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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214203

RESUMO

Little is known about whether DNA methylation (DNAm) of cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites at birth predicts patterns of lung function development. We used heel prick DNAm from the F1-generation of Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC-F1) for discovery of CpGs associated with lung function trajectories (Forced Expiratory Volume, Forced Vital Capacity, their ratio, and Forced Expiratory Flow at 25-75%) over the first 26 years, stratified by sex. We replicated the findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) using cord blood DNAm.Epigenome-wide screening was applied to identify CpGs associated with lung function trajectories in 396 boys, and 390 girls of IOWBC-F1. Replication in ALSPAC focused on lung function at ages 8, 15 and 24 years. Statistically significantly replicated CpGs were investigated for consistency in direction of association between cohorts, stability of DNAm over time in IOWBC-F1, relevant biological processes, and for association with gene expression (n=161) in IOWBC F2-generation (IOWBC-F2).Differential DNAm of 8 CpGs on genes GLUL, MYCN, HLX, LHX1, COBL, COL18A1, STRA6, and WNT11 involved in developmental processes, were significantly associated with lung function in the same direction in IOWBC-F1 and ALSPAC, and showed stable patterns at birth, age 10 and 18 years between high and low lung function trajectories in IOWBC-F1. CpGs on LHX1 and COL18A1 were linked to gene expression in IOWBC-F2.In two large cohorts, novel DNAm at birth were associated with patterns of lung function in adolescence and early adulthood providing possible targets for preventative interventions against adverse pulmonary function development.

2.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-24, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243305

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate immune function and have been associated with risk of childhood atopy and asthma. We investigated the effect of maternal fat intake in mice on PUFA status, elongase and desaturase gene expression, inflammatory markers and lung function in the offspring. C57BL/6J mice (n=32) were fed either standard chow (C, 21% kcal fat) or a high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal fat) for 4 weeks prior to conception and during gestation and lactation. At 21 days of age, offspring were weaned onto either the HFD or C, generating four experimental groups: C/C, C/HF, HF/C and HF/HF. Plasma and liver fatty acid composition were measured by gas chromatography and gene expression by qPCR. Lung resistance to methacholine was assessed. Arachidonic acid concentrations in offspring plasma and liver phospholipids were increased by HFD; this effect was greater in the post-natal HFD group. Docosahexaenoic acid concentration in offspring liver phospholipids was increased in response to HFD and was higher in the post-natal HFD group. Post-natal HFD increased hepatic FADS2 and ELOVL5 expression in male offspring, whereas maternal HFD elevated expression of FADS1 and FADS2 in female offspring comparing to males. Post-natal HFD increased expression of IL-6 and CCL2 in perivascular adipose tissue. The HFD lowered lung resistance to methacholine. Excessive maternal fat intake during development modifies hepatic PUFA status in offspring through regulation of gene expression of enzymes that are involved in PUFA biosynthesis and modifies the development of the offspring lungs leading to respiratory dysfunction.

3.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underlying biological mechanisms involved in sex differences in asthma status changes from pre- to post-adolescence are unclear. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been shown to be associated with the risk of asthma. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that asthma acquisition from pre- to post-adolescence was associated with changes in DNAm during this period at asthma-associated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and such an association was sex-specific. METHODS: Subjects from the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC) with DNAm in blood at ages 10 and 18 years (n = 124 females, 151 males) were studied. Using a training-testing approach, epigenome-wide CpGs associated with asthma were identified. Logistic regression was used to examine sex-specific associations of DNAm changes with asthma acquisition between ages 10 and 18 at asthma-associated CpGs. The ALSPAC birth cohort was used for independent replication. To assess functional relevance of identified CpGs, association of DNAm with gene expression in blood was assessed. RESULTS: We identified 535 CpGs potentially associated with asthma. Significant interaction effects of DNAm changes and sex on asthma acquisition in adolescence were found at 13 of the 535 CpGs in IOWBC (P-values <1.0 × 10-3 ). In the replication cohort, consistent interaction effects were observed at 10 of the 13 CpGs. At 7 of these 10 CpGs, opposite DNAm changes across adolescence were observed between sexes in both cohorts. In both cohorts, cg20891917, located on IFRD1 linked to asthma, shows strong sex-specific effects on asthma transition (P-values <.01 in both cohorts). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Gender reversal in asthma acquisition is associated with opposite changes in DNAm (males vs females) from pre- to post-adolescence at asthma-associated CpGs. These CpGs are potential biomarkers of sex-specific asthma acquisition in adolescence.

