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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350689

RESUMO

We consider disease mapping of early- and late-stage cancer, in order to identify and monitor inequalities in early detection. Our method is demonstrated by mapping cancer incidence at high geographical resolution using data on 10,302 cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) cases within the 3.7 million population of South-West Sweden. The cases were geocoded into small-areas, each with a population size between 600 and 2600 and accessible socio-demographic data. Using the disease mapping application Rapid Inquiry Facility (RIF) 4.0, we produced regional maps to visualise spatial variations in stage I, II and III-IV CMM incidences, complemented by local maps to explore the variations within two urban areas. Pronounced spatial disparities in stage I CMM incidence were revealed by the regional and local maps. Stage I CMM incidence was markedly higher in wealthier small-areas, in particular within each urban area. A twofold higher stage I incidence was observed, on average, in the wealthiest small-areas (upper quintile) than in the poorest small-areas (lower quintile). We identified in the regional map of stage III-IV CMM two clusters of higher or lower than expected late-stage incidences which were quite distinct from those identified for stage I. In conclusion, our analysis of CMM incidences supported the use of this method of cancer stage incidence mapping for revealing geographical and socio-demographic disparities in cancer detection.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302682

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiation therapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery reduces locoregional recurrences and improves survival but may cause late side effects. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate long-term side effects after whole breast RT in a randomized clinical trial initiated in 1991 and to report dose-volume data based on individual 3-dimensional treatment plans for organs at risk. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The trial included 1187 patients with T1-2 N0 breast cancer randomized to postoperative tangential whole breast RT or no further treatment. The prescription dose to the clinical target volume was 48 to 54 Gy. We present 20-year follow-up on survival, cause of death, morbidity, and later malignancies. For a cohort of patients (n = 157) with accessible computed tomography-based 3-dimensional treatment plans in Dicom-RT format, dose-volume descriptors for organs at risk were derived. In addition, these were compared with dose-volume data for a cohort of patients treated with contemporary RT techniques. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of cardiac mortality was 12.4% in the control group and 13.0% in the RT group (P = .8). There was an increase in stroke mortality: 3.4% in the control group versus 6.7% in the RT group (P = .018). Incidences of contralateral breast cancer and lung cancer were similar between groups. The median Dmean (range) heart dose for left-sided treatments was 3.0 Gy (1.1-8.1), and the corresponding value for patients treated in 2017 was 1.5 Gy (0.4-6.0). CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, serious late side effects of whole breast RT were limited and less than previously reported in large meta-analyses. We observed no increase in cardiac mortality in irradiated patients. Doses to the heart were a median Dmean of 3.0 Gy for left-sided RT. The observed increase in stroke mortality may partly be secondary to cardiac side effects, complications to anticoagulant treatment, or to chance, rather than a direct side effect of tangential whole breast irradiation.

3.
Head Neck ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe the frequency of patients returning to work after treatment for oropharyngeal cancer and to identify predictors and physical barriers that might interfere with the return to work process. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 295 patients. Data were collected regarding work/sick leave situation at 1 month before diagnosis and 15 months after diagnosis. The situation before diagnosis was retrospectively recalled by the patients. Two subscales and two single items from the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-H&N35 were used. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Fifteen months after diagnosis, 212 patients (72%) were working. To be working 15 months after diagnosis was associated with working before diagnosis. Swallowing difficulties, problems talking on the telephone, and physical appearance were negatively associated with returning to work. CONCLUSIONS: The large number of individuals returning to work is encouraging for patients diagnosed with oropharyngeal cancer.

