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1.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 307-319, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851660

RESUMO

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10-8 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.

2.
Br J Sports Med ; 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important marker of current and future health status. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of a time-efficient school-based intervention on older adolescents' CRF. METHODS: Two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial conducted in two cohorts (February 2018 to February 2019 and February 2019 to February 2020) in New South Wales, Australia. Participants (N=670, 44.6% women, 16.0±0.43 years) from 20 secondary schools: 10 schools (337 participants) were randomised to the Burn 2 Learn (B2L) intervention and 10 schools (333 participants) to the control. Teachers in schools allocated to the B2L intervention were provided with training, resources, and support to facilitate the delivery of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) activity breaks during curriculum time. Teachers and students in the control group continued their usual practice. The primary outcome was CRF (20 m multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes were muscular fitness, physical activity, hair cortisol concentrations, mental health and cognitive function. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 months (primary end-point) and 12 months. Effects were estimated using mixed models accounting for clustering. RESULTS: We observed a group-by-time effect for CRF (difference=4.1 laps, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.4) at the primary end-point (6 months), but not at 12 months. At 6 months, group-by-time effects were found for muscular fitness, steps during school hours and cortisol. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing HIIT during curricular time improved adolescents' CRF and several secondary outcomes. Our findings suggest B2L is unlikely to be an effective approach unless teachers embed sessions within the school day. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12618000293268).

3.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1504, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short birth interval, defined as a birth-to-birth interval less than 33 months, is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes. Evidence regarding the association of maternal socioeconomic status and short birth interval is inconclusive. Factors contributing to the socioeconomic inequality of short birth interval have also not been investigated. The current study assessed socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval and its contributing factors in Ethiopia. METHODS: Data from 8448 women collected in the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health survey were included in the study. Socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval was the outcome variable. Erreygers normalized concentration index (ECI) and concentration curves were used to measure and illustrate socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval, respectively. Decomposition analysis was performed to identify factors explaining the socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval. RESULTS: The Erreygers normalized concentration index for short birth interval was - 0.0478 (SE = 0.0062) and differed significantly from zero (P < 0.0001); indicating that short birth interval was more concentrated among the poor. Decomposition analysis indicated that wealth quintiles (74.2%), administrative regions (26.4%), and not listening to the radio (5.6%) were the major contributors to the pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in short birth interval. CONCLUSION: There was a pro-poor inequality of short birth interval in Ethiopia. Strengthening the implementation of poverty alleviation programs may improve the population's socioeconomic status and reduce the associated inequality in short birth interval.

