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1.
Stem Cell Res ; 41: 101586, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707214

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (AD-HIES), a rare immune deficiency affecting fewer than one per million people, is caused by heterozygous deleterious mutations in STAT3. STAT3 signaling plays crucial roles in basic cellular functions affecting broad aspects of cellular homeostasis. Accordingly, in addition to immunological deficits, patients experience severe multisystem non-immunological features. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are well established as in vivo disease models for various human pathologies. We describe the generation of iPSC from three AD-HIES patients. These iPSCs express pluripotency markers, differentiate into three germ layers, have normal karyotype and similar genome identity to parental cells.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493539

RESUMO

Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID). Safe and effective reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) approaches that are associated with low toxicity, use alternative donors, and afford good immune reconstitution are needed to advance the field. Twenty PID patients, ranging in age from 4 to 58 years, were treated on a prospective clinical trial of a novel, radiation-free and serotherapy-free RIC, T-cell-replete BMT approach using pentostatin, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and busulfan for conditioning with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. This was a high-risk cohort with a median hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index of 3. With median follow-up of survivors of 1.9 years, 1-year overall survival was 90% and grade III to IV acute GVHD-free, graft-failure-free survival was 80% at day +180. Graft failure incidence was 10%. Split chimerism was frequently observed at early post-BMT timepoints, with a lower percentage of donor T cells, which gradually increased by day +60. The cumulative incidences of grade II to IV and grade III to IV acute GVHD (aGVHD) were 15% and 5%, respectively. All aGVHD was steroid responsive. No patients developed chronic GVHD. Few significant organ toxicities were observed. Evidence of phenotype reversal was observed for all engrafted patients, even those with significantly mixed chimerism (n = 2) or with unknown underlying genetic defect (n = 3). All 6 patients with pre-BMT malignancies or lymphoproliferative disorders remain in remission. Most patients have discontinued immunoglobulin replacement. All survivors are off immunosuppression for GVHD prophylaxis or treatment. This novel RIC BMT approach for patients with PID has yielded promising results, even for high-risk patients.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While clinical manifestations of anti-interferon-γ (IFN-γ) autoantibody-associated immunodeficiency syndrome have been reported, its natural history is not well understood. METHODS: Clinical data of 74 patients with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies at Srinagarind Hospital in Thailand were collected at annual follow-up visits (median follow-up duration: 7.5 years). Clinical data at annual follow-up visits for 19 patients and at the initial visit for 4 patients with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies at the National Institutes of Health in the US were collected by chart review (median follow-up duration: 4.5 years). Anti-IFN-γ autoantibody levels were measured in serial plasma samples. RESULTS: Ninety-one percent of US patients were of Southeast Asian descent and there was a stronger female predominance (91%) in the US than Thailand (64%). M. abscessus (34%) and M. avium complex (83%) were the most commonly isolated nontuberculous mycobacteria in Thailand and the US, respectively. Skin infections were more common in Thailand (P=0.001) whereas bone (P<0.0001), lung (P=0.002), and central nervous system (P=0.03) infections were more common in the US. Twenty-four percent of Thai patients died, mostly from infections. None of the 19 US patients with follow-up data died. Overall, anti-IFN-γ autoantibody levels decreased over time in Thailand (P<0.001) and the US (P=0.017), as well as with cyclophosphamide (P=0.01) and rituximab therapy (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies in Thailand and US had distinct demographic and clinical features. While titers generally decreased with time, anti-IFN-γ autoantibody disease has a chronic clinical course with persistent infections and death. Close long-term surveillance for new infections is recommended.

5.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1433, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354696

RESUMO

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1)1 gain of function (GOF) pathogenic variants have been associated with increased levels of phosphorylated STAT1 and STAT1-dependent cellular responses. Delayed dephosphorylation was proposed as the underlying mechanism leading to the characteristically raised pSTAT1 levels. We examined the levels of STAT1 protein and message as well as rates of STAT1 phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and degradation associated with STAT1 GOF pathogenic variants. Fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 STAT1 GOF patients carrying 10 different pathogenic variants in the coiled-coil, DNA binding, and SH2 domains and healthy donors were used to study STAT1 levels and phosphorylation (pSTAT1) following IFNγ and IFNα stimulation. STAT1 protein levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunoblot. STAT1 mRNA levels were measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. STAT1 protein degradation was studied using cycloheximide. Patient IFNγ and IFNα induced peak pSTAT1 was higher than in healthy controls. The velocity of pSTAT1 dephosphorylation after treatment of IFNγ stimulated CD14+ monocytes with the Janus Kinase (JAK)-inhibitor ruxolitinib was significantly faster in patient cells. STAT1 protein levels in patient CD14+ monocytes and CD3+ T cells were higher than in healthy donors. There was a strong and positive correlation between CD14+ STAT1 protein levels and peak pSTAT1 levels. Patient fresh PBMC STAT1 mRNA levels were increased at rest and after 16 h of incubation. STAT1 protein degradation was similar in patient and healthy volunteer cells. Patient IFNγ receptors 1 and 2 and JAK2 levels were normal. One patient in our cohort was treated with the oral JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib. Treatment was associated with normalization of both STAT1 protein and peak pSTAT1 levels. After JAK inhibitor treatment was stopped the patient's CD14+ monocyte STAT1 protein and peak phosphorylation levels increased proportionally. These findings suggest that patients with STAT1 GOF mutations have higher levels of total STAT1 protein, leading to high levels of pSTAT1 after stimulation, despite rapid STAT1 dephosphorylation and normal degradation.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190050