4.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(4): 739-750, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100946

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with advanced heart failure (AdHF) who are ineligible for heart transplantation (HTx) can become candidates for treatment with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in some countries, but not others. This reflects the lack of a systematic analysis of the usefulness of LVAD systems in this context, and of their benefits, limitations and cost-effectiveness. The SWEdish evaluation of left Ventricular Assist Device (SweVAD) study is a Phase IV, prospective, 1:1 randomized, non-blinded, multicentre trial that will examine the impact of assignment to mechanical circulatory support with guideline-directed LVAD destination therapy (GD-LVAD-DT) using the HeartMate 3 (HM3) continuous flow pump vs. guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) on survival in a population of AdHF patients ineligible for HTx. METHODS: A total of 80 patients will be recruited to SweVAD at the seven university hospitals in Sweden. The study population will comprise patients with AdHF (New York Heart Association class IIIB-IV, INTERMACS profile 2-6) who display signs of poor prognosis despite GDMT and who are not considered eligible for HTx. Participants will be followed for 2 years or until death occurs. Other endpoints will be determined by blinded adjudication. Patients who remain on study-assigned interventions beyond 2 years will be asked to continue follow-up for outcomes and adverse events for up to 5 years. CONCLUSION: The SweVAD study will compare survival, medium-term benefits, costs and potential hazards between GD-LVAD-DT and GDMT and will provide a valuable reference point to guide destination therapy strategies for patients with AdHF ineligible for HTx.

5.
Head Neck ; 42(5): 860-872, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of tonsillar carcinoma survivors was explored to investigate any HRQOL differences associated with tumor stage and treatment. The survivors' HRQOL was also compared to reference scores from the population. METHODS: In this exploratory cross-sectional study patients were invited 15 months after their diagnosis and asked to answer two quality of life questionnaires (EORTC QLQ- C30, EORTC QLQ- HN35), 405 participated. RESULTS: HRQOL was associated with gender, with males scoring better than females on a few scales. Patients' HRQOL was more associated with treatment than tumor stage. Patients' HRQOL was worse than that in an age- and sex-matched reference group from the normal population, the largest differences were found for problems with dry mouth followed by problems with sticky saliva, senses, swallowing and appetite loss. CONCLUSIONS: The tonsillar carcinoma patients had a worse HRQOL compared to the general population one year after treatment.

6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1919284, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940039

RESUMO

Importance: The use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer is controversial because of the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment of indolent cancers. Optimal screening strategies are highly sought. Objective: To estimate the long-term risk of any prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer based on baseline PSA levels among men aged 55 to 60 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a cohort in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial uses actuarial analysis to analyze the association of baseline PSA levels with long-term risk of any prostate cancer and of clinically significant prostate cancer among men aged 55 to 60 years enrolled in the screening group of the trial between 1993 and 2001. Exposure: Single PSA measurement at study entry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Long-term risk of any prostate cancer and clinically significant prostate cancer diagnoses. Results: There were 10 968 men aged 55 to 60 years (median [interquartile range] age, 57 [55-58] years) at study enrollment in the screening group of the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial who had long-term follow-up. Actuarial 13-year incidences of clinically significant prostate cancer diagnosis among participants with a baseline PSA of 0.49 ng/mL or less was 0.4% (95% CI, 0%-0.8%); 0.50-0.99 ng/mL, 1.5% (95% CI, 1.1%-1.9%); 1.00-1.99 ng/mL, 5.4% (95% CI, 4.4%-6.4%); 2.00-2.99 ng/mL, 10.6% (95% CI, 8.3%-12.9%); 3.00-3.99 ng/mL, 15.3% (95% CI, 11.4%-19.2%); and 4.00 ng/mL and greater, 29.5% (95% CI, 24.2%-34.8%) (all pairwise log-rank P ≤ .004). Only 15 prostate cancer-specific deaths occurred during 13 years of follow-up, and 9 (60.0%) were among men with a baseline PSA level of 2.00 ng/mL or higher. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a cohort from the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial, baseline PSA levels among men aged 55 to 60 years were associated with long-term risk of clinically significant prostate cancer. These findings suggest that repeated screening can be less frequent among men aged 55 to 60 years with a low baseline PSA level (ie, <2.00 ng/mL) and possibly discontinued among those with baseline PSA levels of less than 1.00 ng/mL.

