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1.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 13(7): 739-742, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074500

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One of the challenges of pharmacy schools worldwide is the need to link theoretical training with the mastery of practical skills. A virtual pharmacy simulation, MyDispense, developed by the Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at Monash University, enables students to practice the skills of a professional pharmacist, from novice to highly advanced, in a safe virtual environment that is web-based and highly accessible. The free online simulation allows students to undertake scenarios where patients can present with prescription or self-care requirements, and are also challenged with validation tasks requiring them to check the work of virtual colleagues for accuracy, legality, and medicine safety. COMMENTARY: This commentary describes the use of a virtual simulation, MyDispense, in enhancing didactic instruction, complementing experiential education, and the challenges of the virtual simulation to pharmacy educators. MyDispense is now deployed to 186 schools of pharmacy across 34 countries to over 25,000 students worldwide who have completed over 963,000 exercises globally. IMPLICATIONS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (aka COVID-19) pandemic presents challenges to pharmacy education requiring many educators to switch to remote online learning. Simulation programs, such as MyDispense, help to replicate aspects of pharmacy practice and can be used creatively to meet course needs. The use of MyDispense is an excellent example of pharmacy educators collaborating globally and learning from each other to improve student learning.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Currículo , Educação à Distância/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Profissional , Humanos
2.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 27(4): 785-801, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024179

RESUMO

The Oncology Pharmacy Team (OPT), consisting of specialty-trained pharmacists and/or pharmacy technicians, is an integral component of the multidisciplinary healthcare team (MHT) involved with all aspects of cancer patient care. The OPT fosters quality patient care, safety, and local regulatory compliance. The International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners (ISOPP) developed this position statement to provide guidance on five key areas: 1) oncology pharmacy practice as a pharmacy specialty; 2) contributions to patient care; 3) oncology pharmacy practice management; 4) education and training; and 5) contributions to oncology research and quality initiatives to involve the OPT. This position statement advocates that: 1) the OPT be fully incorporated into the MHT to optimize patient care; 2) educational and healthcare institutions develop programs to continually educate OPT members; and 3) regulatory authorities develop certification programs to recognize the unique contributions of the OPT in cancer patient care.


Assuntos
Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Sociedades Farmacêuticas , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Educação em Farmácia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Assistência ao Paciente , Segurança do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos , Técnicos em Farmácia , Pesquisa , Especialização
3.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Technology is increasingly used to enhance pharmacy education. We sought to evaluate student learning and preparedness for community introductory pharmacy practice experiences (IPPEs) after implementation of "MyDispense" into experiential education. METHODS: Both first-year pharmacy students and assigned community IPPE preceptors were eligible. Students were stratified based on previous community pharmacy experience (< or ≥ 50 h), then randomized to complete MyDispense exercises before IPPE (group A) or after 24-32 h of IPPE (group B). We evaluated preceptors' assessment of student readiness using a 6-item Likert scale survey and students' readiness and opinion of MyDispense using an anonymous 9-item survey. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize data. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare groups and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 177 eligible students, 155 were randomized and 56 completed study. Group A included 32 students; 56.3% had prior community practice experience. Group B included 24 students; 50% had prior community practice experience. Forty-eight preceptors were enrolled. Students who completed exercises before rotation received higher preceptor scores for patient counseling of self-care and of medications (p < 0.05 for both). Students self-assessed their counseling skills lower than all other skills; 30.4% and 42.9% of students felt mostly or always prepared to counsel for self-care and medications, respectively. Students found MyDispense straightforward, realistic, and appreciated the ability to practice in a safe, electronic, community pharmacy, patient-care environment. CONCLUSION: Simulation-based software, such as MyDispense, can enhance learner understanding of the prescription fill and counseling process in a community pharmacy practice setting.

