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2.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt A): 105167, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634664

RESUMO

We developed a hybrid chemical transport model and receptor model (CTM-RM) to conduct source apportionment of both primary and secondary PM2.5 (particulate matter ≤2.5 µm in diameter) at 36 km resolution throughout the U.S. State of Georgia for the years 2005 and 2007. This novel source apportionment model enabled us to estimate and compare associations of short-term changes in 12 PM2.5 source concentrations (agriculture, biogenic, coal, dust, fuel oil, metals, natural gas, non-road mobile diesel, non-road mobile gasoline, on-road mobile diesel, on-road mobile gasoline, and all other sources) with emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric respiratory diseases. ED visits for asthma (N = 49,651), pneumonia (N = 25,558), and acute upper respiratory infections (acute URI, N = 235,343) among patients aged ≤18 years were obtained from patient claims records. Using a case-crossover study, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile range (IQR) increase for 3-day moving average PM2.5 source concentrations using conditional logistic regression, matching on day-of-week, month, and year, and adjusting for average temperature, humidity, and holidays. We fit both single-source and multi-source models. We observed positive associations between several PM2.5 sources and ED visits for asthma, pneumonia, and acute URI. For example, for asthma, per IQR increase in the source contribution in the single-source model, odds ratios were 1.022 (95% CI: 1.013, 1.031) for dust; 1.050 (95% CI: 1.036, 1.063) for metals, and 1.091 (95% CI: 1.064, 1.119) for natural gas. These sources comprised 5.7%, 2.2%, and 6.3% of total PM2.5 mass, respectively. PM2.5 from metals and natural gas were positively associated with all three respiratory outcomes. In addition, non-road mobile diesel was positively associated with pneumonia and acute URI.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Adolescente , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Estudos Cross-Over , Poeira , Feminino , Gasolina , Georgia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Material Particulado/análise
3.
Environ Res ; 178: 108601, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465992

RESUMO

Ambient fine particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) has been linked to various adverse health outcomes. PM2.5 arises from both natural and anthropogenic sources, and PM2.5 concentrations can vary over space and time. However, the sparsity of existing air quality monitors greatly restricts the spatial-temporal coverage of PM2.5 measurements, potentially limiting the accuracy of PM2.5-related health studies. Various methods exist to address these limitations by supplementing air quality monitoring measurements with additional data. We develop a method to combine PM2.5 estimated from satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations using statistical models. While most previous methods utilize AOD or CTM separately, we aim to leverage advantages offered by both data sources in terms of resolution and coverage using Bayesian ensemble averaging. Our approach differs from previous ensemble approaches in its ability to not only incorporate uncertainties in PM2.5 estimates from individual models but also to provide uncertainties for the resulting ensemble estimates. In an application of estimating daily PM2.5 in the Southeastern US, the ensemble approach outperforms previously developed spatial-temporal statistical models that use either AOD or bias-corrected CTM simulations in cross-validation (CV) analyses. More specifically, in spatially clustered CV experiments, the ensemble approach reduced the AOD-only and CTM-only model's root mean squared error (RMSE) by at least 13%. Similar improvements were seen in R2. The enhanced prediction performance that the ensemble technique provides at fine-scale spatial resolution, as well as the availability of prediction uncertainty, can be further used in health effect analyses of air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Modelos Estatísticos , Material Particulado/análise , Imagens de Satélites , Aerossóis , Teorema de Bayes
4.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 69(4): 402-414, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499749