7.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(2): 134-140, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Being physically active postdiagnosis has been associated with lower rates of prostate cancer progression and mortality, but studies investigating postdiagnostic time spent sitting are lacking. We aim to study the association between leisure time sitting after a prostate cancer diagnosis and overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality. METHODS: Data from 4595 men in Sweden, diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 1997-2002 and followed-up until the end of 2012, were analyzed. Time spent sitting during leisure time postdiagnosis was categorized into <2, 2-3, 3-4, and >4 h/day. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of postdiagnosis leisure time sitting and a joint variable of sitting time and exercise, and time to overall or prostate cancer-specific death. RESULTS: The results showed no significant associations between postdiagnostic leisure time sitting and overall or prostate cancer-specific mortality rates. When the joint effect of both sitting and exercise time was considered, borderline significantly lower mortality rates for overall and prostate cancer-specific mortality were seen among participants that sat the least and exercised the most compared to the reference category with participants sitting the most and exercising least (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-1.00 and HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.36-1.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: No significant association between leisure time sitting and mortality rates among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer was seen. This study does not support an association between leisure time sitting per se; however, being physically active may have beneficial effects on survival among men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

8.
BJOG ; 127(4): 448-454, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769577

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the risk of vaginal cancer among hysterectomised women with and without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). DESIGN: Population-based national cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: All Swedish women, 5 million in total, aged 20 and up, 1987-2011 using national registries. METHODS: The study cohort was subdivided into four exposure groups: hysterectomised with no previous history of CIN3 and without prevalent CIN at hysterectomy; hysterectomised with a history of CIN3/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS); hysterectomised with prevalent CIN at hysterectomy; non-hysterectomised. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Vaginal cancer. RESULTS: We identified 898 incident cases of vaginal cancer. Women with prevalent CIN at hysterectomy and those with a history of CIN3/AIS had incidence rates (IR) of vaginal cancer of 51.3 (95% CI 34.4-76.5) and 17.1 (95% CI 12.5-23.4) per 100 000, respectively. Age-adjusted IR-ratios (IRRs) compared with hysterectomised women with benign cervical history were 21.0 (95% CI 13.4-32.9) and 5.81 (95% CI 4.00-8.43), respectively. IR for non-hysterectomised women was 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) and IRR was 0.37 (95% CI 0.30-0.46). In hysterectomised women with prevalent CIN, the IR remained high after 15 years of follow up: 65.7 (95% CI 21.2-203.6). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that hysterectomised women with prevalent CIN at surgery should be offered surveillance. Hysterectomised women without the studied risk factors have a more than doubled risk of contracting vaginal cancer compared with non-hysterectomised women in the general population. Still, the incidence rate does not justify screening. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: High risk of contracting vaginal cancer among hysterectomised women having prevalent CIN at surgery.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(1): 171-182, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There is currently no molecular signature in clinical use for adjuvant endocrine therapy omission in breast cancer. Given the unique trial design of SweBCG91-RT, where adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy were largely unadministered, we sought to evaluate the potential of transcriptomic profiling for identifying patients who may be spared adjuvant endocrine therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of SweBCG91-RT, a randomized phase III trial of ± radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for node-negative stage I-IIA breast cancer. Ninety-two percent of patients were untreated by both adjuvant endocrine therapy and chemotherapy. We calculated 15 transcriptomic signatures from the literature and combined them into an average genomic risk, which was further used to derive a novel 141-gene signature (MET141). All signatures were then independently examined in SweBCG91-RT and in the publicly available METABRIC cohort. RESULTS: In SweBCG91-RT, 454 patients were node-negative, postmenopausal, and systemically untreated with ER-positive, HER2-negative cancers, which constitutes a low-risk subgroup and potential candidates for therapy omission. Most transcriptomic signatures were highly prognostic for distant metastasis, but considerable discordance was observed on the individual patient level. Within the MET141 low-risk subgroup (lowest 25th percentile of scores), 95% of patients were free of metastasis at 15 years, even in the absence of adjuvant endocrine therapy. In a clinically low-risk subgroup of the METABRIC cohort not treated with systemic therapy, no breast cancer death occurred among the MET141 low-risk patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic profiling identifies patients with an excellent outcome without any systemic adjuvant therapy in clinically low-risk patients of the SweBCG91-RT and METABRIC cohorts.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0225682, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810078

