: MD -4.93, 95% CI -7.81 to -2.06; 240 participants; low-certainty evidence). In the subgroup of participants with IPF, there were improvements at six to 12 months following the intervention for dyspnoea and SGRQ Impact score. The effect of pulmonary rehabilitation on survival at long-term follow-up is uncertain. There were insufficient data to allow examination of the impact of disease severity or exercise training modality. Ten studies provided information on adverse events; however, there were no adverse events reported during rehabilitation. Four studies reported the death of one pulmonary rehabilitation participant; however, all four studies indicated this death was unrelated to the intervention received. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary rehabilitation can be performed safely in people with ILD. Pulmonary rehabilitation probably improves functional exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life in the short term, with benefits also probable in IPF. Improvements in functional exercise capacity, dyspnoea and quality of life were sustained longer term. Dyspnoea and quality of life may be sustained in people with IPF. The certainty of evidence was low to moderate, due to inadequate reporting of methods, the lack of outcome assessment blinding and heterogeneity in some results. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to determine the optimal exercise prescription, and to investigate ways to promote longer-lasting improvements, particularly for people with IPF.

13.
Physiotherapy ; 113: 29-36, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555671

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate if Rocktape combined with exercise is more effective than exercise and sham taping in patients with knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Single institution, prospective, participant and assessor blinded, randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient physiotherapy department of a tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six patients with knee osteoarthritis. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to either; 1) Rocktape plus exercise or 2) sham taping plus exercise. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A linear mixed-effect model was used to assess differences between groups over time for the primary outcome measure (VAS at rest and movement) as well as the secondary outcome measures. Secondary measures included the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), 30second sit to stand, 40m walk and stair climb tests. Exercise adherence and analgesia use were recorded via a diary. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, immediately prior to the first tape application and immediately following first taping (both at one week after baseline), then two and five weeks after first tape application. RESULTS: There were no between group differences over time in pain at rest [median Rocktape group 0.035 (IQR -0.1 to 3.0) vs median sham 0 (IQR 0 to 1.6) mean adj diff (0.053, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.27)] or with movement [median tape group 2.45 (IQR -0.5 to 4.8) vs median sham 2.0 (IQR 0.8 to 4.1) mean adj diff 0.072, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.35]. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the KOOS subscales or performance-based tests administered over time. Pain on movement significantly improved over time in both groups, whilst pain at rest only improved at the final time point. CONCLUSION: There was no additional benefit of Rocktape over sham tape in patients with knee osteoarthritis who were completing a home exercise program over five weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials Registry (#NCT02049216).

14.
Respirology ; 26(12): 1112-1130, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587348

RESUMO

Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are frequently used for asthma treatment. This medication is highly effective for both acute and chronic diseases, but evidence indicates that indiscriminate OCS use is common, posing a risk of serious side effects and irreversible harm. There is now an urgent need to introduce OCS stewardship approaches, akin to successful initiatives that optimized appropriate antibiotic usage. The aim of this TSANZ (Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand) position paper is to review current knowledge pertaining to OCS use in asthma and then delineate principles of OCS stewardship. Recent evidence indicates overuse and over-reliance on OCS for asthma and that doses >1000 mg prednisolone-equivalent cumulatively are likely to have serious side effects and adverse outcomes. Patient perspectives emphasize the detrimental impacts of OCS-related side effects such as weight gain, insomnia, mood disturbances and skin changes. Improvements in asthma control and prevention of exacerbations can be achieved by improved inhaler technique, adherence to therapy, asthma education, smoking cessation, multidisciplinary review, optimized medications and other strategies. Recently, add-on therapies including novel biological agents and macrolide antibiotics have demonstrated reductions in OCS requirements. Harm reduction may also be achieved through identification and mitigation of predictable adverse effects. OCS stewardship should entail greater awareness of appropriate indications for OCS prescription, risk-benefits of OCS medications, side effects, effective add-on therapies and multidisciplinary review. If implemented, OCS stewardship can ensure that clinicians and patients with asthma are aware that OCS should not be used lightly, while providing reassurance that asthma can be controlled in most people without frequent use of OCS.