4.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 369, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practice (GP) trainees may seek supervisor assistance to complete their patient consultations. This in-consultation assistance plays a key role in the supervisory oversight of trainees and in trainee learning. It may be obtained face-to-face, or using phone or messaging systems, and either in front of patients or outside their hearing. Trainee concerns about decreased patient impressions of their competence, and discomfort presenting patients within their hearing, act as barriers to seeking help during consultations. Little is known about the frequency and associations of trainee concerns about these patient-related barriers, or the various trainee-supervisor-patient configurations used to obtain in-consultation assistance. METHODS: Australian GP trainees rated their frequency of use of five specific configurations for obtaining in-consultation assistance, perceived change in patient impressions of their competence after this assistance, and relative trainee comfort presenting patients outside, compared to within, patients' hearing. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Responses were received from 778 Australian GP trainees (response rate 89%). Help-seeking configurations did not differ between trainees at different training stages, except for greater use of electronic messaging in later stages. In-consultation assistance was most commonly provided by phone between trainee and supervisor consulting rooms, or outside the trainee's patient's hearing. Supervisor assistance in the trainee's room face-to-face with the patient was reported as either never or rarely obtained by 12% of respondents. More trainees (25%) perceived that patient impressions of their competence increased after help-seeking than perceived that these impressions decreased (19%). Most trainees (55%) preferred to present patients outside their hearing. Trainee age was the only variable associated with both patient-related barriers. CONCLUSION: Supervisors appear to have considerable influence over trainee help-seeking, including which configurations are used and trainee perceptions of patient-related barriers. In-consultation supervision may actually increase trainee perceptions of patient impressions of their competence. Many supervisors and trainees may benefit from additional educational and workplace interventions to facilitate comfortable and effective trainee help-seeking in front of patients. More work is required to understand the clinical and educational implications of different help-seeking configurations when trainees require 'just in time' supervisor assistance.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study compared the efficacy of two multi-component m-health interventions with a wait-list control group on body weight (primary outcome), and secondary outcomes of cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle behaviours, and mental health. METHODS: Three-arm randomised controlled trial (Enhanced: physical activity, diet, sleep, Traditional: physical activity, diet, Control) with assessments conducted at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Participants (n = 116) were overweight or obese adults aged 19-65 (M = 44.5 [SD = 10.5]). The 6-month intervention was delivered via a smartphone app providing educational materials, goal-setting, self-monitoring and feedback, and also included one face-to-face dietary consultation, a Fitbit and scales. The trial was prospectively registered and conducted between May 2017 and September 2018. Group differences on primary and secondary outcomes were examined between the Pooled Intervention groups (Pooled Intervention = Enhanced and Traditional) and Control groups, and then between Enhanced and Traditional groups. RESULTS: Nineteen participants (16.4%) formally withdrew from the trial. Compared with the Control group, average body weight of the Pooled Intervention group did not differ at 6 (between-group difference = -0.92, (95% CI -3.33, 1.48)) or 12 months (0.00, (95% CI -2.62, 2.62)). Compared with the Control group, the Pooled Intervention group significantly increased resistance training (OR = 7.83, (95% CI 1.08, 56.63)) and reduced energy intake at 6 months (-1037.03, (-2028.84, -45.22)), and improved insomnia symptoms at 12 months (-2.59, (-4.79, -0.39)). Compared with the Traditional group, the Enhanced group had increased waist circumferences (2.69, (0.20, 5.18)) and sedentary time at 6 months (105.66, (30.83, 180.48)), and improved bed time variability at 12 months (-1.08, (-1.86, -0.29)). No other significant differences were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Relative to Controls, the Pooled Intervention groups did not differ on body weight but improved resistance training, and reduced energy intake and insomnia symptom severity. No additional weight loss was apparent when targeting improvements in physical activity, diet and sleep in combination compared with physical activity and diet.


Assuntos
Dieta , Exercício Físico , Obesidade/terapia , Sono , Telemedicina/métodos , Perda de Peso , Acelerometria , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , New South Wales , Sobrepeso/terapia , Smartphone , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; 27(5): 399-408, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511069