RESUMO

Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a potentially malignant oral disorder. The Gold Standard treatment is to remove surgically the OL. Despite optimal surgery, the recurrence rates are estimated to be 30%. The reason for this is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical factors that correlate with recurrence after surgical removal of OL. In a prospective study data were collected from 226 patients with OL. Forty-six patients were excluded due to incomplete records or concomitant presence of other oral mucosal diseases. Overall, 180 patients proceeded to analysis (94 women and 86 men; mean age, 62 years; age range, 28-92 years). Clinical data, such as gender, diagnosis (homogeneous/non-homogeneous leukoplakia), location, size, tobacco and alcohol use, verified histopathological diagnosis, and clinical photograph, were obtained. In patients who were eligible for surgery, the OL was surgically removed with a margin. To establish recurrence, a healthy mucosa between the surgery and recurrence had to be confirmed in the records or clinical photographs. Statistical analysis was performed with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Of the 180 patients diagnosed with OL, 57% (N = 103) underwent surgical removal in toto. Recurrence was observed in 43 OL. The cumulative incidence of recurrence of OL was 45% after 4 years and 49% after 5 years. Fifty-six percent (N = 23) of the non-homogeneous type recurred. Among snuff-users 73% (N = 8) cases of OL recurred. A non-homogeneous type of OL and the use of snuff were significantly associated with recurrence after surgical excision (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003, respectively). Recurrence was also significantly associated with cancer transformation (P<0.001). No significant differences were found between recurrence and any of the following: dysplasia, site of lesion, size, multiple vs. solitary OL, gender, age, use of alcohol or smoking. In conclusion, clinical factors that predict recurrence of OL are non-homogeneous type and use of snuff.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancers of the head and neck have a high mortality rate, and roughly 10% of the patients die within six months of diagnosis. To our knowledge little has been written about this group. We wished to identify risk factors for early death, to predict and monitor patients at risk better and, if possible, avoid unjustified major treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This population-based nationwide study from the Swedish Head and Neck Cancer Register (SweHNCR) included data from 2008-2015 and 9733 patients at potential risk of early death. A total of 925 (9.5%) patients died within six months. For every year older the patients became, the risk of early death increased by 2.3% (p<0.001). The relative risk of death was 3.37 times higher (237%) for patients with WHO score 1 compared with WHO score 0. A primary tumour in the hypopharynx correlated with a 24% increased risk over the oral cavity (p<0.024). Patients with stage IV disease had a 3.7 times greater risk of early death than those with stage I (p<0.001). As expected, a 12 times increased risk of early death was noted in the palliative treatment group, compared to the curative group. Limitations to this study were that the actual cause of death was not recorded in the SweHNCR, and that socioeconomic factors, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and HPV status, were not reported in SweHNCR until 2015. However, the fact that this is a population-based nationwide study including 9733 patients compensates for some of these limitations. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of patients at increased risk of early death shows that older patients with advanced disease, increased WHO score, primary tumour in the hypopharynx, and those given palliative treatment, are more likely than the others to die from head and neck cancer within six months of diagnosis.

12.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(35): 3340-3349, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618132

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Most patients with early-stage breast cancer are treated with adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) to prevent locoregional recurrence (LRR). However, no genomic tools are used currently to select the optimal RT strategy. METHODS: We profiled the transcriptome of primary tumors on a clinical grade assay from the SweBCG91-RT trial, in which patients with node-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to either whole-breast RT after BCS or no RT. We derived a new classifier, Adjuvant Radiotherapy Intensification Classifier (ARTIC), comprising 27 genes and patient age, in three publicly available cohorts, then independently validated ARTIC for LRR in 748 patients in SweBCG91-RT. We also compared previously published genomic signatures for ability to predict benefit from RT in SweBCG91-RT. RESULTS: ARTIC was highly prognostic for LRR in patients treated with RT (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0 to 5.9; P < .001) and predictive of RT benefit (Pinteraction = .005). Patients with low ARTIC scores had a large benefit from RT (HR, 0.33 [95% CI, 0.21 to 0.52], P < .001; 10-year cumulative incidence of LRR, 6% v 21%), whereas those with high ARTIC scores benefited less from RT (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.44 to 1.2], P = .23; 10-year cumulative incidence of LRR, 25% v 32%). In contrast, none of the eight previously published signatures were predictive of benefit from RT in SweBCG91-RT. CONCLUSION: ARTIC identified women with a substantial benefit from RT as well as women with a particularly elevated LRR risk in whom whole-breast RT was not sufficiently effective and, thus, in whom intensified treatment strategies such as tumor-bed boost, and possibly regional nodal RT, should be considered. To our knowledge, ARTIC is the first classifier validated as predictive of benefit from RT in a phase III clinical trial with patients randomly assigned to receive or not receive RT.

