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2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(22): 2761-2773, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularization strategy for the elderly with complex coronary artery disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate 10-year all-cause mortality, life expectancy, 5-year major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and 5-year quality of life (QOL) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in elderly individuals (>70 years old) with 3-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main disease (LMD). METHODS: In the present pre-specified analysis on age of the SYNTAX Extended Survival study, 10-year all-cause death and 5-year MACCE were compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models among elderly or nonelderly patients. Life expectancy was estimated by restricted mean survival time within 10 years, and QOL status according to the Seattle Angina Questionnaire up to 5 years was assessed by linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Among 1,800 randomized patients, 575 patients (31.9%) were elderly. Ten-year mortality did not differ significantly between PCI and CABG in elderly (44.1% vs. 41.1%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.40) and nonelderly patients (21.1% vs. 16.6%; HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.69; pinteraction = 0.332). Among elderly patients, 5-year MACCE was comparable between PCI and CABG (39.4% vs. 35.1%; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.56), whereas it was significantly higher in PCI over CABG among nonelderly patients (36.3% vs. 23.0%; HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.10; pinteraction = 0.043). There were no significant difference in life expectancy (mean difference: 0.2 years in favor of CABG; 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.7) and 5-year QOL status between PCI and CABG among elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with 3VD and/or LMD had comparable 10-year all-cause death, life expectancy, 5-year MACCE, and 5-year QOL status irrespective of revascularization mode. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050) (SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).

4.
Am J Cardiol ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) or three-vessel disease (3VD). Patients were stratified according to baseline BMI and/or waist circumference (WC). Out of 1,800 patients, 1,799 (99.9%) and 1,587 (88.2%) had available baseline BMI and WC data, respectively. Of those, 1,327 (73.8%) patients had High BMI (≥25 kg/m2), whereas 705 (44.4%) patients had High WC (>102 cm for men or >88 cm for women). When stratified by both BMI and WC, 10-year mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with Low BMI/Low WC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 2.51), Low BMI/ High WC (adjusted HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.12 to 6.69), or High BMI/High WC (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.27) compared to those with High BMI/Low WC. In conclusion, the "obesity paradox" following coronary revascularization would be driven by low long-term mortality risk of the High BMI/Low WC group. Body composition should be assessed by the combination of BMI and WC in the appropriate evaluation of the long-term risk of obesity in patients with LMCAD or 3VD.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the impact of total stent length (TSL) and average nominal stent diameter (ASD) on 10-year mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the SYNTAXES trial. BACKGROUND: TSL and ASD in patients treated with PCI are associated with major adverse cardiovascular events. However, the treatment effect of PCI with extensive and/or small stenting as compared with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) for complex coronary artery disease has not been fully evaluated. METHODS: Impacts on mortality of extensive stenting defined as TSL >100 mm and small stenting as ASD <3 mm were analyzed in 893 PCI patients and were compared to 865 CABG patients. RESULTS: TSL as a continuous variable was significantly associated with 10-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.05 [1.01-1.09] per 10 mm increase). PCI patients with extensive stenting had a higher 10 year mortality than CABG patients (adjusted HR, 1.97 [1.41-2.74]) or not- extensive stenting PCI (adjusted HR, 1.94 [1.36-2.77]). Although ASD did not have a significant association with 10 year mortality (adjusted HR, 0.97 [0.85-1.11] per 0.25 mm increase), PCI with small stents was associated with a higher 10 year mortality, compared to CABG (adjusted HR, 1.66 [1.23-2.26]) and PCI performed with large stents (adjusted HR, 1.74 [1.19-2.53]). Patients treated with not-extensive and large stents had similar mortality rates (24.0 versus 23.8%) as those treated with CABG. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive and small stenting were associated with higher 10 year mortality, compared with CABG. When patients have to be treated with extensive or small stenting, revascularization with CABG should be preferred.

