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1.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 190: 110967, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199264

RESUMO

Patterned films are essential to the commonplace technologies of modern life. However, they come at high cost to the planet, being produced from non-renewable, petrochemical-derived polymers and utilising substrates that require harsh, top-down etching techniques. Biopolymers offer a cheap, sustainable and viable alternative easily integrated into existing production techniques. We describe a simple method for the production of patterned biopolymer surfaces and the assignment of each biopolymer domain, which allows for selective metal incorporation used in many patterning applications. Protein and polysaccharide domains were identified by selective etching and metal incorporation; a first for biopolymer blends. Morphologies akin to those observed with synthetic polymer blends and block-copolymers were realised across a large range of feature diameter (200 nm to - 20 µm) and types (salami structure, continuous, porous and droplet-matrix). The morphologies of the films were tuneable with simple recipe changes, highlighting that these biopolymer blends are a feasible alternative to traditional polymers when patterning surfaces. The protein to polysaccharide ratio, viscosity, casting method and spin speed were found to influence the final film morphology. High protein concentrations generally resulted in porous structures whereas higher polysaccharide concentrations resulted in spherical discontinuous domains. Low spin speed conditions resulted in growth of protuberances ranging from 200 nm to 22 µm in diameter, while higher spin speeds resulted in more monodisperse features, with smaller maximal diameter structures ranging from 300 nm to 12.5 µm.

2.
Nanotechnology ; 31(16): 165402, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891917

RESUMO

The combination of two active Li-ion materials (Ge and Sn) can result in improved conduction paths and higher capacity retention. Here we report for the first time, the implementation of Ge1-x Sn x alloy nanowires as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Ge1-x Sn x alloy nanowires have been successfully grown via vapor-liquid-solid technique directly on stainless steel current collectors. Ge1-x Sn x (x = 0.048) nanowires were predominantly seeded from the Au0.80Ag0.20 catalysts with negligible amount of growth was also directly catalyzed from stainless steel substrate. The electrochemical performance of the the Ge1-x Sn x nanowires as an anode material for Li-ion batteries was investigated via galvanostatic cycling and detailed analysis of differential capacity plots (DCPs). The nanowire electrodes demonstrated an exceptional capacity retention of 93.4% from the 2nd to the 100th charge at a C/5 rate, while maintaining a specific capacity value of ∼921 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles. Voltage profiles and DCPs revealed that the Ge1-x Sn x nanowires behave as an alloying mode anode material, as reduction/oxidation peaks for both Ge and Sn were observed, however it is clear that the reversible lithiation of Ge is responsible for the majority of the charge stored.

3.
Nanoscale ; 11(28): 13612-13619, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290891

RESUMO

Germanium tin (GeSn) has been proposed as a promising material for electronic and optical applications due to the formation of a direct band-gap at a Sn content >7 at%. Furthermore, the ability to manipulate the properties of GeSn at the nanoscale will further permit the realisation of advanced mechanical devices. Here we report for the first time the mechanical properties of GeSn nanowires (7.1-9.7 at% Sn) and assess their suitability as nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches. Electron microscopy analysis showed the nanowires to be single crystalline, with surfaces covered by a thin native amorphous oxide layer. Mechanical resonance and bending tests at different boundary conditions were used to obtain size-dependent Young's moduli and to relate the mechanical characteristics of the alloy nanowires to geometry and Sn incorporation. The mechanical properties of the GeSn nanowires make them highly promising for applications in next generation NEM devices.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1974: 291-301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099011

RESUMO

Here we describe a simple way to create a gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-based non-viral delivery system to deliver siRNA into prostate cancer cells. Therefore, positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI)-capped AuNPs were synthesized in water and further conjugated with the targeting ligand (folic acid) for folate receptors (AuNPs-PEI-FA). The AuNPs-PEI-FA could effectively complex small interfering RNA (siRNA) through electrostatic interaction. Flow cytometry displayed that AuNPs-PEI-FA could specifically deliver siRNA into LNCaP cells, a prostate cancer cell line overexpressing prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) that exhibits a hydrolase enzymatic activity with a folate substrate. In contrast, internalization of siRNA into PC-3 cells, a prostate cancer cell line not expressing PSMA or folate receptors, was not achieved using AuNPs-PEI-FA.siRNA. Following endolysosomal escape, the AuNPs-PEI-FA-.siRNA formulation resulted in significant endogenous gene silencing when compared to the nontargeted formulation, suggesting the potential of AuNPs-PEI-FA for targeted delivery of therapeutic siRNAs in the treatment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico
5.
Nanotechnology ; 30(32): 324001, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986779