13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 229-236, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Survival in cervical cancer has improved little over the last decades. We aimed to elucidate primary treatment patterns and survival. METHODS: Population-based study of patients included in the Swedish Quality Registry for Gynecologic Cancer diagnosed 2011-2015. Main outcome was 5-year relative survival (RS). Age-standardised RS (AS-RS) was estimated for the total cohort and for the pooled study population of squamous, adenosquamous-, adenocarcinoma. RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 4.6 years. The study population consisted of 2141 patients; 97% of the 2212 patients in the total cohort and the 5-year AS-RS was 71% and 70%, respectively. RS stage IB1: surgery alone 95% vs. 72% for definitive chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) (p < 0.001). In stage IIA1 74% had CT-RT, and 47% of operated patients received adjuvant (CT)-RT. RS stage IB2: surgically treated 81% (69% received adjuvant (CT)-RT) vs. 76% for (CT)-RT (p = 0.73). RS stage IIB: 77% for CT-RT + brachytherapy (BT), 37% for RT + BT (p = 0.045) and 27% for RT-BT (p < 0.001). Stages III-IVA; <40% received CT-RT + BT, RS 45% vs. 18% for RT-BT (RR 4.1, p < 0.001). RS stage IVB 7%. CONCLUSION: Primary treatment of cervical cancer in Sweden adhered to evidence-based standard of care. Areas of improvement include optimising treatment for stages III-IVA, and avoiding combining surgery and radiotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimiorradioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia Combinada/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Acta Oncol ; 58(11): 1628-1633, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373248

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) on the risk of lymph node metastases and survival in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma.Material and methods: As regard the study design, this is a cohort study based on prospectively recorded data. Patients with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma registered in the Swedish Quality Registry for Gynecologic Cancer 2010-2017 with FIGO stages I-III and verified nodal status were identified (n = 1587). LVSI together with established risk factors, namely DNA ploidy, FIGO grade, myometrial invasion and age, were included in multivariable regression analyses with lymph node metastases as the dependent variable. Associations between the risk factors and overall and relative survival were included in multivariable models. Estimates of risk ratios (RR), hazard ratios (HR), excess mortality rate ratios (EMR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated.Results: The presence of LVSI presented the strongest association with lymph node metastases (RR = 5.46, CI 3.69-8.07, p < .001) followed by deep myometrial invasion (RR = 1.64, CI 1.13-2.37). In the multivariable survival analyses, LVSI (EMR = 7.69, CI 2.03-29.10,) and non-diploidy (EMR = 3.23, CI 1.25-8.41) were associated with decreased relative survival. In sub-analyses including only patients with complete para-aortic and pelvic lymphadenectomy and negative lymph nodes (n = 404), only LVSI (HR = 2.50, CI 1.05-5.98) was associated with a worsened overall survival.Conclusion: This large nationwide study identified LVSI as the strongest independent risk factor for lymph node metastases and decreased survival in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinomas. Moreover, decreased overall survival was also seen in patients with LVSI-positive tumors and negative lymph nodes, indicating that hematogenous dissemination might also be important.