4.
Cannabis Cannabinoid Res ; 6(1): 66-73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614954

RESUMO

Introduction: Over the last few years, a growth in research and interest in medical cannabis (most often referred to as medical marijuana) use have occurred nationally. Medical cannabis has become a treatment option for disease conditions, such as epilepsy, wasting syndrome associated with AIDs, and post-traumatic stress disorder, when traditional medication is ineffective. Objectives: The objectives were to identify knowledge deficits of the medical cannabis program (MCP) in Connecticut among Connecticut pharmacists and the impact of MCP on Connecticut pharmacy practice and concerns Connecticut pharmacists have regarding medical cannabis use. Methods: A cross-sectional survey through an online platform, Google forms, was administered for 2 months (October 15, 2017-December 15, 2017). An e-mail containing the link to the survey was e-mailed to all pharmacists whose e-mail addresses were available from the State of Connecticut's Commission of Pharmacy database (n = 6182). Of those with available e-mail addresses, only 5653 pharmacists received the e-mail; the others were rejected upon receipt of our e-mail. Our survey consists of 16 items related to pharmacist demo- graphic information, knowledge assessment, impact on pharmacists' practice, and concerns stemming from medical cannabis. Results: Only 51 (15.2%) respondents believed that Connecticut MCP would impact their practice. Only 39 (11.6%) respondents selected the two correct requirements for patient registration and correctly identified the wrong choices. Only 81 (24.2%) respondents identified the correct approved dose (maximum allowable monthly amount of 2.5 ounces) of medical cannabis. Sixty-eight (20.2%) respondents correctly identified all three approved conditions and all other incorrect conditions. Sixty-five (19.40%) respondents correctly identified all roles of dispensary pharmacists. Majority of respondents, 243 (72.5%), expressed their concern about federal laws regarding cannabis. A total of 98 (29.3%) respondents thought that they were knowledgeable enough about the side effects of medical cannabis to provide appropriate counseling to patients. Conclusion: Overall, the results of our survey found that Connecticut licensed pharmacists had lack of complete and accurate knowledge regarding the state's MCP. As more states legalize medical cannabis, it will be imperative that education of pharmacists and other health care professionals about the MCP and the clinical use of cannabis occur.

5.
Ann Pharmacother ; 55(7): 870-890, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review pharmacology, available dosage forms, efficacy, and safety of cannabis and cannabinoids in cancer patients. DATA SOURCES: In PubMed (1965 to June 2020) the search was conducted using the search terms cannabidiol, cannabis, CBD, dronabinol, endocannabinoids, medical marijuana, nabiximols, nabilone, THC, and cancer. Abstracts from article bibliographies were reviewed. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant English-language studies conducted in humans evaluating cannabis and cannabinoids for cancer treatment or related symptoms were considered. Reference lists in relevant articles, package inserts, guidance documents, and addditional articles evaluating cannabis and cannabinoids were identified. DATA SYNTHESIS: Cannabis and cannabinoid effectiveness can be attributed to active components delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Multiple dosage forms exist, each with different properties contributing to efficacy and safety differences. No data supports use as anticancer agents, and mixed efficacy results have been reported when used in cancer patients with nausea, pain, and anorexia. Inclusion of medicinal and synthetic products, small sample sizes, varying patient populations, and different dosage forms, doses, and drug combinations. These products are well tolerated, and adverse effects depend on the main active component. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: Healthcare professionals need to identify appropriateness, monitor, and document use of cannabis and cannabinoids similar to other drug therapies as well as educate the patients/ caregivers about potential benefits and risks. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence for use of medical cannabis and cannabinoids in cancer patients is weak. However, healthcare professionals are in an ideal role to monitor and educate patients using medical cannabis and cannabinoids.