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess contributions of dietary and genetic factors to ethnic differences in AMD prevalence. DESIGN: Population-based analytical study. METHODS: In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, Australia (European ancestry n = 2826) and Multi-Ethnic Cohort Study, Singapore (Asian ancestry, n = 1900), AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Patterns of dietary composition and scores of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index were computed using food frequency questionnaire data. Genetic susceptibility to AMD was determined using either single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the complement factor H and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 genes, or combined odds-weighted genetic risk scores of 24 AMD-associated SNPs. Associations of AMD with ethnicity, diet, and genetics were assessed using logistic regression. Six potential mediators covering genetic, diet and lifestyle factors were assessed for their contributions to AMD risk difference between the two samples using mediation analyses. RESULTS: Age-standardized prevalence of any (early or late) AMD was higher in the European (16%) compared to Asian samples (9%, p < .01). Mean AMD-related genetic risk scores were also higher in European (33.3 ± 4.4) than Asian (Chinese) samples (31.7 ± 3.7, p < .001). In a model simultaneously adjusting for age, ethnicity, genetic susceptibility and Alternative Healthy Eating Index scores, only age and genetic susceptibility were significantly associated with AMD. Genetic risk scores contributed 19% of AMD risk difference between the two samples while intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids contributed 7.2%. CONCLUSION: Genetic susceptibility to AMD was higher in European compared to Chinese samples and explained more of the AMD risk difference between the two samples than the dietary factors investigated.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth interval duration is an important and modifiable risk factor for adverse child and maternal health outcomes. Understanding the spatial distribution of short birth interval, an inter-birth interval of less than 33 months, and its predictors are vital to prioritize and facilitate targeted interventions. However, the spatial variation of short birth interval and its underlying factors have not been investigated in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the predictors of short birth interval hot spots in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study used data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and included 8,448 women in the analysis. The spatial variation of short birth interval was first examined using hot spot analysis (Local Getis-Ord Gi* statistic). Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify factors explaining the geographic variation of short birth interval. Geographically weighted regression was used to explore the spatial variability of relationships between short birth interval and selected predictors. RESULTS: Statistically significant hot spots of short birth interval were found in Somali Region, Oromia Region, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region and some parts of Afar Region. Women with no education or with primary education, having a husband with higher education (above secondary education), and coming from a household with a poorer wealth quintile or middle wealth quintile were predictors of the spatial variation of short birth interval. The predictive strength of these factors varied across the study area. The geographically weighted regression model explained about 64% of the variation in short birth interval occurrence. CONCLUSION: Residing in a geographic area where a high proportion of women had either no education or only primary education, had a husband with higher education, or were from a household in the poorer or middle wealth quintile increased the risk of experiencing short birth interval. Our detailed maps of short birth interval hot spots and its predictors will assist decision makers in implementing precision public health.


Assuntos
Intervalo entre Nascimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mapeamento Geográfico , Regressão Espacial , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 347-353, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence links a poor diet with mental ill-health although the direction of this association is unclear. The aim was to examine the bidirectional prospective relationships between core (and non-core food consumption, and symptoms of depression. METHODS: Depressive symptoms (Mental Health Index-5, MHI-5), current/prior depression and consumption of core (recommended food groups) and non-core (discretionary) foods were assessed in the population-based 2013 and 2017 Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia cohort study. Three cross-lagged linear models assessed associations between all three baseline variables in 2013, alternating 2017 variables as outcomes. RESULTS: In the population (n = 10,003; 48.3% women; 48.5[15.7] years), core food score in 2013 was associated with MHI-5 (ß:0.102, 95%CI: 0.010,0.193) in 2017, while the non-core food score was not (ß:-0.030, 95%CI:-0.099,0.160). Depressive symptom score in 2013 was not associated with either food score in 2017. Current/prior diagnosis of depression in 2013 was associated with core (ß:-0.198, 95%CI:-0.329,-0.067) but not non-core (ß:-0.036, 95%CI: -0.151,0.080) food score in 2017. LIMITATIONS: Results may not be generalizable to the whole population due to some selection bias, self-report depression diagnosis may have led to misclassification of previous mental illness, and core and non-core food scores are not validated measures of diet quality. CONCLUSIONS: There is a prospective association between core food consumption and depressive symptoms. This association is of small magnitude and we cannot discount insufficient core food consumption reflecting an effect of prior mental illness. Our results suggest that, for depression, public health focus should be on improving core food intake.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 55(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184317

