Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 177
Filtrar
1.
Int J Pharm ; : 120687, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965542

RESUMO

Intensified vibratory milling is a nanonisation and micronisation technology which can be used to enable the oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The generated nano- and microsuspensions entail a large surface area which enhances the compounds dissolution rate, yet this large surface area is thermodynamically unfavourable and hence spontaneous destabilisation may occur, i.e. physical instability. Stability studies on suspensions manufactured via intensified vibratory milling have, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported in the literature before. An extended stability study was, therefore, executed with 30 bedaquiline suspensions milled with the intensified vibratory mill under various process settings. The particle size distribution was measured immediately after production, after four weeks of storage at 5°C and after eleven weeks of storage at 5°C with laser diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, a caking test was applied to scrutinise the redispersibility of the prevailing sediments. One sample whose sediment proved to be redisperible, demonstrated a peculiar trend during storage where a narrowing of the particle size distribution and a general particle size reduction was detected which opposed the conventional stability tendencies, i.e. stability or Ostwald ripening. This enigmatic trend was further explored via a repetitive analysis with laser diffraction and in a further phase, with an orthogonal particle sizing technique. Still, no matter the frequency nor technique, a narrowing particle size distribution was observed. To the best of our knowledge, this article, for the first time in the pharmaceutical literature, reports a narrowing particle size distribution of a micronised suspension containing an organic compound. Inevitably, this trend might shed a fundamental new light on the stability trends, exposed by suspensions post-micronisation by high energy milling.

2.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806903

RESUMO

Aerosol therapy in patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has so far failed in improving patients' outcomes. This might be because dependent lung areas cannot be reached by conventional aerosols. Due to their physicochemical properties, semifluorinated alkanes (SFAs) could address this problem. After induction of ARDS, 26 pigs were randomized into three groups: (1) control (Sham), (2) perfluorohexyloctane (F6H8), and (3) F6H8-ibuprofen. Using a nebulization catheter, (2) received 1 mL/kg F6H8 while (3) received 1 mL/kg F6H8 with 6 mg/mL ibuprofen. Ibuprofen plasma and lung tissue concentration, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid concentration of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-6, and lung mechanics were measured. The ibuprofen concentration was equally distributed to the dependent parts of the right lungs. Pharmacokinetic data demonstrated systemic absorption of ibuprofen proofing a transport across the alveolo-capillary membrane. A significantly lower TNF-α concentration was observed in (2) and (3) when compared to the control group (1). There were no significant differences in IL-8 and IL-6 concentrations and lung mechanics. F6H8 aerosol seemed to be a suitable carrier for pulmonary drug delivery to dependent ARDS lung regions without having negative effects on lung mechanics.

3.
Mol Pharm ; 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890794

RESUMO

The concept of using precipitation inhibitors (PIs) to sustain supersaturation is well established for amorphous formulations but less in the case of lipid-based formulations (LBF). This study applied a systematic in silico-in vitro-in vivo approach to assess the merits of incorporating PIs in supersaturated LBFs (sLBF) using the model drug venetoclax. sLBFs containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), PVP-co-vinyl acetate (PVP/VA), Pluronic F108, and Eudragit EPO were assessed in silico calculating a drug-excipient mixing enthalpy, in vitro using a PI solvent shift test, and finally, bioavailability was assessed in vivo in landrace pigs. The estimation of pure interaction enthalpies of the drug and the excipient was deemed useful in determining the most promising PIs for venetoclax. The sLBF alone (i.e., no PI present) displayed a high initial drug concentration in the aqueous phase during in vitro screening. sLBF with Pluronic F108 displayed the highest venetoclax concentration in the aqueous phase and sLBF with Eudragit EPO the lowest. In vivo, the sLBF alone showed the highest bioavailability of 26.3 ± 14.2%. Interestingly, a trend toward a decreasing bioavailability was observed for sLBF containing PIs, with PVP/VA being significantly lower compared to sLBF alone. In conclusion, the ability of a sLBF to generate supersaturated concentrations of venetoclax in vitro was translated into increased absorption in vivo. While in silico and in vitro PI screening suggested benefits in terms of prolonged supersaturation, the addition of a PI did not increase in vivo bioavailability. The findings of this study are of particular relevance to pre-clinical drug development, where the high in vivo exposure of venetoclax was achieved using a sLBF approach, and despite the perceived risk of drug precipitation from a sLBF, including a PI may not be merited in all cases.