15.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(2): 285-295, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212042

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate incidence and location of locoregional recurrence (LRR) in patients who have received postoperative locoregional radiation therapy (LRRT) for primary breast cancer. LRR-position in relation to applied radiotherapy and the primary tumor biological subtype were analyzed with the aim of evaluating current target guidelines and radiation therapy techniques in relation to tumor biology. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Medical records were reviewed for all patients who received postoperative LRRT for primary breast cancer in southwestern Sweden from 2004 to 2008 (N = 923). Patients with LRR as a first event were identified (n = 57; distant failure and death were considered competing risks). Computed tomographic images identifying LRR were used to compare LRR locations with postoperative LRRT fields. LRR risk and distribution were then related to the primary breast cancer biologic subtype and to current target guidelines. RESULTS: Cumulative LRR incidence after 10 years was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5-9.1). Fifty-seven of the 923 patients in the cohort developed LRR (30 local recurrences and 30 regional recurrences, of which 3 cases were simultaneous local and regional recurrence). Most cases of LRR developed fully (56%) or partially (26%) within postoperatively irradiated areas. The most common location for out-of-field regional recurrence was cranial to radiation therapy fields in the supraclavicular fossa. Patients with an estrogen receptor negative (ER-) (hazard ratio [HR], 4.6; P < .001; 95% CI, 2.5-8.4) or HER2+ (HR, 2.4; P = .007; 95% CI, 1.3-4.7) primary breast cancer presented higher risks of LRR compared with those with ER+ tumors. ER-/HER2+ tumors more frequently recurred in-field (68%) rather than marginally or out-of-field (32%). In addition, 75% of in-field recurrences derived from an ER- or HER+ tumor, compared with 45% of marginal or out-of-field recurrences. A complete pathologic response in the axilla after neoadjuvant treatment was associated with a lower degree of LRR risk (P = .022). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence and location of LRR seem to be related to the primary breast cancer biologic subtype. Individualized LRRT according to tumor biology may be applied to improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/química , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Receptor ErbB-2 , Receptores Estrogênicos , Receptores de Progesterona , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 58(9): 627-635, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938900

RESUMO

Radiation-induced genomic instability (GI) is hypothesized to persist after exposure and ultimately promote carcinogenesis. Based on the absorbed dose to the breast, an increased risk of developing breast cancer was shown in the Swedish hemangioma cohort that was treated with radium-226 for skin hemangioma as infants. Here, we screened 31 primary breast carcinomas for genetic alterations using the OncoScan CNV Plus Assay to assess GI and chromothripsis-like patterns associated with the absorbed dose to the breast. Higher absorbed doses were associated with increased numbers of copy number alterations in the tumor genome and thus a more unstable genome. Hence, the observed dose-dependent GI in the tumor genome is a measurable manifestation of the long-term effects of irradiation. We developed a highly predictive Cox regression model for overall survival based on the interaction between absorbed dose and GI. The Swedish hemangioma cohort is a valuable cohort to investigate the biological relationship between absorbed dose and GI in irradiated humans. This work gives a biological basis for improved risk assessment to minimize carcinogenesis as a secondary disease after radiation therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma/genética , Instabilidade Genômica , Hemangioma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Carcinoma/epidemiologia , Carcinoma/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Suécia
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(14): 1179-1187, 2019 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939091

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effects of radiotherapy (RT) on the basis of the presence of stromal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of TILs with the effect of postoperative RT on ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) in a large randomized trial. METHODS: In the SweBCT91RT (Swedish Breast Cancer Group 91 Radiotherapy) trial, 1,178 patients with breast cancer stage I and II were randomly assigned to breast-conserving surgery plus postoperative RT or breast-conserving surgery only and followed for a median of 15.2 years. Tumor blocks were retrieved from 1,003 patients. Stromal TILs were assessed on whole-section hematoxylin-eosin-stained slides using a dichotomized cutoff of 10%. Subtypes were scored using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray. In total, 936 patients were evaluated. RESULTS: Altogether, 670 (71%) of patients had TILs less than 10%. In a multivariable regression analysis with IBTR as dependent variable and RT, TILs, subtype, age, and grade as independent variables, RT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.42; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.61; P < .001), high TILs (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96, P = .033) grade (3 v 1; HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.08 to 4.34; P = .029), and age (≥ 50 v < 50 years; HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.80; P = .002) were predictive of IBTR. RT was significantly beneficial in the low TILs group (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.58; P < .001) but not in the high TILs group (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.19; P = .138). The test for interaction between RT and TILs was not statistically significant (P = .317). CONCLUSION: This study shows that high values of TILs in the primary tumor independently seem to reduce the risk for an IBTR. Our findings further suggest that patients with breast cancer with low TILs may derive a larger benefit from RT regarding the risk of IBTR.