6.
Pharmacy (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722357

RESUMO

Although oncology pharmacists have been involved in the care of cancer patients for over 50 years, the role of the oncology pharmacist continues to expand. Initially, pharmacists were primarily based within either an inpatient or outpatient pharmacy setting and their work focused on providing the necessary safety checks to dispense cancer-related medications. With technology freeing up pharmacists from dispensing functions and advanced training in direct patient care (e.g., oncology residency, oncology fellowship), the oncology pharmacist was able to provide direct patient care at the bedside or within the clinic where treatment decisions are made by the healthcare team. In fact, they have become integral members of the healthcare team. This Issue describes several expanding roles of oncology pharmacists in stem cell transplant, hematology, gastrointestinal oncology, and precision genomics, as well as oncology pharmacists preventing a reduction in cancer patient visits as the oncology physician shortage occurs. Oncology pharmacists are an integral part of the cancer care team; their value has been documented in several studies, and is highlighted in this Issue. We encourage the profession to continue to document their value so that one day each patient can have an oncology pharmacist as part of their cancer care team.

7.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 60(4): e109-e116, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the novel approach of using the community pharmacist as the primary health care team member to facilitate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk counseling and screening in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. SETTING: A collaborative effort between the UConn Health Colon Cancer Prevention Program and UConn School of Pharmacy in conjunction with large independent chain pharmacies (medium to medium-high volume) located in metropolitan areas of Connecticut, including Hartford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and Stamford. Pharmacies located in hospitals, across the street from a large physician practice, or within the community. PRACTICE DESCRIPTION: The study involved 2 phases. The first phase involved education and training for community pharmacists regarding counseling approaches for patients on the topic of CRC. The second phase of the study involved patient recruitment and counseling with subsequent fecal immunohistochemical testing (FIT). PRACTICE INNOVATION: A community pharmacist provided face-to-face counseling on CRC risk factor reduction and provided CRC screening to patients who were without insurance or underinsured. No CRC screening or education program existed beforehand. EVALUATION: A target sample size of 60 participants was needed with a type 1 error rate of 5% and a power of 80%. Exploration of variables using multivariate logistic regression model included any variable with a univariate P < 0.2. Multivariate P values < 0.05 were considered independent predictors. RESULTS: After approaching 312 consumers, 16 of them consented to the study. The majority of participants (88%) were African American or Latino, and 69% were currently unemployed. Eight participants agreed to complete FIT, and 88% of participants completed FIT correctly. Only 1 positive FIT result was observed, but a subsequent colonoscopy was negative. Of the 12 questions that assessed baseline CRC knowledge in the initial survey, 16 participants answered an average of 2.6 (range, 0-6, SD, 1.6) questions incorrectly. Only 4 participants completed the follow-up survey of CRC knowledge and program satisfaction; thus, exploration of variables was not conducted. Patients indicated high satisfaction with the program of education and FIT dispensing. CONCLUSION: This study faced difficulty in recruiting pharmacists to participate, with the main reason being lack of compensation and disruption to workflow. Patient participation in the trial was also low because of a lack of time or interest in participation. Of the patients who did participate, the level of satisfaction in having the pharmacist speak to them about CRC screening was high. This service is an excellent example of how the pharmacist can provide a more accessible, convenient, and responsive approach to patients' needs while improving health equity. Future studies that employ a revenue model to build the infrastructure and capacity necessary to offer this service efficiently and consistently are needed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Farmácias , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Farmacêuticos
8.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 26(5): 1117-1127, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707922

