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2.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.

4.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049676, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients with either surgery-related or patient-related risk factors are at an increased risk of acute and chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) and long-term opioid use. To improve recovery, prevent CPSP and decrease opioid use, we need to identify these patients before surgery and provide a multidisciplinary pain management strategy throughout hospital admission and follow-up in the postdischarge period. We hypothesise that a multidisciplinary transitional pain service (TPS) improves quality of recovery and reduce the incidence of CPSP and opioid consumption. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to investigate the effectiveness of implementation of a TPS for patients at risk of developing CPSP. The trial design is a pragmatic, open-label, randomised controlled trial (RCT). After stratification for sex, patients are randomly assigned to the TPS or standard of care (SOC) group. Our primary outcome is the quality of recovery, measured at the morning of the third postoperative day, employing the quality of recovery (QoR)-15 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are the incidence of CPSP, opioid consumption and patient-reported outcome measures at 3 and 6 months postoperatively. We need to enrol 176 patients to detect a minimal clinical important difference of 8 points on the QoR-15 score. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained by the accredited medical research ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam (2020_211) on 15 October 2020. Protocol version 3.2 was approved on 25 January 2020. The trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NL9115. The results will be disseminated by open access publication in a peer-reviewed journal.Trial registration number NL9115.


Assuntos
Padrão de Cuidado , Confiança , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is the primary cause of transfusion-related mortality. Speed and volume of transfusion are major risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion speed and volume on the development of TACO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validated model for TACO in anaemic Lewis rats with an acute myocardial infarction was used. The effect on pulmonary hydrostatic pressure of one, two or four units of packed RBCs transfused in either 30 or 60 min was evaluated (3.3-26.6 ml·kg-1 ·hr-1 ). Pulmonary capillary pressure was measured as left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Cardiac stress biomarkers atrial natriuretic-peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured 1-h post-transfusion. RESULTS: Thirty animals were included (n = 5 per group). Transfusion of RBCs increased LVEDP in a volume-dependent manner (ΔLVEDP [mmHg]: -0.95, +0.50, +6.26, p < 0.001). Fast transfusion increased overall ΔLVEDP by +3.5 mmHg and up to +11.8 mmHg in the four units' group (p = 0.016). Doubling transfusion speed increased ΔLVEDP more than doubling volume in the larger volume groups. No difference in ANP or NT-proBNP were seen in high transfusion volume or groups. CONCLUSION: Transfusion volume dose-dependently increased LVEDP, with speed of transfusion rapidly elevating LVEDP at higher transfusion volumes. ANP and NT-proBNP were not impacted by transfusion volume or speed in this model. TACO is seen as purely volume overload, however, this study emphasizes that limiting transfusion speed, as a modifiable risk factor, might aid in preventing TACO.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral autoregulation (CA) continuously adjusts cerebrovascular resistance to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) constant despite changes in blood pressure. Also, CBF is proportional to changes in arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) (cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity). Hypercapnia elicits cerebral vasodilation that attenuates CA efficacy, while hypocapnia produces cerebral vasoconstriction that enhances CA efficacy. In this study, we quantified the influence of sevoflurane anesthesia on CO2 reactivity and the CA-CO2 relationship. METHODS: We studied patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), prone to cerebrovascular disease, and compared them to control subjects. In 33 patients (19 DM, 14 control), end-tidal CO2, blood pressure, and CBF velocity were monitored awake and during sevoflurane-based anesthesia. CA, calculated with transfer function analysis assessing phase lead (degrees) between low-frequency oscillations in CBF velocity and mean arterial blood pressure, was quantified during hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia. RESULTS: In both control and DM patients, awake CO2 reactivity was smaller (2.8%/mm Hg CO2) than during sevoflurane anesthesia (3.9%/mm Hg; P<0.005). Hyperventilation increased CA efficacy more (3 deg./mm Hg CO2) in controls than in DM patients (1.8 deg./mm Hg CO2; P<0.001) in both awake and sevoflurane-anesthetized states. CONCLUSIONS: The CA-CO2 relationship is impaired in awake patients with type 2 DM. Sevoflurane-based anesthesia does not further impair this relationship. In patients with DM, hypocapnia induces cerebral vasoconstriction, but CA efficacy does not improve as observed in healthy subjects.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445586