4.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 162: 105840, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845120

RESUMO

The pig has been increasingly used as a reliable preclinical model for assessing and predicting the in vivo bioavailability of different formulation strategies. Nevertheless, differences in the composition between porcine and human intestinal fluids, may impact on the solubility and dissolution behaviour of drugs, in particular BCS II/IV drugs. Recently, a porcine fasted simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIFp) was developed to mimic the composition in the lumen of landrace pigs under fasted state conditions. In this work, we present the utilization of FaSSIFp to compare solubility against human FaSSIF & FeSSIF and further combine species specific in vitro testing with in silico predictive modelling. Venetoclax was chosen as a model drug, representing a BCS class IV drug, with a reported clinically significant positive food effect, where bioavailability is increased up to approximately five-fold when administered with a high-fat meal. Biorelevant species specific in vitro testing was a promising tool for integrating in vitro data into in silico models, using FaSSIFp resulted in reliable predictions of the plasma concentration profile in fasted pigs, based on a porcine physiologically based absorption model. The porcine physiologically based absorption model was used to prospectively simulate the impact of food on the bioavailability of venetoclax. The use of luminal solubility estimates in combination with dissolution data for venetoclax, measured in species specific simulated fluids, correctly predict the observed pig plasma concentration profile and food effect. Overall, integrating species specific in vitro - in silico models led to accurate prediction of in vivo absorption of venetoclax in a preclinical stage, which can support guidance in early decisions of drug product development. In addition, the study further demonstrated the utility of the pig model to predict the food effects of venetoclax in humans.

5.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 163: 158-170, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848628

RESUMO

The purpose of this work was to evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) as a long acting injectable drug delivery platform for intramuscular and subcutaneous administration. SLNs were developed with a low (unsaturated) and high (supersaturated) drug concentration at equivalent lipid doses. The impact of the drug loading as well as the administration route for the SLNs using two model compounds with different physicochemical properties were explored for their in vitro and in vivo performance. Results revealed that drug concentration had an influence on the particle size and entrapment efficiency of the SLNs and, therefore, indirectly an influence on the Cmax/dose and AUC/dose after administration to rats. Furthermore, the in vitro drug release was compound specific, and linked to the affinity of the drug compounds towards the lipid matrix and release medium. The pharmacokinetic parameters resulted in an increased tmax, t1/2 and mean residence time (MRT) for all formulations after intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing, when compared to intravenous administration. Whereas, the subcutaneous injections performed better for those parameters than the intramuscular injections, because of the higher blood perfusion in the muscles compared with the subcutaneous tissues. In conclusion, SLNs extend drug release, need to be optimized for each drug, and are appropriate carriers for the delivery of drugs that require a short-term sustained release in a timely manner.

6.
J Pharm Sci ; 110(5): 1921-1930, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609523

RESUMO

New drug candidates often require bio-enabling formation technologies such as lipid-based formulations, solid dispersions, or nanosized drug formulations. Development of such more sophisticated delivery systems generally requires higher resource investment compared to a conventional oral dosage form, which might slow down clinical development. To achieve the biopharmaceutical objectives while enabling rapid cost effective development, it is imperative to identify a suitable formulation technique for a given drug candidate as early as possible. Hence many companies have developed internal decision trees based mostly on prior organizational experience, though they also contain some arbitrary elements. As part of the EU funded PEARRL project, a number of new decision trees are here proposed that reflect both the current scientific state of the art and a consensus among the industrial project partners. This commentary presents and discusses these, while also going beyond this classical expert approach with a pilot study using emerging machine learning, where the computer suggests formulation strategy based on the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties of a molecule. Current limitations are discussed and an outlook is provided for likely future developments in this emerging field of pharmaceutics.