RESUMO

Motor vehicles are major sources of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and the PM2.5 from mobile vehicles is associated with adverse health effects. Traditional methods for estimating source impacts that employ receptor models are limited by the availability of observational data. To better estimate temporally and spatially resolved mobile source impacts on PM2.5, we developed an approach based on a method that uses elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen oxide (NOx) measurements as an indicator of mobile source impacts. We extended the original integrated mobile source indicator (IMSI) method in three aspects. First, we generated spatially resolved indicators using 24-hr average concentrations of EC, CO, and NOx estimated at 4 km resolution by applying a method developed to fuse chemical transport model (Community Multiscale Air Quality Model [CMAQ]) simulations and observations. Second, we used spatially resolved emissions instead of county-level emissions in the IMSI formulation. Third, we spatially calibrated the unitless indicators to annually-averaged mobile source impacts estimated by the receptor model Chemical Mass Balance (CMB). Daily total mobile source impacts on PM2.5, as well as separate gasoline and diesel vehicle impacts, were estimated at 12 km resolution from 2002 to 2008 and 4 km resolution from 2008 to 2010 for Georgia. The total mobile and separate vehicle source impacts compared well with daily CMB results, with high temporal correlation (e.g., R ranges from 0.59 to 0.88 for total mobile sources with 4 km resolution at nine locations). The total mobile source impacts had higher correlation and lower error than the separate gasoline and diesel sources when compared with observation-based CMB estimates. Overall, the enhanced approach provides spatially resolved mobile source impacts that are similar to observation-based estimates and can be used to improve assessment of health effects. Implications: An approach is developed based on an integrated mobile source indicator method to estimate spatiotemporal PM2.5 mobile source impacts. The approach employs three air pollutant concentration fields that are readily simulated at 4 and 12 km resolutions, and is calibrated using PM2.5 source apportionment modeling results to generate daily mobile source impacts in the state of Georgia. The estimated source impacts can be used in investigations of traffic pollution and health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Georgia , Veículos Automotores
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(10)2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30336609

RESUMO

Bright surfaces across the western U.S. lead to uncertainties in satellite derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) where AOD is typically overestimated. With this in mind, a compact and portable instrument was developed to measure surface albedo on an unmanned aircraft system (UAS). This spectral albedometer uses two Hamamatsu micro-spectrometers (range: 340⁻780 nm) for measuring incident and reflected solar radiation at the surface. The instrument was deployed on 5 October 2017 in Nevada's Black Rock Desert (BRD) to investigate a region of known high surface reflectance for comparison with albedo products from satellites. It was found that satellite retrievals underestimate surface reflectance compared to the UAS mounted albedometer. To highlight the importance of surface reflectance on the AOD from satellite retrieval algorithms, a 1-D radiative transfer model was used. The simple model was used to determine the sensitivity of AOD with respect to the change in albedo and indicates a large sensitivity of AOD retrievals to surface reflectance for certain combinations of surface albedo and aerosol optical properties. This demonstrates the need to increase the number of surface albedo measurements and an intensive evaluation of albedo satellite retrievals to improve satellite-derived AOD. The portable instrument is suitable for other applications as well.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617349

RESUMO

The use of solid biomass fuels in cookstoves has been associated with chronic health impacts that disproportionately affect women worldwide. Solid fuel stoves that use wood, plant matter, and cow dung are commonly used for household cooking in rural Bangladesh. This study investigates the immediate effects of acute elevated cookstove emission exposures on pulmonary function. Pulmonary function was measured with spirometry before and during cooking to assess changes in respiratory function during exposure to cookstove emissions for 15 females ages 18-65. Cookstove emissions were characterized using continuous measurements of particulate matter (PM2.5-aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm) concentrations at a 1 s time resolution for each household. Several case studies were observed where women ≥40 years who had been cooking for ≥25 years suffered from severe pulmonary impairment. Forced expiratory volume in one second over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) was found to moderately decline (p = 0.06) during cooking versus non-cooking in the study cohort. The study found a significant (α < 0.05) negative association between 3- and 10-min maximum PM2.5 emissions during cooking and lung function measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC obtained during cooking intervals. This study found that exposure to biomass burning emissions from solid fuel stoves- associated with acute elevated PM2.5 concentrations- leads to a decrease in pulmonary function, although further research is needed to ascertain the prolonged (e.g., daily, for multiple years) impacts of acute PM2.5 exposure on immediate and sustained respiratory impairment.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Biomassa , Culinária , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , População Rural , Capacidade Vital
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(22): 12225-12231, 2016 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27801579