15.
Thorax ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on survival in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) is unknown. Given the challenges conducting a large randomised controlled trial, we aimed to determine whether improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) was associated with better survival. METHODS: This retrospective, international cohort study included patients with fibrotic ILD participating in either inpatient or outpatient PR at 12 sites in 5 countries. Multivariable models were used to estimate the association between change in 6MWD and time to death or lung transplantation accounting for clustering by centre and other confounders. RESULTS: 701 participants (445 men and 256 women) with fibrotic ILD were included. The mean±SD ages of the 196 inpatients and 505 outpatients were 70±11 and 69±12 years, respectively. Baseline/changes in 6MWD were 262±128/55±83 m for inpatients and 358±125/34±65 m for outpatients. Improvement in 6MWD during PR was associated with lower hazard rates for death or lung transplant on adjusted analysis for both inpatient (HR per 10 m 0.94, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97, p<0.001) and outpatient PR (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.00, p=0.042). Participation in ≥80% of planned outpatient PR sessions was associated with a 33% lower risk of death (95% CI 0.49% to 0.92%). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with fibrotic ILD who improved physical performance during PR had better survival compared with those who did not improve performance. Confirmation of these hypothesis-generating findings in a randomised controlled trial would be required to definitely change clinical practice, and would further support efforts to improve availability of PR for patients with fibrotic ILD.

16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013569, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation benefits patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but gains are not maintained over time. Maintenance pulmonary rehabilitation has been defined as ongoing supervised exercise at a lower frequency than the initial pulmonary rehabilitation programme. It is not yet known whether a maintenance programme can preserve the benefits of pulmonary rehabilitation over time. Studies of maintenance programmes following pulmonary rehabilitation are heterogeneous, especially regarding supervision frequency. Furthermore, new maintenance models (remote and home-based) are emerging. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supervised pulmonary rehabilitation maintenance programmes improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise performance, and health care utilisation in COPD patients compared with usual care. Secondly, to examine in subgroup analyses the impact of supervision frequency and model (remote or in-person) during the supervised maintenance programme. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PEDro, and two additional trial registries platforms up to 31 March 2020, without restriction by language or type of publication. We screened the reference lists of all primary studies for additional references. We also hand-searched conference abstracts and grey literature through the Cochrane Airways Trials Register and CENTRAL. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included only randomised trials comparing pulmonary rehabilitation maintenance for COPD with attention control or usual care. The primary outcomes were HRQoL, exercise capacity and hospitalisation; the secondary outcomes were exacerbation rate, mortality, direct costs of care, and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Results data that were similar enough to be pooled were meta-analysed using a random-effects model, and those that could not be pooled were reported in narrative form. Subgroup analyses were undertaken for frequency of supervision (programmes offered monthly or less frequently, versus more frequently) and those using remote supervision (e.g. telerehabilitation versus face-to-face supervision). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 studies (39 reports) with 1799 COPD patients. Participants ranged in age from 52 years to 88 years. Disease severity ranged from 24% to 88% of the predicted forced expiratory volume in one second. Programme duration ranged from four weeks to 36 months. In-person supervision was provided in 12 studies, and remote supervision was provided in six studies (telephone or web platform). Four studies provided a combination of in-person and remote supervision. Most studies had a high risk of performance bias due to lack of blinding of participants, and high risk of detection, attrition, and reporting bias. Low- to moderate-certainty evidence showed that supervised maintenance programmes may improve health-related quality of life at six to 12 months following pulmonary rehabilitation compared to usual care (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire total score mean difference (MD) 0.54 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 1.03, 258 participants, four studies), with a mean difference that exceeded the minimal important difference of 0.5 points for this outcome. It is possible that supervised maintenance could improve six-minute walk distance, but this is uncertain (MD 26 metres (m), 95% CI -1.04 to 52.84, 639 participants, 10 studies). There was little to no difference between the maintenance programme and the usual care group in exacerbations or all-cause hospitalizations, or the chance of death (odds ratio (OR) for mortality 0.73, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51, 755 participants, six studies). Insufficient data were available to understand the impact of the frequency of supervision, or of remote versus in-person supervision. No adverse events were reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that supervised maintenance programmes for COPD patients after pulmonary rehabilitation are not associated with increased adverse events, may improve health-related quality of life, and could possibly improve exercise capacity at six to 12 months. Effects on exacerbations, hospitalisation and mortality are similar to those of usual care. However, the strength of evidence was limited because most included studies had a high risk of bias and small sample size. The optimal supervision frequency and models for supervised maintenance programmes are still unclear.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Telerreabilitação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrão de Cuidado
17.
COPD ; 18(5): 533-540, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424802