7.
J Pharm Sci ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607189

RESUMO

The effect of 11 buffers as well as the effect of ionic strength were investigated on the binding between the bile salt taurochenodeoxycholate and the ionic sulfobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin. The investigations showed that both ionic strength and competitive binding affected the stability constant. The stability constant for the sulfobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin complex increased from 34,400 M-1 to 114,000 M-1 as the ionic strength of the solution increased to 0.15 M. Keeping the ionic strength constant, the stability constant for the complex depended on the buffer in the solution, with citric and succinic acid reducing the stability constant. The reduction in the stability constant by buffers was related to a competitive mechanism. The results showed that, when accounting for the variation in ionic strength between the buffers, three groupings of buffers existed. All carboxylic acid buffers decreased the stability constant of the sulfobutylether-ß-cyclodextrin complex, relative to the effect observed by altering the ionic strength, whereas the other buffers only affected the stability constant in terms of the changes in ionic strength. Both buffer species and ionic strength impacted the stability of ionic cyclodextrin complexes, hence, it is important to be aware of these effects when working with, comparing and reporting stability constants.

8.
Int J Pharm ; 598: 120367, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561499

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to strengthen the understanding of the intensified vibratory mill by unravelling the milling process in terms of the particle size reduction and heat generation via a modern design of experiments approach. Hence, the influence of five process parameters (acceleration, breaks during milling, bead size, milling time and bead-suspension ratio) was investigated via an I-optimal design. Particle size was measured via laser diffraction and the temperature of the sample after milling was computed. To advance our understanding, a mechanistic model for the set-up of wet-stirred media milling processes was applied on the observed milling trends. A generic approach for the optimisation of the milling process was retrieved and included the optimisation of the bead size and intermittent pausing for effective cooling. To finetune the remaining process parameters, the present work provides contour plots and strong predictive models. With these models, the particle size and the temperature after milling of suspensions manufactured with the intensified vibratory mill could be forecasted for the first time.

9.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 156: 105627, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122007

RESUMO

Within preclinical research, the pig has become an important model in regulatory toxicology and pharmacokinetics, to assess oral dosage forms and to compare different formulation strategies. In addition, there are emerging application of the pig model to asses clinical dosing conditions in the fasted and fed state. In this study, the gastrointestinal transit conditions in male landrace pigs were studied with a telemetric motility capsule under fasted and postprandial conditions. The whole gut transit time (WGTT) was determined by administering a SmartPill® capsule to four landrace pigs, under both fasted and fed state conditions in a cross-over study design. Overall, this study found that small intestinal transit in landrace pigs ranged from 2.3 - 4.0 h, and was broadly similar to reported human estimates and was not affected by the intake conditions. Gastric emptying was highly variable and prolonged in landrace pigs ranging from 20 - 233 h and up to 264 h in one specific case. Under dynamic conditions pigs have a low gastric pH comparable to humans, however a high variability under fasted conditions could be observed. The comparison of the data from this study with a recent similar study in beagle dogs revealed major differences between gastric maximum pressures observed in landrace pigs and dogs. In the porcine stomach maximum pressures of up to 402 mbar were observed, which are comparable to reported human data. Intestinal maximum pressures in landrace pigs were in the same range as in humans. Overall, the study provides new insights of gastrointestinal conditions in landrace pigs, which can lead to more accurate interpretation of in vivo results obtained of pharmacokinetic studies in preclinical models. While small intestinal transit conditions, GI pH and pressures were similar to humans, the prolonged gastric emptying observed in pigs need to be considered in assessing the suitability of the pig model for assessing in vivo performance of large non-disintegrated oral drug products.