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of chemical compounds and concentration of reactive mercury (RM), defined as the sum of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and <3 µm particulate bound mercury (PBM), are poorly characterized. The objective of this study was to understand the chemistry, concentration, and spatial and temporal distribution of GOM at adjacent locations (12 km apart) with a difference in elevation of ∼1000 m. Atmospheric GOM measurements were made with passive and active samplers using membranes, and at one location, a Tekran mercury measurement system was used. The chemistry of GOM varied across time and location. On the basis of data collected, chemistry at the low elevation site adjacent to a highway was primarily influenced by pollutants generated by mobile sources (GOM = nitrogen and sulfur-based compounds), and the high elevation site (GOM = halogen-based compounds) was affected by long-range transport in the free troposphere over the marine boundary layer into Nevada. Data collected at these two locations demonstrate that different GOM compounds exist depending on the oxidants present in the air. Measurements of GOM made by the KCl denuder in the Tekran instrument located at the low elevation site were lower than that measured using membranes by 1.7-13 times. Accurate measurements of atmospheric concentrations and chemistry of RM are necessary for proper assessment of environmental impacts, and field measurements are essential for atmospheric models, which in turn influence policy decisions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Atmosfera/química , Mercúrio , Compostos de Mercúrio
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 50(7): 3695-705, 2016 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26923334

RESUMO

Investigations of ambient air pollution health effects rely on complete and accurate spatiotemporal air pollutant estimates. Three methods are developed for fusing ambient monitor measurements and 12 km resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ) simulations to estimate daily air pollutant concentrations across Georgia. Temporal variance is determined by observations in one method, with the annual mean CMAQ field providing spatial structure. A second method involves scaling daily CMAQ simulated fields using mean observations to reduce bias. Finally, a weighted average of these results based on prediction of temporal variance provides optimized daily estimates for each 12 × 12 km grid. These methods were applied to daily metrics of 12 pollutants (CO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, PM10, PM2.5, and five PM2.5 components) over the state of Georgia for a seven-year period (2002-2008). Cross-validation demonstrates a wide range in optimized model performance across pollutants, with SO2 predicted most poorly due to limitations in coal combustion plume monitoring and modeling. For the other pollutants studied, 54-88% of the spatiotemporal variance (Pearson R(2) from cross-validation) was captured, with ozone and PM2.5 predicted best. The optimized fusion approach developed provides daily spatial field estimates of air pollutant concentrations and uncertainties that are consistent with observations, emissions, and meteorology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Georgia , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Espaço-Temporal
9.
Environ Health Perspect ; 124(6): 875-80, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic studies suggest associations between preterm birth and ambient air pollution. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between 11 ambient air pollutants, estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) simulations with measurements from stationary monitors, and risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in the U.S. state of Georgia. METHODS: Birth records for singleton births ≥ 27 weeks of gestation with complete covariate information and estimated dates of conception between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2006 were obtained from the Office of Health Indicators for Planning, Georgia Department of Public Health (n = 511,658 births). Daily pollutant concentrations at 12-km resolution were estimated for 11 ambient air pollutants. We used logistic regression with county-level fixed effects to estimate associations between preterm birth and average pollutant concentrations during the first and second trimester. Discrete-time survival models were used to estimate third-trimester and total pregnancy associations. Effect modification was investigated by maternal education, race, census tract poverty level, and county-level urbanicity. RESULTS: Trimester-specific and total pregnancy associations (p < 0.05) were observed for several pollutants. All the traffic-related pollutants (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5 elemental carbon) were associated with preterm birth [e.g., odds ratios for interquartile range increases in carbon monoxide during the first, second, and third trimesters and total pregnancy were 1.005 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.009), 1.007 (95% CI: 1.002, 1.011), 1.010 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.014), and 1.011 (95% CI: 1.006, 1.017)]. Associations tended to be higher for mothers with low educational attainment and African American mothers. CONCLUSION: Several ambient air pollutants were associated with preterm birth; associations were observed in all exposure windows. CITATION: Hao H, Chang HH, Holmes HA, Mulholland JA, Klein M, Darrow LA, Strickland MJ. 2016. Air pollution and preterm birth in the U.S. state of Georgia (2002-2006): associations with concentrations of 11 ambient air pollutants estimated by combining Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) simulations with stationary monitor measurements. Environ Health Perspect 124:875-880; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409651.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Monóxido de Carbono , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Razão de Chances , Gravidez
10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(22): 13206-14, 2015 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26451471