RESUMO

Silicon nanowire (Si NW) sensors have attracted great attention due to their ability to provide fast, low-cost, label-free, real-time detection of chemical and biological species. Usually configured as field effect transistors (FETs), they have already demonstrated remarkable sensitivity with high selectivity (through appropriate functionalisation) towards a large number of analytes in both liquid and gas phases. Despite these excellent results, Si NW FET sensors have not yet been successfully employed to detect single molecules of either a chemical or biological target species. Here we show that sensors based on silicon junctionless nanowire transistors (JNTs), the simplest possible transistors, are capable of detecting the protein streptavidin at a concentration as low as 580 zM closely approaching the single molecule level. This ultrahigh detection sensitivity is due to the intrinsic advantages of junctionless devices over conventional FETs. Apart from their superior functionality, JNTs are much easier to fabricate by standard microelectronic processes than transistors containing p-n junctions. The ability of JNT sensors to detect ultra-low concentrations (in the zeptomolar range) of target species, and their potential for low-cost mass production, will permit their deployment in numerous environments, including life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, pharmacology, product safety, environmental monitoring and security.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Proteínas/análise , Transistores Eletrônicos , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Limite de Detecção , Nanofios/química , Silício/química , Estreptavidina/análise
6.
Nanotechnology ; 30(33): 335706, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026844

RESUMO

Phase-change random access memory is a promising approach to non-volatile memory. However, the inability to secure consistent, reliable switching on a nanometre scale may limit its practical use for high density applications. Here, we report on the switching behaviour of PCRAM cells comprised of single crystalline Ge9Sb1Te5 (GST) nanowires. We show that device switching is dominated by the contacts and does not result in a resistance change within the bulk of the wire. For the devices studied, the typical contact resistance was ∼30 kΩ, whereas the resistance of the GST channel was 1.8 kΩ. The applied voltage was predominately dropped across the passivating oxide on the surface of the GST nanowires, resulting in local resistive switching at the contacts and local power dissipation, which limited the endurance of the devices produced. The optimal device must balance low resistance contacts with a more resistive channel, to facilitate phase change switching within the nanowires. These results highlight the importance of contact formation on the switching properties in phase change devices and help guide the future design of more reliable neuromorphic devices.

7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 1817-1833, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880982

RESUMO

Background: Gold nanorods (AuNRs), due to the optical and electronic properties namely the surface plasma resonance, have been developed to achieve the light-mediated photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer. However, PTT alone may suffer from inefficient tumor killing. Recently, the combination of PTT and chemotherapy has been utilized to achieve synergistic anticancer effects. Methods: In this study, AuNRs capped with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and PEGylated anisamide (a ligand known to target the sigma receptor) have been developed to produce a range of negatively charged anisamide-targeted PEGylated AuNRs (namely Au-CTAB-PAA-PEG-AA) for the combination of PTT and chemotherapy (termed as chemo-photothermal therapy [CPTT]). Epirubicin (EPI, an anthracycline drug) was efficiently loaded onto the surface of Au800-CTAB-PAA-PEG-AA via the electrostatic interaction forming Au800-CTAB-PAA-PEG-AA.EPI complex. Results: The resultant complex demonstrated pH-dependent drug release, facilitated nucleus trafficking of EPI, and induced antiproliferative effects in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. When Au800-CTAB-PAA-PEG-AA.EPI complex was further stimulated with desired laser irradiation, the synergistic outcome was evident in PC-3 xenograft mice. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a promising strategy for clinical application of CPTT in cancer.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Ouro/química , Hipertermia Induzida , Nanotubos/química , Neoplasias/terapia , Fototerapia , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/química , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Epirubicina/farmacologia , Epirubicina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Nanotubos/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 137: 56-67, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779980

RESUMO

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has recently illustrated therapeutic potential for malignant disorders. However, the clinical application of siRNA-based therapeutics is significantly retarded by the paucity of successful delivery systems. Recently, multifunctional gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as non-viral delivery carriers have shown promise for transporting chemotherapeutics, proteins/peptides, and genes. In this study, AuNPs capped with polyethylenimine (PEI) and PEGylated anisamide (a ligand known to target the sigma receptor) have been developed to produce a range of positively charged anisamide-targeted PEGylated AuNPs (namely Au-PEI-PEG-AA). The anisamide-targeted AuNPs effectively complexed siRNA via electrostatic interaction, and the resultant complex (Au110-PEI-PEG5000-AA.siRNA) illustrated favourable physicochemical characteristics, including particle size, surface charge, and stability. In vitro, anisamide-targeted AuNPs selectively bound to human prostate cancer PC-3 cells, inducing efficient endosomal escape of siRNA, and effective downregulation of the RelA gene. In vivo, prolonged systemic exposure of siRNA was achieved by anisamide-targeted AuNPs resulting in significant tumour growth suppression in a PC3 xenograft mouse model without an increase in toxicity. In addition, a combination of siRNA-mediated NF-κB knockdown using anisamide-targeted AuNPs with Paclitaxel produced a synergistic therapeutic response, thus providing a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Benzamidas/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Terapia Combinada , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , NF-kappa B/genética , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Polietilenoimina/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Langmuir ; 35(6): 2172-2178, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636416

RESUMO

Black phosphorus (BP) is emerging as a promising candidate for electronic, optical, and energy storage applications. However, its poor ambient stability remains a critical challenge. Evaluation of few-layer liquid-exfoliated BP during ambient exposure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows its surface chemistry to be investigated. Oxidation of liquid-exfoliated few-layer BP initially occurs through nonbridging oxide species, which convert to bridging oxide species after ambient exposure. We demonstrate the instability of these bridging oxide species, which undergo hydrolysis to form volatile phosphorus oxides and evaporate from the BP surface. FTIR spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were used to confirm the formation of liquid oxides through a continuous oxidation cycle that results in the decomposition of BP. Furthermore, we show that the instability of few-layer BP originates from the formation of bridging oxide species.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(51): 17915-17922, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456949