RESUMO

Little is known regarding community participation in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to explore community participation in individuals with COPD and to determine whether there is an association between community participation and activity-related outcome variables commonly collected during pulmonary rehabilitation assessment. We also sought to investigate which of these variables might influence community participation in people with COPD. Ninety-nine individuals with COPD were enrolled (67 ± 9 years, FEV1: 55 ± 22% predicted). We assessed community participation (Community Participation Indicator (CPI) and European Social Survey (ESS) for formal and informal community participation), daily physical activity levels (activity monitor), exercise capacity (6-minute walk test), breathlessness (Modified Medical Research Council, MMRC scale), self-efficacy (Pulmonary Rehabilitation Adapted Index of Self-Efficacy) and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Higher levels of community participation on the CPI were associated with older age and greater levels of physical activity (total, light and moderate-to-vigorous) (all rs = 0.30, p < 0.05). Older age and more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity independently predicted greater community participation measured by CPI. Higher levels of depression symptoms were associated with less formal and informal community participation on ESS (rs = -0.25). More formal community participation on ESS was weakly (rs = 0.2-0.3) associated with older age, better lung function, exercise capacity and self-efficacy, and less breathlessness. Self-efficacy, exercise capacity, and age independently predicted formal community participation in individuals with COPD. Strategies to optimize self-efficacy and improve exercise capacity may be useful to enhance community participation in people with COPD.

18.
Respirology ; 26(12): 1152-1159, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) have reduced levels of daily physical activity (DPA); however, little is known about how DPA changes as disease progresses. We aimed to (i) describe change in DPA over 12 months, (ii) analyse its association with conventional markers of disease severity and quality of life and (iii) assess DPA as a prognostic tool. METHODS: A total of 54 patients with IPF had DPA monitored at baseline and at 6 and 12 months with a SenseWear armband for 7 consecutive days. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire and Leicester Cough Questionnaire at each time point and provided clinical data including forced vital capacity (FVC), diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide and 6-min walk distance (6MWD). RESULTS: Baseline and 12-month daily step count (DSC) were 3887 (395) and 3326 (419), respectively. A significant reduction in DSC (mean = 645 [260], p = 0.02) and total energy expenditure (mean = 486 kJ [188], p = 0.01) was demonstrated at 12 months. The decline in DSC over 12 months was proportionally larger than decline in lung function. Annual change in DPA had weak to moderate correlation with annual change in FVC % predicted and 6MWD (range r = 0.34-0.45). Change in physical activity was not associated with long-term survival. CONCLUSION: In IPF, decline in DPA over 12 months is significant and disproportionate to decline in pulmonary physiology and may be a useful tool for assessment of disease progression.

20.
Patient Educ Couns ; 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) consider self-management essential for maintaining health. This study aims to explore the needs and expectations of PF self-management from the patient and healthcare professionals (HCPs) perspectives. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with PF and HCPs. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Thematic analysis was performed using the principles of grounded theory. RESULTS: 18 individuals with PF and 15 HCPs were interviewed. Common self-management components reported included exercise, nutrition, maintaining healthy mind, avoiding infections, recognising deterioration and seeking help, managing symptoms and treatments, social support, and end-of-life planning. Both groups felt that effective self-management required individualised strategies, supports, and reliable information. People with PF identified access to personal health data and self-acceptance as part of self-management. HCPs highlighted the importance of accessible supports and managing patient expectations of disease course and treatments. Some HCPs concerned about missed detection of deterioration and suggested that self-management strategies for PF may differ to other lung diseases. CONCLUSION: This study identified components important for self-management in PF and provides a basis for designing a PF self-management package. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Self-management of PF can be facilitated with individualised support from HCPs and reliable information that is accessible.

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