RESUMO

Cold air pools (CAPs) are stagnant stable air masses that form in valleys and basins in the winter. Low wintertime insolation limits convective mixing, such that pollutant concentrations can build up within the CAP when pollutant sources are present. In the western United States, wintertime CAPs often persist for days or weeks. Atmospheric models do not adequately capture the strength and evolution of CAPs. This is in part due to the limited availability of data quantifying the local turbulence during the formation, maintenance, and destruction of persistent CAPs. This paper presents observational data to quantify the turbulent mixing during two CAP episodes in Utah's Salt Lake Valley during February of 2004. Particulate matter (PM) concentration data and turbulence measurements for CAP and non-CAP time periods indicate that two distinct types of mixing scenarios occur depending on whether the CAP is dry or cloudy. Where cloudy, CAPs have enhanced vertical mixing due to top-down convection from the cloud layer. A comparison between the heat and momentum fluxes during 5 days of a dry CAP episode in February to those of an equivalent 5 day time period in March with no CAP indicates that the average turbulent kinetic energy during the CAP was suppressed by approximately 80%.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/análise , Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Utah , Tempo (Meteorologia)
11.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc ; 64(7): 759-73, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25122950

RESUMO

This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor ambient air measurements. However, a large fraction of time is typically spent indoors where a variety of activities including cooking, heating, tobacco smoking, and cleaning can lead to elevated PM concentrations. This study investigates the influence of meteorology, outdoor PM, and indoor activities on indoor air pollution (IAP) levels in the United States-Mexico border region. Results indicate that cooking fuel type and meteorology greatly influence the IAP in homes, with biomass fuel use causing the largest increase in PM concentration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Habitação , Material Particulado/química , Atmosfera , Biomassa , Culinária , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fogo , México , Tamanho da Partícula , Características de Residência , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(23): 13511-8, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24087907

RESUMO

A Bayesian source apportionment (SA) method is developed to provide source impact estimates and associated uncertainties. Bayesian-based ensemble averaging of multiple models provides new source profiles for use in a chemical mass balance (CMB) SA of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The approach estimates source impacts and their uncertainties by using a short-term application of four individual SA methods: three receptor-based models and one chemical transport model. The method is used to estimate two seasonal distributions of source profiles that are used in SA for a long-term PM2.5 data set. For each day in a long-term PM2.5 data set, 10 source profiles are sampled from these distributions and used in a CMB application, resulting in 10 SA results for each day. This formulation results in a distribution of daily source impacts rather than a single value. The average and standard deviation of the distribution are used as the final estimate of source impact and a measure of uncertainty, respectively. The Bayesian-based source impacts for biomass burning correlate better with observed levoglucosan (R(2) = 0.66) and water-soluble potassium (R(2) = 0.63) than source impacts estimated using more traditional methods and more closely agrees with observed total mass. The Bayesian approach also captures the expected seasonal variation of biomass burning and secondary impacts and results in fewer days with sources having zero impact. Sensitivity analysis found that using non-informative prior weighting performed better than using weighting based on method-derived uncertainties. This approach can be applied to long-term data sets from speciation network sites of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). In addition to providing results that are more consistent with independent observations and known emission sources being present, the distributions of source impacts can be used in epidemiologic analyses to estimate uncertainties associated with the SA results.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Modelos Teóricos , Material Particulado/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Biomassa , Análise Fatorial , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Potássio/análise , Estações do Ano
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