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence highlights links between iron regulation and respiratory disease. Here, we assessed the relationship between iron levels and regulatory responses in clinical and experimental asthma.We show that cell-free iron levels are reduced in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) supernatant of severe or mild-moderate asthma patients and correlate with lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Conversely, iron-loaded cell numbers were increased in BAL in these patients and with lower FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio. The airway tissue expression of the iron sequestration molecules divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1) are increased in asthma, with TFR1 expression correlating with reduced lung function and increased Type-2 (T2) inflammatory responses in the airways. Furthermore, pulmonary iron levels are increased in a house dust mite (HDM)-induced model of experimental asthma in association with augmented Tfr1 expression in airway tissue, similar to human disease. We show that macrophages are the predominant source of increased Tfr1 and Tfr1+ macrophages have increased Il13 expression. We also show that increased iron levels induce increased pro-inflammatory cytokine and/or extracellular matrix (ECM) responses in human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells and fibroblasts ex vivo and induce key features of asthma in vivo, including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and fibrosis, and T2 inflammatory responses.Together these complementary clinical and experimental data highlight the importance of altered pulmonary iron levels and regulation in asthma, and the need for a greater focus on the role and potential therapeutic targeting of iron in the pathogenesis and severity of disease.

10.
Ann Behav Med ; 54(7): 470-483, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor sleep health is highly prevalent. Physical activity is known to improve sleep quality but not specifically targeted in sleep interventions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of a combined physical activity and sleep intervention with a sleep-only intervention and a wait-list control, for improving sleep quality in middle-aged adults without a diagnosed sleep disorder. METHODS: Three-arm randomized controlled trial (Physical Activity and Sleep Health (PAS), Sleep Health Only (SO), Wait-list Control (CON) groups; 3-month primary time-point, 6-month follow-up) of 275 (PAS = 110, SO = 110, CON = 55) inactive adults (40-65 years) reporting poor sleep quality. The main intervention component was a smartphone/tablet "app" to aid goal setting and self-monitoring physical activity and/or sleep hygiene behaviors (including stress management), and a pedometer for PAS group. Primary outcome was Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score. Secondary outcomes included several self-reported physical activity measures and PSQI subcomponents. Group differences were examined stepwise, first between pooled intervention (PI = PAS + SO) and CON groups, then between PAS and SO groups. RESULTS: Compared with CON, PI groups significantly improved PSQI global and subcomponents scores at 3 and 6 months. There were no differences in sleep quality between PAS and SO groups. The PAS group reported significantly less daily sitting time at 3 months and was significantly more likely to report ≥2 days/week resistance training and meeting physical activity guidelines at 6 months than the SO group. CONCLUSIONS: PIs had statistically significantly improved sleep quality among middle-aged adults with poor sleep quality without a diagnosed sleep disorder. The adjunctive physical activity intervention did not additionally improve sleep quality. CLINICAL TRIAL INFORMATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12617000680369; Universal Trial number: U1111-1194-2680; Human Research Ethics Committee, Blinded by request of journal: H-2016-0267.