4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 105, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has been shown to be associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, whether similar DNA methylation patterns are associated with childhood and adolescent body mass index (BMI) is largely unknown. More insight into this relationship at younger ages may have implications for future prevention of obesity and its related traits. METHODS: We examined whether DNA methylation in cord blood and whole blood in childhood and adolescence was associated with BMI in the age range from 2 to 18 years using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. We performed meta-analyses of epigenome-wide association studies including up to 4133 children from 23 studies. We examined the overlap of findings reported in previous studies in children and adults with those in our analyses and calculated enrichment. RESULTS: DNA methylation at three CpGs (cg05937453, cg25212453, and cg10040131), each in a different age range, was associated with BMI at Bonferroni significance, P < 1.06 × 10-7, with a 0.96 standard deviation score (SDS) (standard error (SE) 0.17), 0.32 SDS (SE 0.06), and 0.32 BMI SDS (SE 0.06) higher BMI per 10% increase in methylation, respectively. DNA methylation at nine additional CpGs in the cross-sectional childhood model was associated with BMI at false discovery rate significance. The strength of the associations of DNA methylation at the 187 CpGs previously identified to be associated with adult BMI, increased with advancing age across childhood and adolescence in our analyses. In addition, correlation coefficients between effect estimates for those CpGs in adults and in children and adolescents also increased. Among the top findings for each age range, we observed increasing enrichment for the CpGs that were previously identified in adults (birth Penrichment = 1; childhood Penrichment = 2.00 × 10-4; adolescence Penrichment = 2.10 × 10-7). CONCLUSIONS: There were only minimal associations of DNA methylation with childhood and adolescent BMI. With the advancing age of the participants across childhood and adolescence, we observed increasing overlap with altered DNA methylation loci reported in association with adult BMI. These findings may be compatible with the hypothesis that DNA methylation differences are mostly a consequence rather than a cause of obesity.

6.
Epigenet Insights ; 13: 2516865720930701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32964196

RESUMO

Background: How epigenetic modifications of DNA are associated with gestational age at birth is not fully understood. We investigated potential effects of differential paternal DNA methylation (DNAm) on offspring gestational age at birth by conducting an epigenome-wide search for cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites. Methods: Study participants in this study consist of male cohort members or partners of the F1-generation of the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (IoWBC). DNAm levels in peripheral blood from F1-fathers (n = 92) collected around pregnancy of their spouses were analyzed using the Illumina 450K array. A 5-step statistical analysis was performed. First, a training-testing screening approach was applied to select CpG sites that are potentially associated with gestational age at birth. Second, functional enrichment analysis was employed to identify biological processes. Third, by centralizing on biologically informative genes, Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the hazard ratios of individual paternal CpGs on gestational age adjusting for confounders. Fourth, to assess the validity of our results, we compared our CpG-gestational age correlations within a Born into Life Study in Sweden (n = 15). Finally, we investigated the correlation between the detected CpGs and differential gene expression in F2 cord blood in the IoWBC. Results: Analysis of DNAm of fathers collected around their partner's pregnancy identified 216 CpG sites significantly associated with gestational age at birth. Functional enrichment pathways analyses of the annotated genes revealed 2 biological pathways significantly related to cell-cell membrane adhesion molecules. Differential methylation of 9 cell membrane adhesion pathway-related CpGs were significantly associated with gestational age at birth after adjustment for confounders. The replication sample showed correlation coefficients of 2 pathway-related CpGs with gestational age at birth within 95% confidence intervals of correlation coefficients in IoWBC. Finally, CpG sites of protocadherin (PCDH) gene clusters were associated with gene expression of PCDH in F2 cord blood. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that differential paternal DNAm may affect gestational age at birth through cell-cell membrane adhesion molecules. The results are novel but require future replication in a larger cohort.