RESUMO

Patients with primary immunodeficiencies undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for difficult-to-control infections can experience immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) following engraftment. We describe three patients with post-HCT IRIS related to mycobacterial infection, with in vitro data demonstrating emergence of pathogen-specific immune responses and concomitant rise in plasma inflammatory markers.

7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1982: 573-586, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172496

RESUMO

Almost half of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) suffer from gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation, the pathogenesis of which is complex and multifactorial. As a result, the management of CGD-associated GI inflammation remains challenging due to its chronicity and difficulty in managing the simultaneous need for immunomodulation with increased susceptibility to infection. In order to contextualize prospective treatment interventions for CGD-associated GI inflammation, we have reviewed the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and current management of this disease. Increased understanding of the role of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex 2 (NOX2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) will likely reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention.

8.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(495)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167928

RESUMO

Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE mutations, presents with several autoimmune diseases. Among these, endocrine organ failure is widely recognized, but the prevalence, immunopathogenesis, and treatment of non-endocrine manifestations such as pneumonitis remain poorly characterized. We enrolled 50 patients with APECED in a prospective observational study and comprehensively examined their clinical and radiographic findings, performed pulmonary function tests, and analyzed immunological characteristics in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and endobronchial and lung biopsies. Pneumonitis was found in >40% of our patients, presented early in life, was misdiagnosed despite chronic respiratory symptoms and accompanying radiographic and pulmonary function abnormalities, and caused hypoxemic respiratory failure and death. Autoantibodies against BPIFB1 and KCNRG and the homozygous c.967_979del13 AIRE mutation are associated with pneumonitis development. APECED pneumonitis features compartmentalized immunopathology, with accumulation of activated neutrophils in the airways and lymphocytic infiltration in intraepithelial, submucosal, peribronchiolar, and interstitial areas. Beyond APECED, we extend these observations to lung disease seen in other conditions with secondary AIRE deficiency (thymoma and RAG deficiency). Aire-deficient mice had similar compartmentalized cellular immune responses in the airways and lung tissue, which was ameliorated by deficiency of T and B lymphocytes. Accordingly, T and B lymphocyte-directed immunomodulation controlled symptoms and radiographic abnormalities and improved pulmonary function in patients with APECED pneumonitis. Collectively, our findings unveil lung autoimmunity as a common, early, and unrecognized manifestation of APECED and provide insights into the immunopathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary autoimmunity associated with impaired central immune tolerance.

11.
Clin Immunol ; 205: 1-5, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071452

RESUMO

Here we describe a 10-year-old girl with combined immunodeficiency presenting as recurring chest infections, lung disease and herpetic skin infections. The patient experienced two hematopoietic stem cell transplantations and despite full chimerism, she developed bone marrow aplasia due to adenovirus infection and died at post-transplant day 86. Immunologic investigation revealed low numbers of TRECs/KRECs, a severe reduction of memory B cells, absence of isohemagglutinins, and low IgG levels. Whole exome sequencing (WES) identified a novel heterozygous mutation in RAC2(c.275A > C, p.N92 T). Flow cytometric investigation of neutrophil migration demonstrated an absence of chemotaxis to fMLP. Cell lines transfected with RAC2 [N92 T] displayed characteristics of active GTP-bound RAC2 including enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived superoxide production both at rest and in response to PMA. Our findings broaden the clinical picture of RAC2 dysfunction, showing that some individuals can present with a combined immunodeficiency later in childhood rather than a congenital neutrophil disease.

13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 6(3): e560, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044148

RESUMO

Objective: To highlight a novel, treatable syndrome, we report 4 patients with CNS-isolated inflammation associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) gene mutations (CNS-FHL). Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: Patients with CNS-FHL are characterized by chronic inflammation restricted to the CNS that is not attributable to any previously described neuroinflammatory etiology and have germline mutations in known FHL-associated genes with no signs of systemic inflammation. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) can be well tolerated and effective in achieving or maintaining disease remission in patients with CNS-FHL. Conclusions: Early and accurate diagnosis followed by treatment with HCT can reduce morbidity and mortality in CNS-FHL, a novel, treatable syndrome. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that HCT is well tolerated and effective in treating CNS-FHL.