10.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 159: 105691, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359616

RESUMO

Supersaturated lipid-based drug delivery systems are increasingly being explored as a bio-enabling formulation approach, particularly in preclinical evaluation of poorlywater-soluble drugs. While increasing the drug load through thermally-induced supersaturation resulted in enhanced in vivo exposure for some drugs, for others, such as cinnarizine, supersaturated lipid-based systems have not been found beneficial to increase the in vivo bioavailability. We hypothesized that incorporation of precipitation inhibitors to reduce drug precipitation may address this limitation. Therefore, pharmacokinetic profiles of cinnarizine supersaturated lipid-based drug delivery systems with or without precipitation inhibitors were compared. Five precipitation inhibitors were selected for investigation based on a high throughput screening of twenty-one excipients. In vivo results showed that addition of 5% precipitation inhibitors to long chain monoglyceride (LCM) or medium chain monoglyceride (MCM) formulations showed a general trend of increases in cinnarizine bioavailability, albeit only statistically significantly increased for Poloxamer 407 + LCM system (i.e. 2.7-fold increase in AUC0-24h compared to LCM without precipitation inhibitors). It appeared that precipitation inhibitors mitigated the risk of in vivo precipitation of cinnarizine from sLBDDS and overall, bioavailability was comparable to that previously reported for cinnarizine after dosing of non-supersaturated lipid systems. In summary, for drugs which are prone to precipitation from supersaturated lipid-based drug delivery systems, such as cinnarizine, inclusion of precipitation inhibitors mitigates this risk and provides the opportunity to maximize exposure which is ideally suited in early efficacy and toxicology evaluation.

11.
AAPS J ; 22(6): 146, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184711

RESUMO

The importance of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model refinement with data acquired in adults using a pediatric formulation under age-relevant dosing conditions in order to extrapolate drug exposure to infants was recently demonstrated for paracetamol. In the present investigation, the aim was to evaluate the importance of similar PBPK model refinement for a low-solubility weak acid, ibuprofen, to simulate exposure across pediatric populations, i.e., infants, young children, and schoolchildren. After developing and evaluating adult disposition and oral absorption models for the aqueous suspension of ibuprofen, ibuprofen performance was extrapolated to pediatrics simulating exposure as a function of different prandial and dosing conditions: fasted conditions, reference-meal fed conditions (solid-liquid meal), and infant-formula fed conditions (homogeneous liquid). Successful predictions were achieved when employing the refined model for fasted state conditions or for fed state conditions relevant to specific age groups, i.e., infant formula for infants and reference meal for children. The present study suggested that ibuprofen performance was primarily guided by gastric emptying and showed sensitivity towards formulation characteristics and pH changes in the small intestine. Better understanding of luminal conditions in pediatrics and age-dependent ibuprofen post-absorptive processes could improve modeling confidence for ibuprofen, as well as other drugs with similar characteristics.

12.
AAPS J ; 22(6): 126, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000297

RESUMO

Extending licensed drug use to the pediatric population has become an essential part of the drug development process. Nonetheless, ethical concerns limit clinical testing in pediatric populations and data collected from oral bioavailability and food effect studies in adults are often extrapolated to the target pediatric (sub)populations. However, based on published information, food effects on drug absorption in infants may not be adequately evaluated by data collected in adults. In the present study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approach for modeling paracetamol suspension data collected in adults was proposed with the ultimate aim to investigate whether extrapolation to infants is substantially affected by the dosing conditions applied to adults. The development of the PBPK model for adults was performed using GastroPlus™ V9.7, and after scaling to infants considering physiological, anatomical, and drug clearance changes, extrapolation of the different dosing conditions was performed by applying dosing conditions dependent on changes on the paracetamol gastric emptying process. Successful simulations of previously observed plasma concentration levels in infants were achieved when extrapolating from fasted and infant formula-fed conditions data. Data collected following the reference meal appeared less useful for simulating paracetamol suspension performance in infants. The proposed methodology deserves further evaluation using high-quality clinical data both in adults and in infants.