6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e019907, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013741

RESUMO

Background The role of race and ethnicity in the outcomes of cardiac arrest (CA) complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is incompletely understood. Methods and Results This was a retrospective cohort study of adult admissions with AMI-CA from the National Inpatient Sample (2012-2017). Self-reported race/ethnicity was classified as White, Black, and others (Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, Native American, Other). Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, coronary angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, palliative care consultation, do-not-resuscitate status use, hospitalization costs, hospital length of stay, and discharge disposition. Of the 3.5 million admissions with AMI, CA was noted in 182 750 (5.2%), with White, Black, and other races/ethnicities constituting 74.8%, 10.7%, and 14.5%, respectively. Black patients admitted with AMI-CA were more likely to be female, with more comorbidities, higher rates of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and higher neurological and renal failure. Admissions of patients of Black and other races/ethnicities underwent coronary angiography (61.9% versus 70.2% versus 73.1%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (44.6% versus 53.0% versus 58.1%) less frequently compared to patients of white race (p<0.001). Admissions of patients with AMI-CA had significantly higher unadjusted mortality (47.4% and 47.4%) as compared with White patients admitted (40.9%). In adjusted analyses, Black race was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.99; P=0.007) whereas other races had higher in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.08-1.15; P<0.001) compared with White race. Admissions of Black patients with AMI-CA had longer length of hospital stay, higher rates of palliative care consultation, less frequent do-not-resuscitate status use, and fewer discharges to home (all P<0.001). Conclusions Racial and ethnic minorities received less frequent guideline-directed procedures and had higher in-hospital mortality and worse outcomes in AMI-CA.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e020517, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33998286

RESUMO

Background There are limited contemporary data on the use of emergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and Results Adult (>18 years) AMI admissions were identified using the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2017) and classified by tertiles of admission year. Outcomes of interest included temporal trends of CABG use, age-, sex-, and race-stratified trends in CABG use, in-hospital mortality, hospitalization costs, and hospital length of stay. Of the 11,622,528 AMI admissions, emergent CABG was performed in 1,071,156 (9.2%). CABG utilization decreased overall (10.5% [2000] to 8.7% [2017]; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.98 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.98-0.98]; p<0.001), in ST-segment-elevation AMI (STEMI) (10.2% [2000] to 5.2% [2017]; adjusted OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.95-0.95]; p<0.001) and non-ST-segment-elevation AMI (NSTEMI) (10.8% [2000] to 10.0% [2017]; adjusted OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.99-0.99]; p<0.001), with consistent age, sex and race trends. In 2012-2017, compared to 2000-2005, admissions receiving emergent CABG were more likely to have NSTEMI (80.5% vs. 56.1%), higher rates of non-cardiac multiorgan failure (26.1% vs. 8.4%), cardiogenic shock (11.5% vs. 6.4%) and use of mechanical circulatory support (19.8% vs. 18.7%). In-hospital mortality in CABG admissions decreased from 5.3% [2000] to 3.6% [2017]; adjusted OR 0.89 [95% CI 0.88-0.89]; p<0.001 in the overall cohort, with similar temporal trends in STEMI and NSTEMI. An increase in lengths of hospital stay and hospitalization costs was seen over time. Conclusions Utilization of CABG has decreased substantially in AMI admissions, especially in STEMI. Despite an increase in acuity and multi-organ failure, in-hospital mortality consistently decreased this population.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized studies of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) in cardiogenic shock (CS) have focused exclusively on patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) without stratification according to shock severity. We examined the association between IABP and mortality in CS patients across the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) shock stages. METHODS: We included cardiac intensive care unit patients admitted from 2007 to 2015 with CS from any etiology. In-hospital mortality associated with IABP was examined in each SCAI shock stage. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to determine the association between IABP and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We included 934 patients, with a mean age of 68 ± 14 years; 60% had ACS. The distribution of SCAI shock stages was: B, 41%; C, 13%; D, 38%; E, 8%. In-hospital mortality was lower in the 39% of patients who received IABP (27% vs. 43%, adjusted OR with IABP after IPTW 0.53, 95% CI 0.40-0.72, p < .0001). IABP use was associated with lower crude in-hospital mortality in each SCAI shock stage (all p < .05, except p = .08 in SCAI shock stage E). We did not observe any significant heterogeneity in the association between IABP use and in-hospital mortality as a function of SCAI shock stage. CONCLUSIONS: IABP use was associated with substantially lower in-hospital mortality in patients with CS, without differences in this effect across the SCAI shock stages. Future studies should account for the severity and etiology of shock when evaluating the efficacy of IABP for CS.