11.
Aust J Rural Health ; 28(1): 32-41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950594

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate registrar, practice and consultation characteristics associated with varying degrees of GP registrars' practice rurality. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis of 12 rounds of data collection (2010-2015) from the longitudinal Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training study, an ongoing, cohort study of Australian GP registrars. The principal analysis used was a generalised ordered logistic regression. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: GP registrars in training practices within five of 17 GP regional training providers in five Australian states. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Degree of rurality of the practice in which the registrar undertook training terms was calculated from the practice postcode using the Australian Standard Classification-Remoteness Area classification. RESULTS: A total of 1161 registrars contributed data for 166 998 patient consultations (response rate 95.5%). Of these, 56.9% were in major city practices (ASGC-RA1), 25.7% were in inner-regional practices (ASGC-RA2) and 17.4% were in outer-regional/rural practices (ASGC-RA3-5). Several statistically significant associations (P = < .001) were found within regional/rural practices (ASGC-RA2-5), when compared with major city practices (ASGC-RA1). These included registrar characteristics such as being in Term 1, being medically trained overseas, and having worked at the practice previously; patient characteristics such as the patient being an existing patient, being older and being Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander; and consultation characteristics such as performance of procedures. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that registrars are undertaking rural practice early in their GP training and are being exposed to a rich and challenging mix of clinical and educational practice.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/organização & administração , Medicina Geral/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da População Rural/educação , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(2): 196-203, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Australia, general practitioners (GPs) are recognised as an essential source of postpartum care. However, there remains a paucity of research pertaining to this, and in particular, to that of GP trainees (in Australia, termed 'registrars'). Previous post-graduate experience in obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) is not a prerequisite for GP training, and thus, it is imperative that vocational training provides adequate exposure to postpartum consultations. AIM: To investigate the prevalence and associations of Australian GP registrars' (trainees') experience in postpartum care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study employing data from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) project. ReCEnT is an ongoing cohort study where GP registrars record 60 consecutive consultations mid-way through each training term. The outcome variable was postpartum problem/diagnosis (compared to all other problems/diagnoses). The independent variables included registrar, practice, patient, consultation, clinical and educational factors. Analyses employed univariate and multivariable regression. RESULTS: Analysis included 2234 registrars (response rate 96.1%), 289 594 consultations, and 453 786 problems/diagnoses. Postpartum care (897) comprised 0.2% (95% CI: 0.19-0.21) of all problems/diagnoses in 0.3% (95% CI: 0.27-0.31) of all consultations. Significant multivariable associations included registrar's gender (female) and obtainment of post-graduate O&G qualifications. Postpartum consultations were longer and resulted in more learning goals being generated. DISCUSSION: An overall low prevalence was established. Both male registrars, and those without pre-existing O&G qualifications, may have particularly limited experience. These findings should inform educational policy and practice regarding postpartum care experience in general practice training.

13.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(2): 188-195, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practitioners play an important role in diagnosis and ongoing management of pregnancies. Some GP registrars entering GP training may have had no post-graduate experience in obstetrics and gynaecology. GP registrars' involvement in antenatal care is under-researched. AIMS: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associations of Australian GP registrars' clinical consultations involving antenatal care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) cohort study. GP registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations during each of three six-month training terms. Associations of managing pregnancy-related problems (compared to all other problems) were analysed using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Independent variables included registrar, practice, patient, consultation and educational factors. RESULTS: Antenatal care comprised 3277 (1.1%) of registrar problems/diagnoses. Consultations involving pregnancy-related problems were significantly associated with registrars being female, in term three, younger, and having post-graduate qualifications in obstetrics/gynaecology. Patients were significantly more likely to be from a non-English speaking background. Pregnancy-related problems/diagnoses were more likely to be seen in lower socioeconomic areas. Consultation factors significantly associated with a pregnancy-related problem/diagnosis included ordering imaging, ordering pathology, arranging referrals, and a longer duration of consultation. Registrars were less likely to prescribe medication or generate learning goals. CONCLUSIONS: GP registrars see fewer antenatal problems compared to established GPs. Male registrars, especially, have significantly less exposure to antenatal care, suggesting potential limitation of opportunity to gain skills and experience in antenatal care.

14.
Australas J Ageing ; 39(1): 10-20, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence regarding the impact of individualised music listening on persons with dementia. METHODS: Six electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Music Periodicals and Cochrane) were searched up to July 2018 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of individualised music listening compared to other music and non-music-based interventions. RESULTS: Four studies were included. Results showed evidence of a positive impact of individualised music listening on behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSDs) including agitation, anxiety and depression and physiological outcomes. Evidence for other outcomes such as cognitive function and quality of life was limited. CONCLUSIONS: The limited evidence suggests individualised music listening has comparable efficacy to more resource-intensive interventions. However, there was a small number of RCTs and some outcomes were evaluated by a single study. This limits the conclusions drawn, warranting more RCTs evaluating other outcomes beyond the BPSDs.