7.
Reprod Sci ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754889

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association of maternal DNA methylation (DNAm) during pregnancy and offspring birthweight. One hundred twenty-two newborn-mother dyads from the Isle of Wight (IOW) cohort were studied to identify differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) in maternal blood associated with offspring birthweight. Peripheral blood samples were drawn from mothers at 22-38 weeks of pregnancy for epigenome-wide DNAm assessment using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K array. Candidate CpGs were identified using a course of 100 repetitions of a training and testing process with robust regressions. CpGs were considered informative if they showed statistical significance in at least 80% of training and testing samples. Linear mixed models adjusting for covariates were applied to further assess the selected CpGs. The Swedish Born Into Life cohort was used to replicate our findings (n = 33). Eight candidate CpGs corresponding to the genes LMF1, KIF9, KLHL18, DAB1, VAX2, CD207, SCT, SCYL2, DEPDC4, NECAP1, and SFRS3 in mothers were identified as statistically significantly associated with their children's birthweight in the IOW cohort and confirmed by linear mixed models after adjusting for covariates. Of these, in the replication cohort, three CpGs (cg01816814, cg23153661, and cg17722033 with p values = 0.06, 0.175, and 0.166, respectively) associated with four genes (LMF1, VAX2, CD207, and NECAP1) were marginally significant. Biological pathway analyses of three of the genes revealed cellular processes such as endocytosis (possibly sustaining an adequate maternal-fetal interface) and metabolic processes such as regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity (involved in providing substrates for the developing fetus). Our results contribute to an epigenetic understanding of maternal involvement in offspring birthweight. Measuring DNAm levels of maternal CpGs may in the future serve as a diagnostic tool recognizing mothers at risk for pregnancies ending with altered birthweights.

10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low lung function has been associated with increased body mass index (BMI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of BMI on lung function is mediated by DNA methylation. METHODS: We used individual data from 285,495 participants in four population-based cohorts: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Disease in Adults, and the UK Biobank. We carried out Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses in two steps using a two-sample approach with SNPs as instrumental variables (IVs) in each step. In step 1 MR, we estimated the causal effect of BMI on peripheral blood DNA methylation (measured at genome-wide level) using 95 BMI-associated SNPs as IVs. In step 2 MR, we estimated the causal effect of DNA methylation on FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC using two SNPs acting as methQTLs occurring close (in cis) to CpGs identified in the first step. These analyses were conducted after exclusion of weak IVs (F statistic < 10) and MR estimates were derived using the Wald ratio, with standard error from the delta method. Individuals whose data were used in step 1 were not included in step 2. RESULTS: In step 1, we found that BMI might have a small causal effect on DNA methylation levels (less than 1% change in methylation per 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI) at two CpGs (cg09046979 and cg12580248). In step 2, we found no evidence of a causal effect of DNA methylation at cg09046979 on lung function. We could not estimate the causal effect of DNA methylation at cg12580248 on lung function as we could not find publicly available data on the association of this CpG with SNPs. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first paper to report the use of a two-step MR approach to assess the role of DNA methylation in mediating the effect of a non-genetic factor on lung function. Our findings do not support a mediating effect of DNA methylation in the association of lung function with BMI.

11.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67003, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) on air pollutants exist, and none have been done on transportation noise exposures, which also contribute to environmental burden of disease. OBJECTIVE: We performed mutually independent EWAS on transportation noise and air pollution exposures. METHODS: We used data from two time points of the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) from 1,389 participants contributing 2,542 observations. We applied multiexposure linear mixed-effects regressions with participant-level random intercept to identify significant Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to 1-y average aircraft, railway, and road traffic day-evening-night noise (Lden); nitrogen dioxide (NO2); and particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5). We performed candidate (CpG-based; cross-systemic phenotypes, combined into "allostatic load") and agnostic (DMR-based) pathway enrichment tests, and replicated previously reported air pollution EWAS signals. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant CpGs at false discovery rate <0.05. However, 14, 48, 183, 8, and 71 DMRs independently associated with aircraft, railway, and road traffic Lden; NO2; and PM2.5, respectively, with minimally overlapping signals. Transportation Lden and air pollutants tendentially associated with decreased and increased methylation, respectively. We observed significant enrichment of candidate DNA methylation related to C-reactive protein and body mass index (aircraft, road traffic Lden, and PM2.5), renal function and "allostatic load" (all exposures). Agnostic functional networks related to cellular immunity, gene expression, cell growth/proliferation, cardiovascular, auditory, embryonic, and neurological systems development were enriched. We replicated increased methylation in cg08500171 (NO2) and decreased methylation in cg17629796 (PM2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Mutually independent DNA methylation was associated with source-specific transportation noise and air pollution exposures, with distinct and shared enrichments for pathways related to inflammation, cellular development, and immune responses. These findings contribute in clarifying the pathways linking these exposures and age-related diseases but need further confirmation in the context of mediation analyses. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP6174.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a complex disease with multiple phenotypes that may differ in disease pathobiology and treatment response. IL33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been reproducibly associated with asthma. IL33 levels are elevated in sputum and bronchial biopsies of patients with asthma. The functional consequences of IL33 asthma SNPs remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether IL33 SNPs associate with asthma-related phenotypes and with IL33 expression in lung or bronchial epithelium. This study investigated the effect of increased IL33 expression on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) function. METHODS: Association between IL33 SNPs (Chr9: 5,815,786-6,657,983) and asthma phenotypes (Lifelines/DAG [Dutch Asthma GWAS]/GASP [Genetics of Asthma Severity & Phenotypes] cohorts) and between SNPs and expression (lung tissue, bronchial brushes, HBECs) was done using regression modeling. Lentiviral overexpression was used to study IL33 effects on HBECs. RESULTS: We found that 161 SNPs spanning the IL33 region associated with 1 or more asthma phenotypes after correction for multiple testing. We report a main independent signal tagged by rs992969 associating with blood eosinophil levels, asthma, and eosinophilic asthma. A second, independent signal tagged by rs4008366 presented modest association with eosinophilic asthma. Neither signal associated with FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, atopy, and age of asthma onset. The 2 IL33 signals are expression quantitative loci in bronchial brushes and cultured HBECs, but not in lung tissue. IL33 overexpression in vitro resulted in reduced viability and reactive oxygen species-capturing of HBECs, without influencing epithelial cell count, metabolic activity, or barrier function. CONCLUSIONS: We identify IL33 as an epithelial susceptibility gene for eosinophilia and asthma, provide mechanistic insight, and implicate targeting of the IL33 pathway specifically in eosinophilic asthma.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443666