9.
Circulation ; 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011163

RESUMO

Background: Ten-year all-cause death according to incomplete (IR) versus complete revascularization (CR) has not been fully investigated in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: The SYNTAX Extended Survival Study evaluated vital status up to 10 years in patients who were originally enrolled in the SYNTAX trial. In the present sub-study, outcomes of the CABG CR group were compared with the CABG IR, PCI CR, and PCI IR groups. In addition, in the PCI cohort, the residual SYNTAX score (rSS) was used to quantify the extent of IR and to assess its association with fatal late outcome. The rSS of 0 suggests CR, whereas a rSS>0 identifies degree of IR. Results: IR was more frequently observed in patients with PCI vs. CABG (56.6% vs. 36.8%) and more common in those with 3VD than LMCAD in both PCI (58.5% vs. 53.8%) and CABG arm (42.8% vs. 27.5%). Patients undergoing PCI with CR had no significant difference in 10-year all-cause death compared with those undergoing CABG (22.2% for PCI with CR vs. 24.3% for CABG with IR vs. 23.8% for CABG with CR). In contrast, those with PCI and IR had a significantly higher risk of all-cause death at 10 years compared with CABG and CR (33.5% vs. 23.7%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]:1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.15-1.91). When patients with PCI were stratified according to the rSS, those with a rSS≤8 had no significant difference in all-cause death at 10 years as the other terciles (22.2% for rSS=0 vs. 23.9% for rSS>0-4 vs. 28.9% for rSS>4-8), whereas a rSS> 8 had a significantly higher risk of 10-year all-cause death as compared with those undergoing PCI with CR (50.1% vs. 22.2%; aHR:3.40; 95% CI:2.13-5.43). Conclusions: IR is common after PCI, and the degree of incompleteness was associated with 10-year mortality. If it is unlikely that complete (or nearly complete; rSS<8) revascularization can be achieved with PCI in patients with 3VD, CABG should be considered. Clinical Trial Registration: SYNTAX: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Unique Identifier: NCT03417050.

10.
Circulation ; 143(18): 1754-1762, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion provides an alternative to oral anticoagulation for thromboembolic risk reduction in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Since regulatory approval in 2015, the WATCHMAN device has been the only LAA closure device available for clinical use in the United States. The PINNACLE FLX study (Protection Against Embolism for Nonvalvular AF Patients: Investigational Device Evaluation of the Watchman FLX LAA Closure Technology) evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the next-generation WATCHMAN FLX LAA closure device in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in whom oral anticoagulation is indicated, but who have an appropriate rationale to seek a nonpharmaceutical alternative. METHODS: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter US Food and Drug Administration study. The primary safety end point was the occurrence of one of the following events within 7 days after the procedure or by hospital discharge, whichever was later: death, ischemic stroke, systemic embolism, or device- or procedure-related events requiring cardiac surgery. The primary effectiveness end point was the incidence of effective LAA closure (peri-device flow ≤5 mm), as assessed by the echocardiography core laboratory at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 400 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 73.8±8.6 years and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.2±1.5. The incidence of the primary safety end point was 0.5% with a 1-sided 95% upper CI of 1.6%, meeting the performance goal of 4.2% (P<0.0001). The incidence of the primary effectiveness end point was 100%, with a 1-sided 95% lower CI of 99.1%, again meeting the performance goal of 97.0% (P<0.0001). Device-related thrombus was reported in 7 patients, no patients experienced pericardial effusion requiring open cardiac surgery, and there were no device embolizations. CONCLUSIONS: LAA closure with this next-generation LAA closure device was associated with a low incidence of adverse events and a high incidence of anatomic closure. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02702271.

12.
Heart ; 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This manuscript aims to explore the impact of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status on in-hospital complication rates after left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). METHODS: The US National Inpatient Sample was used to identify hospitalisations for LAAC between 1 October 2015 to 31 December 2018. These patients were stratified by race/ethnicity and quartiles of median neighbourhood income. The primary outcome was the occurrence of in-hospital major adverse events, defined as a composite of postprocedural bleeding, cardiac and vascular complications, acute kidney injury and ischaemic stroke. RESULTS: Of 6478 unweighted hospitalisations for LAAC, 58% were male and patients of black, Hispanic and 'other' race/ethnicity each comprised approximately 5% of the cohort. Adjusted by the older Americans population, the estimated number of LAAC procedures was 69.2/100 000 for white individuals, as compared with 29.5/100 000 for blacks, 47.2/100 000 for Hispanics and 40.7/100 000 for individuals of 'other' race/ethnicity. Black patients were ~5 years younger but had a higher comorbidity burden. The primary outcome occurred in 5% of patients and differed significantly between racial/ethnic groups (p<0.001) but not across neighbourhood income quartiles (p=0.88). After multilevel modelling, the overall rate of in-hospital major adverse events was higher in black patients as compared with whites (OR: 1.60, 95% CI 1.22 to 2.10, p<0.001); however, the incidence of acute kidney injury was higher in Hispanics (OR: 2.19, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.17, p<0.001). No significant differences were found in adjusted overall in-hospital complication rates between income quartiles. CONCLUSION: In this study assessing racial/ethnic disparities in patients undergoing LAAC, minorities are under-represented, specifically patients of black race/ethnicity. Compared with whites, black patients had higher comorbidity burden and higher rates of in-hospital complications. Lower socioeconomic status was not associated with complication rates.