15.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(1): 63-66, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470754

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore whether there was a difference in objectively measured physical activity and study participation between people who received their preferred study group allocation (matched) and those who did not receive their preferred study group (mismatched). DESIGN: Secondary data from the NewCOACH randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Insufficiently active patients in the primary care settings in Sydney and Newcastle, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred seventy-two adults aged 20 to 81 years. INTERVENTION: Participants indicated their intervention preference at baseline for (1) five face-to-face visits with an exercise specialist, (2) one face-to-face visit and 4 telephone follow-ups with an exercise specialist, (3) written material, or (4) slight-to-no preference. Participants were then allocated to an intervention group and categorized as either "matched" or "mismatched" based on their indications. Participants who reported a slight-to-no preference was categorized as "matched." MEASURES: Daily step count as measured by pedometers and study participation. ANALYSIS: Mean differences between groups in daily step count at 3 and 12 months (multiple linear regression models) and study participation at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months (χ2 tests). RESULTS: Preference for an intervention group prior to randomization did not significantly (all P's > .05 using 95% confidence interval) impact step counts (differences of <600 steps/day between groups) or study participation. CONCLUSION: Future research should continue to address whether the strength of preferences influence study outcome and participation and whether the study preferences change over time.

16.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(3): 276-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615727

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Supporting healthy ageing is a key priority worldwide. Physical activity, diet quality and sleep are all associated with health outcomes, but few studies have explored their independent associations with all-cause mortality in an older population in the same model. The study aim was to examine associations between step-count, self-reported diet quality, restless sleep, and all-cause mortality in adults aged 55-85 years. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of adults in Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia. METHOD: Data were from 1697 participants (49.3% women; baseline mean age 65.4 ±â€¯7.1 years). Daily steps (measured by pedometer), diet quality (from a modified Australian Recommended Food Score), and frequency of restless sleep (by self-report) were assessed in relation to all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for sex, age, household income and smoking. Baseline data were collected between January 2005 and April 2008, and last follow-up was in March 2017 (median follow-up 9.6 years). RESULTS: Higher step count (HR: 0.93, 95%CI: 0.88-0.98 per 1000-step increment) and higher diet quality (HR: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.74-0.99 per 8-point increment in diet quality score) were associated with reduced mortality risk. Restless sleep for ≥3 nights/week was not associated with mortality risk (HR: 1.03, 95%CI: 0.78-1.39). Sensitivity analyses, adjusting for chronic disease and excluding deaths <1 year after baseline, did not change these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Increased daily steps and consumption of a greater variety of nutrient-dense foods every week would result in substantial health benefits for older people. Future research should include a greater variety of sleep measures.


Assuntos
Dieta , Mortalidade , Sono , Caminhada , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Age Ageing ; 48(6): 803-810, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the development of disease and disability in a large cohort of older women, the extent to which these conditions exempt them from being classified as successful agers and different trajectories of disease, disability and longevity across women's later life. METHODS: We used survey data from 12,432 participants of the 1921-26 birth cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health from 1996 (age 70-75) to 2016 (age 90-95). Repeated measures latent class analysis (RMLCA) identified trajectories of the development of disease with or without disability and according to longevity. Bivariate analyses and multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the association between participants' baseline characteristics and membership of the latent classes. RESULTS: Over one-third of women could be considered to be successful agers when in their early 70s, few women could still be classified in this category throughout their later life or by the end of the study when they were in their 90s (~1%). RMLCA identified six trajectory groups including managed agers long survivors (9.0%) with disease but little disability, usual agers long survivors (14.9%) with disease and disability, usual agers (26.6%) and early mortality (25.7%). A small group of women having no major disease or disability well into their 80s were identified as successful agers (5.5%). A final group, missing surveys (18.3%), had a high rate of non-death attrition. Groups were differentiated by a number of social and health factors including marital status, education, smoking, body mass index, exercise and social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows different trajectories of disease and disability in a cohort of ageing women, over time and through to very old ages. While some women continue into very old age with no disease or disability, many more women live long with disease but little disability, remaining independent beyond their capacity to be classified as successful agers.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(4): 969-976, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The obesity-cataract association has been inconsistently reported. The fat mass and obesity-related (FTO) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 is a major SNP associated with obesity and has been used as an instrumental variable for obesity in a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. An interaction between the FTO SNP and macronutrient intake for obesity was suggested previously. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the associations between obesity and cataract, using FTO SNP rs9939609 as an instrumental variable in an MR approach, and explore interactions of this SNP with macronutrient intake in relation to risk of cataract in a population-based cohort. METHODS: The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) is a longitudinal population-based study of common eye disease. Of 3654 baseline participants of the BMES (1992-1994), 2334 (75.8% of survivors) and 1952 (76.7% of survivors) were followed 5 and 10 y later. During the 5-y follow-up, 1174 new participants were examined. Cumulative cataract was defined as the presence of cortical, nuclear, or posterior subcapsular (PSC) cataract at any visit, following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Imputed dosage of the FTO SNP rs9939609 was used. Quintiles of macronutrient intake (carbohydrates, protein, fats) were derived from an FFQ. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, there were no associations between BMI and any cataract types in MR models using rs9939609 as an instrumental variable. However, an interaction between rs9939609 and protein intake for PSC cataract risk was suggested (P = 0.03). In analyses stratified by quintiles of protein intake, each minor allele of rs9939609 was associated with increased odds of PSC (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.27, 3.60) in the lowest quintile subgroup only. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity was not causally associated with age-related cataract. However, among persons in the lowest quintile of protein intake, obesity may be associated with PSC cataract.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Catarata/complicações , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade/complicações , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268507