RESUMO

Several small studies have shown associations between breastfeeding and genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm). We performed a comprehensive Epigenome-Wide Association Study (EWAS) to identify associations between breastfeeding and DNAm patterns in childhood. We analysed DNAm data from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort at birth, 10, 18 and 26 years. The feeding method was categorized as breastfeeding duration >3 months and >6 months, and exclusive breastfeeding duration >3 months. EWASs using robust linear regression were performed to identify differentially methylated positions (DMPs) in breastfed and non-breastfed children at age 10 (false discovery rate of 5%). Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were identified using comb-p. The persistence of significant associations was evaluated in neonates and individuals at 18 and 26 years. Two DMPs, in genes SNX25 and LINC00840, were significantly associated with breastfeeding duration >6 months at 10 years and was replicated for >3 months of exclusive breastfeeding. Additionally, a significant DMR spanning the gene FDFT1 was identified in 10-year-old children who were exposed to a breastfeeding duration >3 months. None of these signals persisted to 18 or 26 years. This study lends further support for a suggestive role of DNAm in the known benefits of breastfeeding on a child's future health.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Seguimentos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
JCI Insight ; 5(8)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324168

RESUMO

The IL1RL1 (ST2) gene locus is robustly associated with asthma; however, the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this locus to specific asthma subtypes and the functional mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be defined. We tested for association between IL1RL1 region SNPs and characteristics of asthma as defined by clinical and immunological measures and addressed functional effects of these genetic variants in lung tissue and airway epithelium. Utilizing 4 independent cohorts (Lifelines, Dutch Asthma GWAS [DAG], Genetics of Asthma Severity and Phenotypes [GASP], and Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study [MAAS]) and resequencing data, we identified 3 key signals associated with asthma features. Investigations in lung tissue and primary bronchial epithelial cells identified context-dependent relationships between the signals and IL1RL1 mRNA and soluble protein expression. This was also observed for asthma-associated IL1RL1 nonsynonymous coding TIR domain SNPs. Bronchial epithelial cell cultures from asthma patients, exposed to exacerbation-relevant stimulations, revealed modulatory effects for all 4 signals on IL1RL1 mRNA and/or protein expression, suggesting SNP-environment interactions. The IL1RL1 TIR signaling domain haplotype affected IL-33-driven NF-κB signaling, while not interfering with TLR signaling. In summary, we identify that IL1RL1 genetic signals potentially contribute to severe and eosinophilic phenotypes in asthma, as well as provide initial mechanistic insight, including genetic regulation of IL1RL1 isoform expression and receptor signaling.