RESUMO

Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) protects hearts from ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in experimental studies; however, clinical RIPC trials were unsatisfactory. This discrepancy could be caused by a loss of cardioprotection due to comorbidities in patients, including diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia (HG). RIPC is discussed to confer protective properties by release of different humoral factors activating cardioprotective signaling cascades. Therefore, we investigated whether DM type 1 and/or HG (1) inhibit the release of humoral factors after RIPC and/or (2) block the cardioprotective effect directly at the myocardium. Experiments were performed on male Wistar rats. Animals in part 1 of the study were either healthy normoglycemic (NG), type 1 diabetic (DM1), or hyperglycemic (HG). RIPC was implemented by four cycles of 5 min bilateral hind-limb ischemia/reperfusion. Control (Con) animals were not treated. Blood plasma taken in vivo was further investigated in isolated rat hearts in vitro. Plasma from diseased animals (DM1 or HG) was administered onto healthy (NG) hearts for 10 min before 33 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion. Part 2 of the study was performed vice versa-plasma taken in vivo, with or without RIPC, from healthy rats was transferred to DM1 and HG hearts in vitro. Infarct size was determined by TTC staining. Part 1: RIPC plasma from NG (NG Con: 49 ± 8% vs. NG RIPC 29 ± 6%; p < 0.05) and DM1 animals (DM1 Con: 47 ± 7% vs. DM1 RIPC: 38 ± 7%; p < 0.05) reduced infarct size. Interestingly, transfer of HG plasma showed comparable infarct sizes independent of prior treatment (HG Con: 34 ± 9% vs. HG RIPC 35 ± 9%; ns). Part 2: No infarct size reduction was detectable when transferring RIPC plasma from healthy rats to DM1 (DM1 Con: 54 ± 13% vs. DM1 RIPC 53 ± 10%; ns) or HG hearts (HG Con: 60 ± 16% vs. HG RIPC 53 ± 14%; ns). These results suggest that: (1) RIPC under NG and DM1 induces the release of humoral factors with cardioprotective impact, (2) HG plasma might own cardioprotective properties, and (3) RIPC does not confer cardioprotection in DM1 and HG myocardium.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Imunidade Humoral , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(11): 123, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448972

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Opioids are administered to cancer patients although concerns have been raised that they may promote tumour growth or metastasis owing to their ability to suppress anti-cancer immunity. Tramadol has been reported to preserve or promote the immune response and may therefore be preferred to other opioids in cancer patients. We reviewed the literature documenting the immunomodulatory effects of tramadol. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical evidence appears to confirm that tramadol possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and preserves some signalling cascades of the immune system relevant to anti-cancer defence. Tramadol is reported to promote or preserve immunity including natural killer cell activity which is important in anti-cancer defences.

11.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439876

RESUMO

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is commonly used as treatment in several diseases, such as non-healing chronic wounds, late radiation injuries and carbon monoxide poisoning. Ongoing research into HBOT has shown that preconditioning for surgery is a potential new treatment application, which may reduce complication rates and hospital stay. In this review, the effect of HBOT on oxidative stress, inflammation and angiogenesis is investigated to better understand the potential mechanisms underlying preconditioning for surgery using HBOT. A systematic search was conducted to retrieve studies measuring markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, or angiogenesis in humans. Analysis of the included studies showed that HBOT-induced oxidative stress reduces the concentrations of pro-inflammatory acute phase proteins, interleukins and cytokines and increases growth factors and other pro-angiogenesis cytokines. Several articles only noted this surge after the first HBOT session or for a short duration after each session. The anti-inflammatory status following HBOT may be mediated by hyperoxia interfering with NF-κB and IκBα. Further research into the effect of HBOT on inflammation and angiogenesis is needed to determine the implications of these findings for clinical practice.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/terapia , Neovascularização Patológica , Estresse Oxidativo
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16648, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404824

RESUMO

Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) supports patients suffering from refractory cardiogenic shock. Thromboembolic complications (TeC) are common in VA-ECMO patients and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Valid markers to predict TeC in VA-ECMO patients are lacking. The present study investigated the predictive value of baseline Fibrinogen-Albumin-Ratio (FAR) for in-hospital TeC in patients undergoing VA-ECMO. This retrospective cohort study included patients who underwent VA-ECMO therapy due to cardiogenic shock at the University Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany between 2011 and 2018. Main exposure was baseline FAR measured at initiation of VA-ECMO therapy. The primary endpoint was the in-hospital incidence of TeC. In total, 344 patients were included into analysis (74.7% male, mean age 59 ± 14 years). The in-hospital incidence of TeC was 34%. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of FAR for in-hospital TeC revealed an area under the curve of 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.74]. Youden index determined a cutoff of 130 for baseline FAR. Multivariate logistic regression revealed an adjusted odds-ratio of 3.72 [95% CI 2.26-6.14] for the association between FAR and TeC. Baseline FAR is independently associated with in-hospital TeC in patients undergoing VA-ECMO. Thus, FAR might contribute to the prediction of TeC in this cohort.