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Medical marijuana is often used as adjuvant therapy in cancer patients for symptom management, although limited evidence-based studies evaluating its efficacy or safety exist. Similar to over-the-counter medications, supplements, or herbal products, documentation of medical marijuana is important to monitor efficacy, potential adverse effects, or interactions. The objective of this quality improvement study was to improve the consistency of medical marijuana documentation in cancer patients by assessing current practices; educating healthcare team members about the importance of documentation and newly established documentation process; and evaluating the new documentation process. METHODS: This three-part quality improvement study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In part I, a voluntary survey was sent via email to Cancer Center healthcare personnel to assess the current documentation process of medical marijuana. In part II, a best practice process for documenting medical marijuana in the electronic medical record was established. Medical marijuana was to be listed as a historical medication in the medication list. In-person and electronic education sessions were offered to Cancer Center clinical staff. The education emphasized the importance of documenting medical marijuana use and provided a detailed process for electronic medical record documentation. A pre- and post-test to assess understanding was also included. Part III was a retrospective chart review to evaluate documentation practices of certified medical marijuana users in the Cancer Center. Patients included in the study were greater than 18 years old and certified for medical marijuana use on or after 1 January 2018. Department of Corrections patients were excluded. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. RESULTS: The survey results in part I demonstrated a lack of consistency in the documentation of medical marijuana in the Cancer Center. The pre- and post-test scores measured in part II showed a significant improvement in understanding after education was provided. The average pre-test score was a 61 and post-test score was 88, indicating an average increase of 27 points. A larger increase in test scores was observed in those attending the in-person education than the online sessions (p < 0.002). The results of the retrospective chart review in part III revealed 56 patients who met inclusion criteria, but only 39 patients were alive and evaluated at the time of the retrospective chart review. Of the 39 patients, 22 never completed the patient registration process and therefore, would never have been able to obtain medical marijuana. Seven patients had medical marijuana properly documented in their medication list and 10 patients were missing documentation in the medication list, showing room for improvement in documentation practices. CONCLUSIONS: This quality improvement study led to the implementation of medical marijuana documentation in the medication list. Education increased healthcare team members understanding of medical marijuana utilization and the importance of documentation.


Assuntos
Documentação , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(8): 1945-1967, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although many oncology pharmacists are embedded members within the healthcare team, data documenting their contributions to optimal patient outcomes are growing. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the value of the oncology pharmacist within the healthcare team and describe the knowledge, skills, and functions of the oncology pharmacist. METHODS: A systematic literature review of articles that were published on PubMed between January 1951 and October 2018 was completed. Identified abstracts were reviewed and included if they focused on measuring the value or impact of the oncology pharmacist on provider/patient satisfaction, improvement of medication safety, improvement of quality/clinical care outcomes, economics, and intervention acceptance. Review articles, meta-analysis, and studies not evaluating oncology pharmacist activities were excluded. Studies were thematically coded into four themes (clinical care, patient education, informatics, and cost savings) by 10 oncology pharmacists. RESULTS: Four-hundred twenty-two articles were identified, in which 66 articles met inclusion criteria for this review. The selected literature included 27 interventional and 38 descriptive studies. The value of the oncology pharmacist was demonstrated by published articles in four key themes: clinical care, patient education, informatics, and cost savings. CONCLUSION: With an expected shortage of oncology physicians and the ongoing development of complex oncology therapies, the board-certified oncology pharmacist is well suited to serve as a physician extender alongside nurse practitioners and/or physician assistants as the medication expert on the oncology care team. The demonstrated value of the oncology pharmacist supports their role as frontline providers of patient care.


Assuntos
Oncologia/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Redução de Custos , Humanos , Médicos/organização & administração , Papel Profissional
10.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(6): 1509-1511, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30092742

RESUMO

Nearly all men with prostate cancer who are treated with androgen deprivation therapy develop disease progression. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CXCL 13 released by tumor cells leads to B-cell infiltration into the prostate cells. This B-cell infiltration has been postulated to play a role in development of disease progression following androgen-deprivation therapies. We present a case of a patient who achieved remission of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer after receiving rituximab and bendamustine for the treatment of follicular lymphoma. The findings in this report suggest that further investigation is warranted for utilizing B-cell targeted therapy in delaying progression of castrate-resistant prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
11.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 25(2): 492-496, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29078709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is the 11th most common cause of cancer mortality in the United States. It is aggressive in nature and has an ability to spread rapidly through direct extension, lymphatic spread, or hematogenously. With an estimated incidence of 1%, cutaneous metastases from esophageal cancer are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case study and review, we describe a case of recurrent esophageal basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presenting as multiple, rapidly progressing and tender subcutaneous nodules. A 69-year-old male with history of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus treated with concurrent chemoradiation, presented to his oncologist with complaints of a large, painful nodule at the nape of his neck approximately two years after completing treatment. On further examination, he was noted to have multiple, well circumscribed, solid, tender nodules on his abdominal wall along with a painful nodule on the pulp of his index finger. Histopathology from all sites revealed skin infiltration by high-grade invasive basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, similar to patient's prior known and treated primary esophageal cancer. Further imaging work up showed extensive metastatic disease involving lung, liver, and brain. CONCLUSION: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma rarely metastasize to the skin. Subcutaneous nodules can be the first presentation of recurrent disease. The lesions are commonly confused with skin infections and treated inappropriately with antibiotics, leading to delay in diagnosis of recurrent disease. Early biopsy of suspicious lesions should be performed, especially in patients with history of cancer, such that prompt diagnosis and treatment can occur to maximize patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/secundário , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/secundário , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino
12.
J Adv Pract Oncol ; 9(7): 755-756, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249723