15.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 80, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32264874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a significant period for the gender-dependent development of lung function. Prior studies have shown that DNA methylation (DNA-M) is associated with lung function and DNA-M at some cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide sites (CpGs) changes over time. This study examined whether changes of DNA-M at lung-function-related CpGs are associated with changes in lung function during adolescence for each gender, and if so, the biological significance of the detected CpGs. METHODS: Genome-scale DNA-M was measured in peripheral blood samples at ages 10 (n = 330) and 18 years (n = 476) from the Isle of Wight (IOW) birth cohort in United Kingdom, using Illumina Infinium arrays (450 K and EPIC). Spirometry was conducted at both ages. A training and testing method was used to screen 402,714 CpGs for their potential associations with lung function. Linear regressions were applied to assess the association of changes in lung function with changes of DNA-M at those CpGs potentially related to lung function. Adolescence-related and personal and family-related confounders were included in the model. The analyses were stratified by gender. Multiple testing was adjusted by controlling false discovery rate of 0.05. Findings were further examined in two independent birth cohorts, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) and the Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology (BAMSE) cohort. Pathway analyses were performed on genes to which the identified CpGs were mapped. RESULTS: For females, 42 CpGs showed statistically significant associations with change in FEV1/FVC, but none for change in FEV1 or FVC. No CpGs were identified for males. In replication analyses, 16 and 21 of the 42 CpGs showed the same direction of associations among the females in the ALSPAC and BAMSE cohorts, respectively, with 11 CpGs overlapping across all the three cohorts. Through pathway analyses, significant biological processes were identified that have previously been related to lung function development. CONCLUSIONS: The detected 11 CpGs in all three cohorts have the potential to serve as the candidate epigenetic markers for changes in lung function during adolescence in females.

16.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(6): 616-627, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inability to objectively diagnose childhood asthma before age five often results in both under-treatment and over-treatment of asthma in preschool children. Prediction tools for estimating a child's risk of developing asthma by school-age could assist physicians in early asthma care for preschool children. This review aimed to systematically identify and critically appraise studies which either developed novel or updated existing prediction models for predicting school-age asthma. METHODS: Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science Core Collection) were searched up to July 2019 to identify studies utilizing information from children ≤5 years of age to predict asthma in school-age children (6-13 years). Validation studies were evaluated as a secondary objective. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies describing the development of 26 predictive models published between 2000 and 2019 were identified. Models were either regression-based (n = 21) or utilized machine learning approaches (n = 5). Nine studies conducted validations of six regression-based models. Fifteen (out of 21) models required additional clinical tests. Overall model performance, assessed by area under the receiver operating curve (AUC), ranged between 0.66 and 0.87. Models demonstrated moderate ability to either rule in or rule out asthma development, but not both. Where external validation was performed, models demonstrated modest generalizability (AUC range: 0.62-0.83). CONCLUSION: Existing prediction models demonstrated moderate predictive performance, often with modest generalizability when independently validated. Limitations of traditional methods have shown to impair predictive accuracy and resolution. Exploration of novel methods such as machine learning approaches may address these limitations for future school-age asthma prediction.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(6): 2017-2026, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet diversity (DD) during infancy may prevent food allergies (FA), possibly by exposing the gastrointestinal microbiota to diverse foods and nutrients. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between 4 different measures of DD during infancy and development of FA over the first decade of life. METHODS: A birth cohort born between 2001 and 2002 were followed prospectively, providing information on sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary exposures. Information on age of introduction of a range of foods and food allergens was collected during infancy. Children were assessed for FA at 1, 2, 3, and 10 years. DD was defined using 4 measures in the first year of life: the World Health Organization definition of minimum DD at 6 months, as food diversity (FD) and fruit and vegetable diversity (FVD) at 3, 6, and 9 months, and as food allergen diversity (FAD) at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. RESULTS: A total of 969 pregnant women were recruited at 12-week gestation. A total of 900, 858, 891, and 827 offspring were assessed at 1, 2, 3, and 10 years. Univariate analysis showed that World Health Organization DD (P = .0047), FD (P = .0009), FAD (P = .0048), and FVD (P = .0174) at 6 months and FD (P = .0392), FAD (P = .0233), and FVD (.0163) at 9 months significantly reduced the odds of FA over the first decade of life. DD measures at 3 months were not associated with FA, but only 33% of the cohort had solid foods introduced by this age. CONCLUSION: Increased infant DD, as measured by 4 different methods, decreased the likelihood of developing FA.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 179, 2020 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924766