RESUMO

Importance: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in European populations have identified more than 100 schizophrenia-associated loci. A schizophrenia GWAS in a unique Indian population offers novel findings. Objective: To discover and functionally evaluate genetic loci for schizophrenia in a GWAS of a unique Indian population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This GWAS included a sample of affected individuals, family members, and unrelated cases and controls. Three thousand ninety-two individuals were recruited and diagnostically ascertained via medical records, hospitals, clinics, and clinical networks in Chennai and surrounding regions. Affected participants fulfilled DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. Unrelated control participants had no personal or family history of psychotic disorder. Recruitment, genotyping, and analysis occurred in consecutive phases beginning January 1, 2001. Recruitment was completed on February 28, 2018, and genotyping and analysis are ongoing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene expression with schizophrenia. Results: The study population included 1321 participants with schizophrenia, 885 family controls, and 886 unrelated controls. Among participants with schizophrenia, mean (SD) age was 39.1 (11.4) years, and 52.7% were male. This sample demonstrated uniform ethnicity, a degree of inbreeding, and negligible rates of substance abuse. A novel genome-wide significant association was observed between schizophrenia and a chromosome 8q24.3 locus (rs10866912, allele A; odds ratio [OR], 1.27 [95% CI, 1.17-1.38]; P = 4.35 × 10-8) that attracted support in the schizophrenia Psychiatric Genomics Consortium 2 data (rs10866912, allele A; OR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06]; P = 7.56 × 10-4). This locus has undergone natural selection, with the risk allele A declining in frequency from India (approximately 72%) to Europe (approximately 43%). rs10866912 directly modifies the abundance of the nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase gene (NAPRT1) transcript in brain cortex (normalized effect size, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0; P = 5.8 × 10-13). NAPRT1 encodes a key enzyme for niacin metabolism. In Indian lymphoblastoid cell lines, (risk) allele A of rs10866912 was associated with NAPRT1 downregulation (AA: 0.74, n = 21; CC: 1.56, n = 17; P = .004). Preliminary zebrafish data further suggest that partial loss of function of NAPRT1 leads to abnormal brain development. Conclusions and Relevance: Bioinformatic analyses and cellular and zebrafish gene expression studies implicate NAPRT1 as a novel susceptibility gene. Given this gene's role in niacin metabolism and the evidence for niacin deficiency provoking schizophrenialike symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases such as pellagra and Hartnup disease, these results suggest that the rs10866912 genotype and niacin status may have implications for schizophrenia susceptibility and treatment.

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