13.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-10, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically explore compositional effects for a series of lipid systems, on the in vitro drug solubilization and in vivo bioavailability of three poorly water-soluble drugs with different physico-chemical properties. SIGNIFICANCE: While many lipid-based drug products have successfully reached the market, there is still a level of uncertainty on the design guidelines for such drug products with limited understanding on the influence of composition on in vitro and in vivo performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Lipid-based drug delivery systems were prepared using either single excipient systems based on partially digested triglycerides (i.e. mono- and/or di-glycerides) or increasingly complex systems by incorporating surfactants and/or triglycerides. These lipid systems were evaluated for both in vitro and in vivo behavior. Results indicated that simple single component long chain lipid systems are more beneficial for the absorption of the weak acid celecoxib and the weak base cinnarizine compared to equivalent single component medium chain lipid systems. Similarly, a two-component system produced by incorporating small amount of hydrophilic surfactant yields similar overall pharmacokinetic effects. The lipid drug delivery systems based on medium chain lipid excipients improved the in vivo exposure of the neutral drug JNJ-2A. The higher in vivo bioavailability of long chain lipid systems compared to medium chain lipid systems was in agreement with in vitro dilution and dispersion studies for celecoxib and cinnarizine. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated the benefits of using mono-/di-glycerides as single component excipients in LBDDS to streamline formulation screening and improve oral bioavailability for the three tested poorly water-soluble drugs.

14.
Int J Pharm ; 589: 119774, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916213

RESUMO

Thirteen buffers were investigated for their effect on the binding of adamantanol to ß-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. Stability constants for the ß-cyclodextrin complex ranged from 14,800 to 46,000 M-1, and the binding enthalpies were between -23.2 and -10.4 kJ/mole. Compared to water, the stability constant in seven carboxylic acid buffers (citric acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, succinic acid, malonic acid, malic acid and tartaric acid) was reduced. All seven buffers exhibited a competitive mechanism. Binding constants for the interaction between ß-cyclodextrin and buffers ranged from 4 to 44 M-1, and binding enthalpies were in the range -19 to -11 kJ/mole. There was a relation between the chemical structures of the buffers and their ability to bind to cyclodextrin. All seven buffers had a carbon chain consisting of more than three carbons in the backbone. Hydroxyl groups on the carbon chain decreased the binding affinity. 1H and ROESY NMR spectroscopy supported inclusion of the citric acid into the cyclodextrin cavity, although the results for succinic and maleic acids were ambiguous. The results demonstrated that some buffers can interact with cyclodextrin complexes, and careful considerations are necessary when choosing a buffer for cyclodextrin research.

15.
Mol Pharm ; 17(9): 3342-3352, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787274

RESUMO

The absence of an intestinal absorption sink is a significant weakness of standard in vitro lipolysis methods, potentially leading to poor prediction of in vivo performance and an overestimation of drug precipitation. In addition, the majority of the described lipolysis methods only attempt to simulate intestinal conditions, thus overlooking any supersaturation or precipitation of ionizable drugs as they transition from the acidic gastric environment to the more neutral conditions of the intestine. The aim of this study was to develop a novel lipolysis method incorporating a two-stage gastric-to-intestinal transition and an absorptive compartment to reliably predict in vivo performance of lipid-based formulations (LBFs). Drug absorption was mimicked by in situ quantification of drug partitioning into a decanol layer. The method was used to characterize LBFs from four studies described in the literature, involving three model drugs (i.e., nilotinib, fenofibrate, and danazol) where in vivo bioavailability data have previously been reported. The results from the novel biphasic lipolysis method were compared to those of the standard pH-stat method in terms of reliability for predicting the in vivo performance. For three of the studies, the novel biphasic lipolysis method more reliably predicted the in vivo bioavailability compared to the standard pH-stat method. In contrast, the standard pH-stat method was found to produce more predictive results for one study involving a series of LBFs composed of the soybean oil, glyceryl monolinoleate (Maisine CC), Kolliphor EL, and ethanol. This result was surprising and could reflect that increasing concentrations of ethanol (as a cosolvent) in the formulations may have resulted in greater partitioning of the drug into the decanol absorptive compartment. In addition to the improved predictivity for most of the investigated systems, this biphasic lipolysis method also uses in situ analysis and avoids time- and resource-intensive sample analysis steps, thereby facilitating a higher throughput capacity and biorelevant approach for characterization of LBFs.