RESUMO

The Association of Community Cancer Centers (ACCC), Hematology/Oncology Pharmacy Association (HOPA), National Community Oncology Dispensing Association (NCODA), and Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) partnered together to create a resource for providers, and patients and caregivers on oral chemotherapy agents. The patient education sheets include information on medication names and pronunciation, approved uses, dose and schedule, drug and food interactions, the best practice guidelines for safe handling, administration, and disposal of oral chemotherapy agenzts by patients and caregivers; management strategies for the most common side effects; and pregnancy, sexual activity, and contraception information. Each sheet also has an area to list from which pharmacy the patient will receive the medication. The document and the website also provide the link to the individual product website, prescribing information, and product resources, if available.

13.
Curr Pharm Teach Learn ; 9(4): 511-520, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A key element for pharmacy practice defined by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) is medication use systems management. A web-based community pharmacy simulation originally created for Australian pharmacy students was adapted for pharmacy students in the United States (US). The objective of this study was to collaboratively adapt an existing international simulation program for utility in the US and measure student perceptions of a web-based community pharmacy simulation program in three US schools of pharmacy. METHODS: An Australian development team in collaboration with US pharmacy school faculty modified the existing MyDispense software to create a virtual environment that accurately represented US community pharmacy practice. Students at three US schools of pharmacy used the newly adapted version of MyDispense and were surveyed on their prior experience in community pharmacy and their perceptions of MyDispense as a learning tool. RESULTS: Overall 241 (44%) students completed the satisfaction survey. Approximately 40% of these students worked in a community pharmacy before starting pharmacy school. Most students agreed or strongly agreed that MyDispense was straightforward to learn (76%), was more realistic than addressing similar paper cases (73%), and offered a learning opportunity to safely make errors (84%). Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that MyDispense allowed students to practice how to gather patient information and ask appropriate questions, counsel patients, and practice the dispensing process. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Response to the US version of My Dispense is positive and proves to be a viable option for introducing and reinforcing community pharmacy practice skills to students during in their pharmacy education.


Assuntos
Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Sistemas de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Currículo/tendências , Educação em Farmácia/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/normas , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/normas , Design de Software , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/instrumentação , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
15.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 23(3): 185-194, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854267

RESUMO

Background Oncology pharmacists are capable of providing medication therapy management (MTM) because of their level of training, practice experiences, and responsibilities. Very little data exist about their current practice, including changing roles in the multidisciplinary team, overall impact, and effects in the education of patients and healthcare professionals. Methods A 70-item survey about oncology pharmacists' activities in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) was deployed using a web survey tool (Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA), targeting pharmacist members of American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Hematology/Oncology Practice and Research Network (PRN). The objective of this study was to determine oncology pharmacists' activities in areas of oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and CPAs. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to the ACCP Hematology/Oncology PRN membership. Investigational Review Board approval was obtained. Results Of the 795 members who were sent the survey, 81 members (10%) responded; 33 respondents (47%) are involved with an oral chemotherapy program; with 42% measuring outcomes of programs. Only six pharmacists (19%) have published or presented their data. A total of 28 (35%) respondents provide MTM services, with almost half (43%) of these MTM services being dictated by CPAs. A small fraction of these pharmacists (21.4%) reported conducting quality assurance evaluations of their MTM services and three pharmacists (10.7%) reported publishing their results. Those pharmacists practicing under CPAs ( n = 28) were surveyed as to activities included in their CPA. The most common activities included adjusting medication, ordering, interpreting, and monitoring lab tests, developing therapeutic plans and educating patients. Reimbursement for providing these services was uncommon: MTM (4%), oral chemotherapy program (6%), and CPA services (11%). Reported obstacles to reimbursement included lack of understanding, administrative assistance, or time with setting up reimbursement models within the institution. Conclusion Many oncology pharmacists are participating in oral chemotherapy programs, MTM, and/or CPAs and perceived barriers were identified. Increased efforts should be directed toward prospectively reporting and assessing the impact these services have on patient care.