18.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 60: 23-30, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sociodemographic and spatial disparities in incidence and mortality burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) are important to consider in the implementation of population screening, in order to achieve expected benefit and not increase health inequities. Analytic methods should be adapted to provide rational support for targeted interventions. METHODS: CRC incidence rates by tumor stage (I-IV) and location (colon vs. rectum) were analyzed for the time period 2008-2016 within a screening-relevant age interval of 55-74 years for the population of South and West Sweden, where screening is planned for. The study population was stratified by sex, country of birth, educational level (for Swedish-born citizens) and residential area. We also estimated disparities in excess mortality from CRC across groups of patients accordant to relevant population groups. RESULTS: The analyses were based on 8961 patients with a first CRC diagnosis. There were marked socioeconomic gradients in the stage II-IV CRC incidence rates among Swedish-born men and women. Compared to men with high educational level, the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of stage II, III, and IV CRC in men with low educational level were 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.18, 1.62), 1.09 (0.95, 1.26), and 1.18 (1.02, 1.37), respectively. In women, the corresponding figures were 1.26 (1.06, 1.51), 1.19 (1.01, 1.39), and 1.45 (1.20, 1.80). The groups of patients with low educational level showed relatively high excess mortality burdens from CRC. CONCLUSIONS: Our analytic approach provided rational support for targeted intervention when implementing CRC screening, aiming at optimizing participation in groups with low educational level.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Acta Oncol ; 58(6): 845-851, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849264

RESUMO

Background: For a few types of cancer, lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with higher incidence, and for even more cancer types it is associated with having a less favorable tumor stage at diagnosis. For endometrial cancer (EC), however, there is no clear evidence of such associations with SES. There is a need for analysis of sociodemographic disparities in EC incidences according to stage at diagnosis, which may provide support for trying to improve early detection of EC. Material and methods: Stage-specific incidences of endometrioid and non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas [EECs (∼90% of all EC cases) and NECs (∼10%)] were analyzed for the population of the Western Swedish Healthcare Region, taking into account year (1995-2016), age, educational level (low, intermediate and high), and immigrant status (Swedish-born, foreign-born). All EC cases were identified and data were obtained from population-based registries. Results: Stage distribution of diagnosed EECs differed significantly according to the educational level of patients who were aged between 50 and 74 years at diagnosis, but not in the case of younger or older patients. An analysis based on 3113 EEC cases aged 50-74 years at diagnosis revealed marked disparities in the stage-II to stage-IV EEC incidences but not in the stage-I EEC incidence. Compared to women with a high level of education, the incidence rate ratios of stage-I, stage-II and stage-III and -IV EEC in women with a low level of education were 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90-1.12), 1.65 (1.13-2.42), and 1.82 (1.33-2.49), respectively. For NEC, we found no such association. Conclusions: Elevated incidences of stage-II to stage-IV EEC in 50- to 74-year-old women with a low level of education suggest that there should be targeted health service trials aimed at improving awareness of EC. Well-targeted EC awareness programs might lead to considerable health benefits.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Suécia/epidemiologia
20.
Anticancer Res ; 39(3): 1293-1300, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a potentially malignant oral mucosal disorder. A casual association between OL, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been suggested, but no conclusive evidence has been presented. p16, a tumour-suppressor protein, is used as a surrogate marker for HPV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate how overexpression of p16 correlates with HPV infection in OL and in OSCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-four patients with OL and 13 with OSCC with p16 overexpressed, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry visualizing p16 and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 56, 58 and 59. RESULTS: Overexpression of p16 was observed in 18% of patients with OL. None of the HPV subtypes were detected by PCR analysis in patients with OL. In the p16-positive OSCC specimens, 38% were also HPV16-positive. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of p16 was not found to be a reliable biomarker for HPV infection in patients with OL and OSCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Leucoplasia Oral , Neoplasias Bucais , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/virologia , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoplasia Oral/metabolismo , Leucoplasia Oral/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/virologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia
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