14.
Front Immunol ; 10: 621, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984189

RESUMO

Mycobacterial Infections can be severe in patients with T-cell deficiency or phagocyte disorders, and treatment is frequently complicated by antimicrobial resistance. Restoration of T-cell immunity via stem cell transplantation facilitates control of mycobacterial infections, but presence of active infections during transplantation is associated with a higher risk of mortality. Adoptive T cell immunotherapy has been successful in targeting viruses, but has not been attempted to treat mycobacterial infections. We sought to expand and characterize mycobacterial-specific T-cells derived from healthy donors in order to determine suitability for adoptive immunotherapy. Mycobacteria-specific T-cells (MSTs) were generated from 10 healthy donors using a rapid ex vivo expansion protocol targeting five known mycobacterial target proteins (AG85B, PPE68, ESXA, ESXB, and ADK). MSTs were compared to T-cells expanded from the same donors using lysate from M. tuberculosis or purified protein derivative from M. avium (sensitin). MST expansion from seven patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID) and two patients with IFN-γ autoantibodies and invasive M. avium infections. MSTs expanded from healthy donors recognized a median of 3 of 5 antigens, with production of IFN-γ, TNF, and GM-CSF in CD4+ T cells. Comparison of donors who received BCG vaccine (n = 6) to those who did not (n = 4) showed differential responses to PPE68 (p = 0.028) and ADK (p = 0.015) by IFN-γ ELISpot. MSTs expanded from lysate or sensitin also recognized multiple mycobacterial antigens, with a statistically significant differences noted only in the response to PPE68 (p = 0.016). MSTs expanded from patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) and invasive mycobacterial infections showed activity against mycobacterial antigens in only two of seven subjects, whereas both patients with IFN-γ autoantibodies recognized mycobacterial antigens. Thus, MSTs can be generated from donors using a rapid expansion protocol regardless of history of BCG immunization. Most tested PID patients had no detectable T-cell immunity to mycobacteria despite history of infection. MSTs may have clinical utility for adoptive immunotherapy in T-cell deficient patients with invasive mycobacterial infections.

15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(5): 976-979, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002074

RESUMO

Granulibacter bethesdensis is a pathogen reported to cause recurrent lymphadenitis exclusively in persons with chronic granulomatous disease. We report a case of fatal meningitis caused by a highly virulent G. bethesdensis strain in an adolescent in Europe who had chronic granulomatous disease.

16.
J Autoimmun ; 98: 132-148, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704941

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are inherited disorders of the immune system, associated with a considerable increase in susceptibility to infections. PIDs can also predispose to malignancy, inflammation and autoimmunity. There is increasing awareness that some aspects of the immune dysregulation in PIDs may be linked to intestinal microbiota. Indeed, the gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both locally and systemically. Recent studies have indicated that genetic defects causing PIDs lead to perturbations in the conventional mechanisms underlying homeostasis in the gut, resulting in poor immune surveillance at the intestinal barrier, which associates with altered intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation. Consistently, a substantial proportion of PID patients presents with clinically challenging IBD-like pathology. Here, we describe the current body of literature reporting on dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in different PIDs and how this can be either the result or cause of immune dysregulation. Further, we report how infections in PIDs enhance pathobionts colonization and speculate how, in turn, pathobionts may be responsible for increased disease susceptibility and secondary infections in these patients. The potential relationship between the microbial composition in the intestine and other sites, such as the oral cavity and skin, is also highlighted. Finally, we provide evidence, in preclinical models of PIDs, for the efficacy of microbiota manipulation to ameliorate disease complications, and suggest that the potential use of dietary intervention to correct dysbiotic flora in PID patients may hold promise.

17.
Blood ; 133(18): 1977-1988, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723080

RESUMO

Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), through interactions with reduced NAD phosphate oxidase component p67 phox , activates neutrophil superoxide production, whereas interactions with p21-activated kinase are necessary for fMLF-induced actin remodeling. We identified 3 patients with de novo RAC2[E62K] mutations resulting in severe T- and B-cell lymphopenia, myeloid dysfunction, and recurrent respiratory infections. Neutrophils from RAC2[E62K] patients exhibited excessive superoxide production, impaired fMLF-directed chemotaxis, and abnormal macropinocytosis. Cell lines transfected with RAC2[E62K] displayed characteristics of active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound RAC2 including enhanced superoxide production and increased membrane ruffling. Biochemical studies demonstrated that RAC2[E62K] retains intrinsic GTP hydrolysis; however, GTPase-activating protein failed to accelerate hydrolysis resulting in prolonged active GTP-bound RAC2. Rac2+/E62K mice phenocopy the T- and B-cell lymphopenia, increased neutrophil F-actin, and excessive superoxide production seen in patients. This gain-of-function mutation highlights a specific, nonredundant role for RAC2 in hematopoietic cells that discriminates RAC2 from the related, ubiquitous RAC1.