Assuntos
Oncologia , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Comportamento Cooperativo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel Profissional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
16.
Pharmacotherapy ; 36(5): 562-74, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27027412

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 historically has been the most difficult to treat HCV genotype, and patients infected with this genotype had been previously treated with interferon-based therapy. In recent years, however, treatment options for chronic HCV infection have rapidly changed to an all-oral regimen. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir is an oral fixed-dose (ledipasvir 90 mg-sofosbuvir 400 mg) combination of two direct-acting antiviral drugs. Four phase 3 clinical trials (ION-1-4) evaluated ledipasvir-sofosbuvir with and without ribavirin in patients with HCV genotype 1. High rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) occurred with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir alone in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients without cirrhosis as well as in treatment-naïve patients with cirrhosis when administered for 12 weeks. In treatment-experienced patients with cirrhosis, 24 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir was also highly effective. Furthermore, treatment-naïve patients without cirrhosis (particularly those with HCV RNA serum concentrations < 6 million IU/ml) can achieve a similar SVR with only 8 weeks of therapy. Similarly, in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and HCV genotype 1 who were treated with ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 12 weeks, a high SVR was observed in those with and without cirrhosis as well as treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir is well tolerated, with fatigue, headache, nausea, diarrhea, and insomnia being the most common adverse effects, which are typically mild to moderate in nature. This combination antiviral can be taken with or without food. Key factors to consider when prescribing ledipasvir-sofosbuvir are drug interactions including those mediated by the P-glycoprotein transporter and increased pH, cost of the drug or insurance coverage, comorbid conditions, and patient and provider preferences. Postmarketing experience and ongoing clinical trials will further define the safety and role of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in the treatment of HCV genotype 1.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Genótipo , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Humanos , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Sofosbuvir/efeitos adversos
17.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 22(3): 511-6, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25900102

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral chemotherapy is being routinely used in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate and renal cell cancer. Although convenient, these drugs require monitoring for adherence, toxicity, and drug interactions to maximize outcomes. Oncology pharmacists have the training and expertise that place them in an optimal position to collaboratively provide medication therapy management. METHODS: A board-certified oncology pharmacist, working in collaboration with a medical oncologist, initiated an oral chemotherapy-monitoring program. The pharmacist provided education, completed medication therapy management; monitored for adherence and toxicity; and recommended treatment of toxicity and supportive care issues. Patient encounters included one of the following: collaboration with medical oncologist visit, pharmacist visit, or telephone or email follow-up between visits. RESULTS: From December 2012 to May 2014, the pharmacist had 123 encounters with 20 patients with either metastatic prostate (n = 17) or renal cell cancer (n = 3). All patients were males (median age 80 years). Most encounters were clinic visits, in collaboration with physician visit or alone (52%); 36% were telephone encounters, and 11.3% were email follow-ups. Medication-related problems were identified in 25% of the 315 assessments made. Problems included: adverse drug reactions, 40%; inappropriate therapy, 20%; and noncompliance, 18%. Recommendations included: modification of laboratory monitoring, 25%; cancer or non-cancer therapy modification, 12%; drug discontinuation, 6.9%. Non-cancer therapy-related drug information and coordination of care accounted for 30% of recommendations. CONCLUSION: Our program led to identification of a number of potentially clinically significant issues for patients on oral chemotherapy and demonstrated the benefit of the pharmacist in the multidisciplinary team to assist in addressing them.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Oncologia/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso , Farmacêuticos , Médicos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Comportamento Cooperativo , Interações Medicamentosas , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/normas , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Oncologia/normas , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Farmacêuticos/normas , Médicos/normas , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Urogenitais/diagnóstico
18.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 22(2): 319-24, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25361599