16.
J Pharm Sci ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827494

RESUMO

Phospholipids are amphiphilic lipids with versatile properties making them promising excipients for enabling formulations for oral drug delivery. Unfortunately, systematic studies on how phospholipid type and content affect oral absorption are rare. Often, only one phospholipid type is used for the formulation development and only one formulation, optimized according to in vitro parameters, is included in oral bioavailability studies. Using this approach, it is unclear if a certain in vitro parameter is predictive for the in vivo performance. In this study, a labor-saving in vitro permeation screening method was combined with a pharmacokinetic study in rats to for the first time systematically compare two types of phospholipid-based solid dispersions. The dispersions contained the drug celecoxib and monoacyl or diacyl phosphatidylcholine at different drug-to-phospholipid ratios. The in vitro screening revealed: 1) none of the formulations with high phospholipid content increased permeation, 2) phospholipid content was negatively correlated with permeation, and 3) mono and diacyl-phosphatidylcholine formulations performed equally. The pharmacokinetic study revealed: 1) At low phospholipid content absorption was enhanced, 2) phospholipid content was negatively correlated with absorption, and 3) monoacyl and diacyl phosphatidylcholine formulations performed equally. Apart from the reference (suspension), the in vitro permeation screening thus predicted the formulations in vivo performance.

17.
J Pharm Sci ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835702

RESUMO

The proton-coupled amino acid transporter, PAT1, is known to be responsible for intestinal absorption drug substances such as gaboxadol and vigabatrin. The aim of the present study was to investigate, if 17-α-ethinyl-estradiol (E-E2) and 17-ß-estradiol (E) inhibit PAT1-mediated intestinal absorption of proline and taurine in vitro in Caco-2 cells and in vivo using Sprague-Dawley rats to assess the potential for taurine-drug interactions. E and E-E2 inhibited the PAT1-mediated uptake of proline and taurine in Caco-2 cells with IC50 values of 10.0-50.0 µM without major effect on other solute carriers such as the taurine transporter (TauT), di/tri-peptide transporter (PEPT1), and serotonin transporter (SERT1). In PAT1-expressing oocytes E and E-E2 were non-translocated inhibitors. In Caco-2 cells, E and E-E2 lowered the maximal uptake capacity of PAT1 in a non-competitive manner. Likewise, the transepithelial permeability of proline and taurine was reduced in presence of E and E-E2. In male Sprague Dawley rats pre-dosed with E-E2 a decreased maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of taurine and increased the time (tmax) to reach this was indicated, suggesting the possibility for an in vivo effect on the absorption of PAT1 substrates. In conclusion, 17-α-ethinyl-estradiol and 17-ß-estradiol were identified as non-translocated and non-competitive inhibitors of PAT1.