13.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S243-S251, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traumatic bleeding, transfusion practice has shifted toward higher doses of platelets and plasma transfusion. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether a higher platelet-to-red blood cell (RBC) transfusion ratio improves mortality without worsening organ failure when compared with a lower ratio of platelet-to-RBC. METHODS: Pubmed, Medline, and Embase were screened for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in bleeding trauma patients (age ≥16 years) receiving platelet transfusion between 1946 until October 2020. High platelet:RBC ratio was defined as being the highest ratio within an included study. Primary outcome was 24 hour mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, organ failure, and correction of coagulopathy. RESULTS: In total five RCTs (n = 1757 patients) were included. A high platelet:RBC compared with a low platelet:RBC ratio significantly improved 24 hour mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.69 [0.53-0.89]) and 30- day mortality (OR 0.78 [0.63-0.98]). There was no difference between platelet:RBC ratio groups in thromboembolic events and organ failure. Correction of coagulopathy was reported in five studies, in which platelet dose had no impact on trauma-induced coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS: In traumatic bleeding, a high platelet:RBC improves mortality as compared to low platelet:RBC ratio. The high platelet:RBC ratio does not influence thromboembolic or organ failure event rates.


Assuntos
Contagem de Eritrócitos , Hemorragia/sangue , Contagem de Plaquetas , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Plaquetas/citologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
16.
Br J Anaesth ; 127(5): 681-688, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intraoperative and postoperative hypotension are associated with morbidity and mortality. The Hypotension Prediction (HYPE) trial showed that the Hypotension Prediction Index (HPI) reduced the depth and duration of intraoperative hypotension (IOH), without excess use of intravenous fluid, vasopressor, and/or inotropic therapies. We hypothesised that intraoperative HPI-guided haemodynamic care would reduce the severity of postoperative hypotension in the PACU. METHODS: This was a sub-study of the HYPE study, in which 60 adults undergoing elective noncardiac surgery were allocated randomly to intraoperative HPI-guided or standard haemodynamic care. Blood pressure was measured using a radial intra-arterial catheter, which was connected to a FloTracIQ sensor. Hypotension was defined as MAP <65 mm Hg, and a hypotensive event was defined as MAP <65 mm Hg for at least 1 min. The primary outcome was the time-weighted average (TWA) of postoperative hypotension. Secondary outcomes were absolute incidence, area under threshold for hypotension, and percentage of time spent with MAP <65 mm Hg. RESULTS: Overall, 54/60 (90%) subjects (age 64 (8) yr; 44% female) completed the protocol, owing to failure of the FloTracIQ device in 6/60 (10%) patients. Intraoperative HPI-guided care was used in 28 subjects; 26 subjects were randomised to the control group. Postoperative hypotension occurred in 37/54 (68%) subjects. HPI-guided care did not reduce the median duration (TWA) of postoperative hypotension (adjusted median difference, vs standard of care: 0.118; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0-0.332; P=0.112). HPI-guidance reduced the percentage of time with MAP <65 mm Hg by 4.9% (adjusted median difference: -4.9; 95% CI, -11.7 to -0.01; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative HPI-guided haemodynamic care did not reduce the TWA of postoperative hypotension.

17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205045

RESUMO

SGLT-2i's exert direct anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects on resting endothelial cells. However, endothelial cells are constantly exposed to mechanical forces such as cyclic stretch. Enhanced stretch increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby impairs endothelial barrier function. We hypothesized that the SGLT-2i's empagliflozin (EMPA), dapagliflozin (DAPA) and canagliflozin (CANA) exert an anti-oxidative effect and alleviate cyclic stretch-induced endothelial permeability in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HCAECs were pre-incubated with one of the SGLT-2i's (1 µM EMPA, 1 µM DAPA and 3 µM CANA) for 2 h, followed by 10% stretch for 24 h. HCAECs exposed to 5% stretch were considered as control. Involvement of ROS was measured using N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC). The sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) were inhibited by cariporide, or GKT136901, respectively. Cell permeability and ROS were investigated by fluorescence intensity imaging. Cell permeability and ROS production were increased by 10% stretch; EMPA, DAPA and CANA decreased this effect significantly. Cariporide and GKT136901 inhibited stretch-induced ROS production but neither of them further reduced ROS production when combined with EMPA. SGLT-2i's improve the barrier dysfunction of HCAECs under enhanced stretch and this effect might be mediated through scavenging of ROS. Anti-oxidative effect of SGLT-2i's might be partially mediated by inhibition of NHE1 and NOXs.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Canagliflozina/farmacologia , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/patologia , NADPH Oxidases/antagonistas & inibidores , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piridonas/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/genética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Trocador 1 de Sódio-Hidrogênio/genética , Estresse Mecânico , Sulfonas/farmacologia
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