14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 2025-2035, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704924

RESUMO

AIMS: There are limited contemporary data on the use of initial fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (STEMI-CS). This study sought to compare the outcomes of STEMI-CS receiving initial fibrinolysis vs. primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). METHODS: Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample from 2009 to 2017, a comparative effectiveness study of adult (>18 years) STEMI-CS admissions receiving pre-hospital/in-hospital fibrinolysis were compared with those receiving PPCI. Admissions with alternate indications for fibrinolysis and STEMI-CS managed medically or with surgical revascularization (without fibrinolysis) were excluded. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, development of non-cardiac organ failure, complications, hospital length of stay, hospitalization costs, use of palliative care, and do-not-resuscitate status. RESULTS: During 2009-2017, 5297 and 110 452 admissions received initial fibrinolysis and PPCI, respectively. Compared with those receiving PPCI, the fibrinolysis group was more often non-White, with lower co-morbidity, and admitted on weekends and to small rural hospitals (all P < 0.001). In the fibrinolysis group, 95.3%, 77.4%, and 15.7% received angiography, PCI, and coronary artery bypass grafting, respectively. The fibrinolysis group had higher rates of haemorrhagic complications (13.5% vs. 9.9%; P < 0.001). The fibrinolysis group had comparable all-cause in-hospital mortality [logistic regression analysis: 28.8% vs. 28.5%; propensity-matched analysis: 30.8% vs. 30.3%; adjusted odds ratio 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.90-1.05); P = 0.50]. The fibrinolysis group had comparable rates of acute organ failure, hospital length of stay, rates of palliative care referrals, do-not-resuscitate status use, and lesser hospitalization costs. CONCLUSIONS: The use of initial fibrinolysis had comparable in-hospital mortality than those receiving PPCI in STEMI-CS in the contemporary era in this large national observational study.

15.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710385

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on 10-year all-cause death and the treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death in patients with three-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) and COPD. METHODS: Patients were stratified according to COPD status and compared with regard to clinical outcomes. Ten-year all-cause death was examined according to the presence of COPD and the revascularization strategy. RESULTS: COPD status was available for all randomized 1800 patients, of whom, 154 had COPD (8.6%) at the time of randomization. Regardless of the revascularization strategy, patients with COPD had a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death, compared with those without COPD (43.1% vs. 24.9%; hazard ratio [HR]: 2.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.64; p < 0.001). Among patients with COPD, CABG appeared to have a slightly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death compared with PCI (42.3% vs. 43.9%; HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.59-1.56, p = 0.858), whereas among those without COPD, CABG had a significantly lower risk of 10-year all-cause death (22.7% vs. 27.1%; HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.99, p = 0.041). There was no significant differential treatment effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death between patients with and without COPD (p interaction = 0.544). CONCLUSIONS: COPD was associated with a higher risk of 10-year all-cause death after revascularization for complex coronary artery disease. The presence of COPD did not significantly modify the beneficial effect of CABG versus PCI on 10-year all-cause death. TRIAL REGISTRATION: SYNTAX: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT00114972. SYNTAX Extended Survival: ClinicalTrials.gov reference: NCT03417050.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580778