RESUMO

Oxaliplatin, a third-generation, platinum-based agent is widely used, most commonly in the FOLFOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin) regimen, which is the first-line therapy in metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma and adjuvant chemotherapy in stage III colorectal cancer. Platinum-based products are well known for causing hypersensitivity reactions. Fever associated with oxaliplatin-hypersensitivity reactions typically follows a specific pattern. It usually starts during the oxaliplatin infusion or immediately after (within hours instead of days) and happens after several administrations (mean 2-25) with unpredictable clinical presentations. We report a case of oxaliplatin-induced hypersensitivity reaction manifesting as fever but with unusual presentation than the aforementioned features.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/diagnóstico , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Neoplasias do Colo/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Oxaliplatina
19.
J Oncol Pharm Pract ; 22(6): 777-783, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the introduction of oral chemotherapy, the paradigm for cancer treatment is shifting. Use of oral chemotherapy agents offers a non-invasive option for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. However, these medications are not without challenges including strict adherence for optimal effects, novel toxicity profiles, frequent lab parameter monitoring, high cost, and proper handling and disposal methods. Pharmacists are positioned to play a key role in providing patients with the education required to assure an optimal treatment course is carried out. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients receiving abiraterone, bicalutamide, or enzalutamide for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer seen in our outpatient cancer center 21 months before and 24 months after the implementation of a pharmacist-led oral chemotherapy-monitoring program in December of 2012 were retrospectively compared. Patients were evaluated for number of interventions, adherence to lab parameter monitoring, and overall time on each therapy. RESULTS: Of the 64 patients identified, 31 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. A significant increase in the average number of interventions per patient (6.9 vs. 2.6; P = 0.004) and adherence to lab parameter monitoring (10 vs. 3; P = 0.04) in the post-program implementation cohort was found. However, no significant difference in overall time on therapy (10.3 vs. 8.1; P = 0.341) between the two groups was observed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest a potential opportunity exists to maximize oral chemotherapy treatment outcomes with the addition of a formalized monitoring program directed by an oncology pharmacist.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Androstenos/administração & dosagem , Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Androstenóis/administração & dosagem , Androstenóis/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Feniltioidantoína/efeitos adversos , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 72(8): 619-31, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25825185

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Strategies for the management of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN), including assessment tools for determining which patients are at low risk for FN complications and can be treated in the outpatient setting, are discussed. SUMMARY: Due to the potential for life-threatening complications, the development of FN in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy traditionally prompted hospitalization and i.v. antimicrobial therapy, but there is convincing published evidence that an identifiable subset of patients can be safely treated as outpatients. Two validated assessment tools recommended for identifying patients at low risk for FN complications are the Talcott classification system and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) risk index; the MASCC index is superior in terms of sensitivity and negative predictive value but has lower specificity. In low-risk FN cases, outpatient oral antimicrobial therapy has been shown to be a safe and effective alternative to i.v. therapy for both inpatients and outpatients; current practice guidelines recommend an oral fluoroquinolone (e.g., ciprofloxacin) in combination with oral amoxicillin-clavulanate. The guidelines emphasize that in certain cases of FN (e.g., those involving prolonged or pronounced neutropenia or serious comorbidities), inpatient i.v. therapy is required. CONCLUSION: Pharmacists can play an important role in the management of chemotherapy-associated FN through involvement in risk assessment to identify candidates for outpatient oral antimicrobial therapy, selection of appropriate pharmacotherapy, drug therapy monitoring, and development of institutional guidelines or pathways.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia Febril/terapia , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
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