RESUMO

Hereditary autoinflammatory diseases are caused by gene mutations of the innate immune pathway, e.g. nucleotide receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). Here, we report a four-generation family with cold-induced urticarial rash, arthralgia, chills, headache and malaise associated with an autosomal-dominant inheritance. Genetic studies identify a substitution mutation in gene F12 (T859A, resulting in p.W268R) which encodes coagulation factor XII (FXII). Functional analysis reveals enhanced autocatalytic cleavage of the mutated protein and spontaneous FXII activation in patient plasma and in supernatant of transfected HEK293 cells expressing recombinant W268R-mutated proteins. Furthermore, we observe reduced plasma prekallikrein, cleaved high molecular weight kininogen and elevated plasma bradykinin. Neutrophils are identified as a local source of FXII. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) is upregulated in lesional skin and mononuclear donor cells exposed to recombinant mutant proteins. Treatment with icatibant (bradykinin-B2-antagonist) or anakinra (interleukin-1-antagonist) reduces disease activity in patients. In conclusion, our findings provide a link between contact system activation and cytokine-mediated inflammation.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Fator XII/metabolismo , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/metabolismo , Adulto , Coagulação Sanguínea , Bradicinina/análogos & derivados , Bradicinina/sangue , Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Fator XII/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/genética , Doenças Hereditárias Autoinflamatórias/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Cininogênio de Alto Peso Molecular/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neutrófilos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Calicreína Plasmática/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Pele/patologia
19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 518-542, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926111

RESUMO

Lung function, strongly associated with morbidity and mortality, decreases with age. This study examines whether poor adult lung function is associated with age accelerations (AAs). DNA methylation (DNAm) based AAs, lifespan predictors (GrimAge and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1-PAI1) and their related age-adjusted measures were estimated from peripheral blood at two time points (8-to-11 years apart) in adults from two cohorts: SAPALDIA (n=987) and ECRHS (n=509). Within each cohort and stratified by gender (except for estimators from GrimAge and PAI1), AAs were used as predictors in multivariate linear regression with cross-sectional lung function parameters, and in covariate-adjusted mixed linear regression with longitudinal change in lung function and meta-analysed.AAs were found cross-sectionally associated with lower mean FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second) (AA-residuals:P-value=4x10-4; Intrinsic Epigenetic AA:P-value=2x10-4) in females at the follow-up time point only, and the same trend was observed for FVC (Forced Vital Capacity). Both lifespan and plasma level predictors were observed strongly associated with lung function decline and the decline was stronger in the follow-up time points (strongest association between FEV1 and DNAmAge GrimAge:P-value=1.25x10-17).This study suggests that DNAm based lifespan and plasma level predictors can be utilised as important factors to assess lung health in adults.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 55(3)2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831580

RESUMO

We investigated associations of asthma and smoking with lung function and airway reversibility from childhood to early adulthood.The population-based Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (n=1456) was assessed at birth, and at 1, 2, 4, 10, 18 and 26 years. Asthma was defined as physician diagnosis plus current wheeze and/or treatment. Spirometry was conducted at 10 (n=981), 18 (n=839) and 26 years (n=547). Individuals were subdivided into nonsmokers without asthma, nonsmokers with asthma, smokers without asthma and smokers with asthma, based on asthma and smoking status at 26 years. Their lung function trajectories from 10 to 26 years were examined using longitudinal models.Nonsmokers with asthma had smaller forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEF25-75% (forced expiratory flow at 25-75% of forced vital capacity (FVC)) and FEV1/FVC ratio compared to nonsmokers without asthma at age 10 and 18 years, with differences reduced after bronchodilator (pre-bronchodilator FEV1 at 26 years 3.75 L versus 4.02 L, p<0.001; post-bronchodilator 4.02 L versus 4.16 L, p=0.08). This lung function deficit did not worsen after 18 years. Smokers without asthma had smaller FEF25-75% and FEV1/FVC ratio (but not FEV1) at 26 years compared to nonsmokers without asthma, with the deficit appearing after 18 years and persisting despite bronchodilator response (for FEV1/FVC ratio at 26 years 0.80 versus 0.81, p=0.002; post-bronchodilator 0.83 versus 0.85, p=0.005). Smokers with asthma had worse lung function compared to other groups.Lung function deficits associated with asthma and smoking occur early in life. They are not fully responsive to bronchodilators, indicating a risk for long-term lung health, which highlights the need to institute preventive measures in adolescence and early adult life before irreversible damage occurs.

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