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with poor outcomes in older patients, but it remains unclear if this is due to higher shock severity. We sought to determine the associations between age and shock severity on mortality among patients with CS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with a diagnosis of CS from Mayo Clinic (2007-15) and University Clinic Hamburg (2009-17) were subdivided by age. Shock severity was graded using the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) shock stages. Predictors of 30-day survival were determined using Cox proportional-hazards analysis. We included 1749 patients (934 from Mayo Clinic and 815 from University Clinic Hamburg), with a mean age of 67.6 ± 14.6 years, including 33.6% females. Acute coronary syndrome was the cause of CS in 54.0%. The distribution of SCAI shock stages was 24.1%; C, 28.0%; D, 33.2%; and E, 14.8%. Older patients had similar overall shock severity, more co-morbidities, worse kidney function, and decreased use of mechanical circulatory support compared to younger patients. Overall 30-day survival was 53.3% and progressively decreased as age or SCAI shock stage increased, with a clear gradient towards lower 30-day survival as a function of increasing age and SCAI shock stage. Progressively older age groups had incrementally lower adjusted 30-day survival than patients aged <50 years. CONCLUSION: Older patients with CS have lower short-term survival, despite similar shock severity, with a high risk of death in older patients with more severe shock. Further research is needed to determine the optimal treatment strategies for older CS patients.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(5): 529-540, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical benefit after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with total occlusions (TOs) and complex coronary artery disease has not yet been clarified. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this analysis was to assess 10-year all-cause mortality in patients with TOs undergoing PCI or CABG. METHODS: This is a subanalysis of patients with at least 1 TO in the SYNTAXES (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery Extended Survival) study, which investigated 10-year all-cause mortality in the SYNTAX (Synergy Between PCI With Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) trial, beyond its original 5-year follow-up. Patients with TOs were further stratified according to the status of TO recanalization or revascularization. RESULTS: Of 1,800 randomized patients to the PCI or CABG arm, 460 patients had at least 1 lesion of TO. In patients with TOs, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization was not associated with 10-year all-cause mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment (PCI arm: 29.9% vs. 29.4%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.474 to 2.075; p = 0.982; and CABG arm: 28.0% vs. 21.4%; adjusted HR: 0.656; 95% CI: 0.281 to 1.533; p = 0.330). When TOs existed in left main and/or left anterior descending artery, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not have an impact on the mortality (34.5% vs. 26.9%; adjusted HR: 0.896; 95% CI: 0.314 to 2.555; p = 0.837). CONCLUSIONS: At 10-year follow-up, the status of TO recanalization or revascularization did not affect mortality, irrespective of the assigned treatment and location of TOs. The present study might support contemporary practice among high-volume chronic TO-PCI centers where recanalization is primarily offered to patients for the management of angina refractory to medical therapy when myocardial viability is confirmed. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050; SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).

19.
Circulation ; 143(6): 583-596, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555916

RESUMO

A growing number of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation also have atrial fibrillation. This poses challenges for their optimal antithrombotic management because patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI require oral anticoagulation for the prevention of cardiac thromboembolism and dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of coronary thrombotic complications. The combination of oral anticoagulation and dual antiplatelet therapy substantially increases the risk of bleeding. Over the last decade, a series of North American Consensus Statements on the Management of Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention have been reported. Since the last update in 2018, several pivotal clinical trials in the field have been published. This document provides a focused updated of the 2018 recommendations. The group recommends that in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI, a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant is the oral anticoagulation of choice. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor should be given to all patients during the peri-PCI period (during inpatient stay, until time of discharge, up to 1 week after PCI, at the discretion of the treating physician), after which the default strategy is to stop aspirin and continue treatment with a P2Y12 inhibitor, preferably clopidogrel, in combination with a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (ie, double therapy). In patients at increased thrombotic risk who have an acceptable risk of bleeding, it is reasonable to continue aspirin (ie, triple therapy) for up to 1 month. Double therapy should be given for 6 to 12 months with the actual duration depending on the ischemic and bleeding risk profile of the patient, after which patients should discontinue antiplatelet therapy and receive oral anticoagulation alone.

20.
Am J Med ; 134(6): 788-796, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been shown to be effective at reducing the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF), they are sometimes underdosed off-label to mitigate their associated higher bleeding risk. We sought to evaluate frequency and clinical outcomes of inappropriate underdosing of DOACS in patients with AF. METHODS: We conducted a study of subjects with AF who had a clinical indication for stroke prophylaxis (with a congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 47 years, sex category [CHA2DS2-VASc] of 2 or greater) and were prescribed 1 of the 4 clinically approved DOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran, or edoxaban). We compared all-cause mortality, composite of stroke and systemic embolism, composite of myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndromes (ACS), and coronary revascularization, and major bleeding between patients appropriately dosed and inappropriately underdosed. RESULTS: A total of 8125 patients met inclusion criteria, with a mean follow up of 2.2 ± 2 years. Of those, 1724 patients (21.2%) were inappropriately dosed. After adjusting for baseline variables, there was no difference in all-cause mortality, risk of stroke or systemic embolism, International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) major bleeding, or composite of myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndromes, or coronary revascularization between patients appropriately dosed and inappropriately underdosed. In subgroup analysis, only apixaban demonstrated an increased incidence all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.49) with inappropriate underdosing. There was no difference in the remaining clinical outcomes noted on subgroup analysis. CONCLUSION: Underdosing of DOACs did not minimize risk of bleeding, systemic embolization or all-cause mortality in patients with AF. Inappropriate underdosing with apixaban in particular was associated with increased all-cause mortality.

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