18.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650041

RESUMO

Liposomes are well recognised as effective drug delivery systems, with a range of products approved, including follow on generic products. Current manufacturing processes used to produce liposomes are generally complex multi-batch processes. Furthermore, liposome preparation processes adopted in the laboratory setting do not offer easy translation to large scale production, which may delay the development and adoption of new liposomal systems. To promote advancement and innovation in liposome manufacturing processes, this review considers the range of manufacturing processes available for liposomes, from laboratory scale and scale up, through to large-scale manufacture and evaluates their advantages and limitations. The regulatory considerations associated with the manufacture of liposomes is also discussed. New innovations that support leaner scalable technologies for liposome fabrication are outlined including self-assembling liposome systems and microfluidic production. The critical process attributes that impact on the liposome product attributes are outlined to support potential wider adoption of these innovations.

19.
Mol Pharm ; 17(9): 3202-3213, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649208

RESUMO

The scientific rationale for selection of the surfactant type during oral formulation development requires an in-depth understanding of the interplay between surfactant characteristics and biopharmaceutical factors. Currently, however, there is a lack of comprehensive knowledge of how surfactant properties, such as hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), digestibility, and fatty acid (FA) chain length, translate into in vivo performance. In the present study, the relationship between surfactant properties, in vitro characteristics, and in vivo bioavailability was systematically evaluated. An in vitro lipolysis model was used to study the digestibility of a variety of nonionic surfactants. Eight surfactants and one surfactant mixture were selected for further analysis using the model poorly water-soluble drug nilotinib. In vitro lipolysis of all nilotinib formulations was performed, followed by an in vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation in rats. The in vitro lipolysis studies showed that medium-chain FA-based surfactants were more readily digested compared to long-chain surfactants. The in vivo study demonstrated that a Tween 20 formulation significantly enhanced the absolute bioavailability of nilotinib up to 5.2-fold relative to an aqueous suspension. In general, surfactants that were highly digestible in vitro tended to display higher bioavailability of nilotinib in vivo. The bioavailability may additionally be related to the FA chain length of digestible surfactants with an improved exposure in the case of medium-chain FA-based surfactants. There was no apparent relationship between the HLB value of surfactants and the in vivo bioavailability of nilotinib. The impact of this study's findings suggests that when designing surfactant-based formulations to enhance oral bioavailability of the poorly water-soluble drug nilotinib, highly digestible, medium chain-based surfactants are preferred. Additionally, for low-permeability drugs such as nilotinib, which is subject to efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein, the biopharmaceutical effects of surfactants merit further consideration.

20.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 152: 105452, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622980

RESUMO

Supersaturated lipid-based drug delivery systems have recently been investigated for oral administration for a variety of lipophilic drugs and have shown either equivalent or superior oral bioavailability compared to conventional non-supersaturated lipid-based drug delivery systems. The aim of the present work was to explore supersaturated versus non-supersaturated lipid-based systems at equivalent lipid doses, on in vivo bioavailability in rats and on in vitro permeation across a biomimetic PermeapadⓇ membrane to establish a potential in vivo - in vitro correlation. A secondary objective was to investigate the influence of lipid composition on in vitro and in vivo performance of lipid systems. Results obtained indicated that increasing the celecoxib load in the lipid-based formulations by thermally-induced supersaturation resulted in increased bioavailability for medium and long chain mono-/di-glycerides systems relative to their non-supersaturated (i.e. 85%) reference formulations, albeit only significant for the medium chain systems. Long chain systems displayed higher celecoxib bioavailability than equivalent medium chain systems, both at supersaturated and non-supersaturated drug loads. In vitro passive permeation of celecoxib was studied using both steady-state and dynamic conditions and correlated well with in vivo pharmacokinetic results with respect to compositional effects. In contrast, permeation studies indicated that flux and percentage permeated of supersaturated systems, either at steady-state or under dynamic conditions, decreased or were unchanged relative to non-supersaturated systems. This study has shown that by using two cell-free PermeapadⓇ permeation models coupled with rat-adapted gastro-intestinal conditions, bio-predictive in vitro tools can be developed to be reflective of in vivo scenarios. With further optimization, such models could be successfully used in pharmaceutical industry settings to rapidly screen various prototype formulations prior to animal studies.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...