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1.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 110(2-3): 218-25, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22884710

RESUMO

In most mammalian cardiomyocytes, the transverse tubular system (t-system) is a major site for electrical signaling and excitation-contraction coupling. The t-system consists of membrane invaginations, which are decorated with various proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and mechano-electric feedback. Remodeling of the t-system has been reported for cells in culture and various types of heart disease. In this paper, we provide insights into effects of mechanical strain on the t-system in rabbit left ventricular myocytes. Based on fluorescent labeling, three-dimensional scanning confocal microscopy, and digital image analysis, we studied living and fixed isolated cells in different strain conditions. We extracted geometric features of transverse tubules (t-tubules) and characterized their arrangement with respect to the Z-disk. In addition, we studied the t-system in cells from hearts fixed either at zero left ventricular pressure (slack), at 30 mmHg (volume overload), or during lithium-induced contracture, using transmission electron microscopy. Two-dimensional image analysis was used to extract features of t-tubule cross-sections. Our analyses of confocal microscopic images showed that contracture at the cellular level causes deformation of the t-system, increasing the length and volume of t-tubules, and altering their cross-sectional shape. TEM data reconfirmed the presence of mechanically induced changes in t-tubular cross sections. In summary, our studies suggest that passive longitudinal stretching and active contraction of ventricular cardiomyocytes affect the geometry of t-tubules. This confirms that mechanical changes at cellular levels could promote alterations in partial volumes that would support a convection-assisted mode of exchange between the t-system content and extracellular space.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/citologia , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Actinina/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sobrevivência Celular , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Coelhos , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico
2.
Biomaterials ; 32(27): 6541-50, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21641029

RESUMO

It is estimated that the adult human brain contains 100 billion neurons with 5-10 times as many astrocytes. Although it has been generally considered that the astrocyte is a simple supportive cell to the neuron, recent research has revealed new functionality of the astrocyte in the form of information transfer to neurons of the brain. In our previous work we developed a protocol to pattern the hNT neuron (derived from the human teratocarcinoma cell line (hNT)) on parylene-C/SiO(2) substrates. In this work, we report how we have managed to pattern hNT astrocytes, on parylene-C/SiO(2) substrates to single cell resolution. This article disseminates the nanofabrication and cell culturing steps necessary for the patterning of such cells. In addition, it reports the necessary strip lengths and strip width dimensions of parylene-C that encourage high degrees of cellular coverage and single cell isolation for this cell type. The significance in patterning the hNT astrocyte on silicon chip is that it will help enable single cell and network studies into the undiscovered functionality of this interesting cell, thus, contributing to closer pathological studies of the human brain.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/citologia , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Polímeros/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/farmacologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Xilenos/farmacologia , Contagem de Células , Linhagem Celular , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
3.
Cell Biol Int ; 32(5): 473-83, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18083570

RESUMO

Expression of the canine 180-kDa ribosome receptor p180 in yeast induces the synthesis of RER, and increases the mRNAs of secretory pathway proteins, and protein secretion. To assess whether p180 is a master regulator of cell secretion in mammalian cells, we stably expressed red fluorescent forms of the human p180 variants p180DeltaR (no tandem repeats), p180R (26 repeats), and full-length p180FR (54 repeats) containing different lengths of the tandem repeat ribosome-binding domain in rat pancreatic RINm5F islet beta-cells. All three fluorescent p180 variants localized exclusively to the RER. Cells transfected with p180R were filled with ribosome-studded karmellae, whereas p180DeltaR and p180FR transfectants contained only increased amounts of mostly smooth ER. Unlike in yeast, over-expression of p180R failed to increase the secretory pathway proteins calnexin, SEC61beta, and calreticulin, or ribosome biogenesis. The data suggest that alternative splicing of the p180 tandem repeat domain is a means of regulating the ribosome-binding activity of p180, and potentially the secretory activity of the cell. However, p180 is not a master regulator of mammalian cell secretion as it does not concomitantly trigger the synthesis of protein machinery required to enhance protein synthesis and cell secretion.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Retículo Endoplasmático Rugoso/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico/genética , Ratos , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem
4.
J Invest Dermatol ; 124(6): 1170-6, 2005 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15955091

RESUMO

A mechanobullous skin disorder was identified in the progeny of a 3-y-old Friesian-Jersey crossbred bull. The condition presented as loss of skin and mucosa from contact areas and inflammation. Examination of skin samples under light microscopy revealed separation of the epidermis from the dermis. Electron microscopic analysis refined the site of cleavage to above the basement membrane involving lysis of basal keratinocytes. These observations were consistent with the simplex form of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in humans. Candidate genes based on human gene mutations were assessed, resulting in keratin 5 being identified as the most likely candidate gene. The sequence of bovine keratin 5 was established and sequencing led to identification of a G to A substitution in all affected animals. This mutation leads to an amino acid change of glutamic acid to lysine in the final E (478) of the KLLEGE motif of the protein. The sire carried a de novo mutation and was mosaic, explaining his asymptomatic status and the less than expected frequency of affected offspring. Remarkably, the same mutation has been previously described in EB simplex in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Simples/veterinária , Queratinas/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico , Queratina-5 , Lisina , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Linhagem
5.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 82(1-3): 221-7, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12732281

RESUMO

Effects of mechanical stimulation on cardiac electrical activity, gene expression, protein synthesis, and tissue remodelling have received increasing attention in recent years, as reviewed in this issue of PBMB. Little is known, though, about how changes in ventricular filling affect the cell configuration of cardiomyocytes in the ventricular wall. Here, we present first electron-microscopic insight into changes in cardiomyocyte cell structure in situ during acute ventricular volume manipulation. Apart from confirming the anticipated ventricular volume-related changes in cardiomyocyte sarcomere length, there is evidence of (i) unfolding of 'slack' membrane, primarily from sarcolemmal invaginations near the Z-lines, and (ii) stretch-induced incorporation of sub-membrane caveolae into the surface membrane. The functional relevance of these changes in cardiomyocyte membrane configuration-other than to cater for the length-dependent modulation of the cell surface to cell volume ratio-remains to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Animais , Eletrofisiologia , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Ventrículos do Coração/ultraestrutura , Potenciais da Membrana , Microscopia Eletrônica , Miocárdio/citologia , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Coelhos , Sarcolema/patologia
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