18.
MBio ; 10(1)2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755511

RESUMO

The region encompassing the Pacific Northwest (PNW), Vancouver Island, Oregon, and Washington has been the location of an ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreak since the 1990s, and there is evidence that the outbreak is expanding along the West Coast into California. Here we report a clinical case of a 69-year-old, HIV-negative man from North Carolina who was diagnosed with a fungal brain mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathology. He had traveled to Seattle and Vancouver 3 years earlier and to Costa Rica 4 months prior to presentation. Phenotypic evidence showed that the fungal mass isolated from the patient's brain represented C. gattii In agreement with the phenotypic results, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) provided genotypic evidence that assigned the infecting organism within the C. gattii species complex and to the C. deuterogattii VGIIa clade. Whole-genome sequencing revealed >99.99% identity with the C. deuterogattii reference strain R265, indicating that the infecting strain is derived from the highly clonal outbreak strains in the PNW. We conclude that the patient acquired the C. gattii infection during his travel to the region 3 years prior and that the infection was dormant for an extended period of time before causing disease. The patient tested positive for anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibodies, supporting earlier reports that implicate these autoantibodies as a risk factor associated with C. gattii infection.IMPORTANCE Mortality rates associated with C. gattii infections are estimated to be between 13% and 33%, depending on an individual's predisposition, and C. gattii has caused at least 39 deaths in the PNW region. There have been four other international travel cases reported in patients from Europe and Asia with travel history to the PNW, but this report describes the first North American traveler who acquired C. deuterogattii infection presenting within the United States and the first case of a C. deuterogattii outbreak infection associated with anti-GM-CSF autoantibodies. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for disease prevention and treatment and for control of infectious diseases. Continual reporting of C. deuterogattii infections is necessary to raise awareness of the ongoing outbreak in the PNW and to alert travelers and physicians to the areas of endemicity with potential risks.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/antagonistas & inibidores , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Meningite Criptocócica/patologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Costa Rica , Cryptococcus/classificação , Cryptococcus/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , North Carolina , Noroeste dos Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Transplantation ; 103(10): 2144-2149, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An 11-year-old girl with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency was proposed for potentially curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the donor being her haploidentical mother. However, end-stage liver disease caused by chronic Cryptosporidium infection required liver transplantation before HSCT. METHODS: Consequently, a staged approach of a sequential liver transplant followed by a HSCT was planned with her mother as the donor for both liver and HSCT. RESULTS: The patient successfully underwent a left-lobe orthotopic liver transplant; however, she developed a biliary leak delaying the HSCT. Notably, the recipient demonstrated 3% donor lymphocyte chimerism in her peripheral blood immediately before HSCT. Haploidentical-related donor HSCT performed 2 months after liver transplantation was complicated by the development of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus viremia, primary graft failure, and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome. The patient died from sinusoidal obstruction syndrome-associated multiorgan failure with Candida sepsis on day +40 following HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the many considerations inherent to planning for HSCT preceded by liver transplant in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, including the role of prolonged immunosuppression and the risk of infection before immune reconstitution. We also discuss the implications of potential recipient sensitization against donor stem cells precipitated by exposure of the recipient to the donor lymphocytes from the transplanted organ.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(1): 236-253, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738173

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in PIK3CD cause a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, susceptibility to herpesvirus infections, and impaired antibody responses. Previous work revealed defects in CD8+ T and B cells that contribute to this clinical phenotype, but less is understood about the role of CD4+ T cells in disease pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We sought to dissect the effects of increased phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling on CD4+ T-cell function. METHODS: We performed detailed ex vivo, in vivo, and in vitro phenotypic and functional analyses of patients' CD4+ T cells and a novel murine disease model caused by overactive PI3K signaling. RESULTS: PI3K overactivation caused substantial increases in numbers of memory and follicular helper T (TFH) cells and dramatic changes in cytokine production in both patients and mice. Furthermore, PIK3CD GOF human TFH cells had dysregulated phenotype and function characterized by increased programmed cell death protein 1, CXCR3, and IFN-γ expression, the phenotype of a TFH cell subset with impaired B-helper function. This was confirmed in vivo in which Pik3cd GOF CD4+ T cells also acquired an aberrant TFH phenotype and provided poor help to support germinal center reactions and humoral immune responses by antigen-specific wild-type B cells. The increase in numbers of both memory and TFH cells was largely CD4+ T-cell extrinsic, whereas changes in cytokine production and TFH cell function were cell intrinsic. CONCLUSION: Our studies reveal that CD4+ T cells with overactive PI3K have aberrant activation and differentiation, thereby providing mechanistic insight into dysfunctional antibody responses in patients with PIK3CD GOF mutations.

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