RESUMO

Intercalation-type electrodes have now been commonly employed in today's batteries as such materials are capable of storing and releasing lithium reversibly via topotactic transformation, conducive to small structural change, but they have limited interstitial sites to hold Li. In contrast, conversion electrodes feature high Li-storage capacity, but often undergo large structural change during (de)lithiation, resulting in cycling instability. One exception is iron fluoride (FeF2), a conversion-type cathode that exhibits both high capacity and high cycling stability. Herein, we report a lithiation-driven topotactic transformation in a single crystal of FeF2, unveiled by in situ visualization of the spatial and crystallographic correlation between the parent and converted phases. Specifically, conversion in FeF2 resembles the intercalation process but involves transport of both Li+ and Fe2+ ions within the F-anion array, leading to formation of Fe preferentially along specific crystallographic orientations of FeF2. Throughout the process, the F-anion framework is retained, creating a checkerboard-like structure, within which the volume change is largely compensated, thereby enabling the high cyclability in FeF2. Findings from this study, with unique insights into conversion reaction mechanisms, may help to pave the way for designing conversion-type electrodes for the next-generation high energy lithium batteries.

11.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 9: 2106-2113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202683

RESUMO

This paper details the application of phosphorus monolayer doping of silicon on insulator substrates. There have been no previous publications dedicated to the topic of MLD on SOI, which allows for the impact of reduced substrate dimensions to be probed. The doping was done through functionalization of the substrates with chemically bound allyldiphenylphosphine dopant molecules. Following functionalization, the samples were capped and annealed to enable the diffusion of dopant atoms into the substrate and their activation. Electrical and material characterisation was carried out to determine the impact of MLD on surface quality and activation results produced by the process. MLD has proven to be highly applicable to SOI substrates producing doping levels in excess of 1 × 1019 cm-3 with minimal impact on surface quality. Hall effect data proved that reducing SOI dimensions from 66 to 13 nm lead to an increase in carrier concentration values due to the reduced volume available to the dopant for diffusion. Dopant trapping was found at both Si-SiO2 interfaces and will be problematic when attempting to reach doping levels achieved by rival techniques.

12.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 532: 171-181, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077829

RESUMO

Greater sustainability in mass manufacturing is essential to alleviating anthropogenic climate change. High surface-area, micro- and nano-patterned films have become a fundamental tool in materials science, however these technologies are subject to a dwindling petrochemical supply, increasing costs and disposability concerns. This paper describes the production of patterned biopolymer films utilizing controlled phase separation of biopolymeric thin films into nanopatterns using easily transferable variables and methods. Similar morphologies to those commonly observed with synthetic block-copolymers (BCPs) were achieved across a large range of feature sizes, from 160 nm to >5 µm: Bicontinuous, porous, droplet-matrix, particulated and dimpled. Protein and polysaccharide type, protein to polysaccharide ratio, casting method and ambient humidity were primary conditions found to influence the pore morphology of the films. High protein concentrations (4:1 and 2:1 blends) generally resulted in porous structures whereas high polysaccharide concentrations (1:2 and 1:4 blends) resulted in spherical structures. High humidity conditions (60% + relative humidity) resulted in the growth of large protuberances up to 10 µm in diameter while lower humidity (10-30%) resulted in discrete features smaller than 200 nm.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Membranas Artificiais , Nanoestruturas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Gelatina/química , Umidade , Transição de Fase , Porosidade , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3219, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104665

RESUMO

Nanowire networks are promising memristive architectures for neuromorphic applications due to their connectivity and neurosynaptic-like behaviours. Here, we demonstrate a self-similar scaling of the conductance of networks and the junctions that comprise them. We show this behavior is an emergent property of any junction-dominated network. A particular class of junctions naturally leads to the emergence of conductance plateaus and a "winner-takes-all" conducting path that spans the entire network, and which we show corresponds to the lowest-energy connectivity path. The memory stored in the conductance state is distributed across the network but encoded in specific connectivity pathways, similar to that found in biological systems. These results are expected to have important implications for development of neuromorphic devices based on reservoir computing.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 531: 533-543, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055448

RESUMO

Films of self assembled diblock copolymers (BCPs) have attracted significant attention for generating semiconductor nanoarrays of sizes below 100 nm through a simple low cost approach for device fabrication. A challenging abstract is controlling microdomain orientation and ordering dictated by complex interplay of surface energies, polymer-solvent interactions and domain spacing. In context, microphase separated poly (styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) thin films is illustrated to fabricate nanopatterns on silicon and germanium materials trenches. The trenched templates was produced by simple electron beam lithography using hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) resist. The orientation of PEO, minority cylinder forming block, was controlled by controlling trench width and varying solvent annealing parameters viz. temperature, time etc. A noticeable difference in microdomain orientation was observed for Si and Ge trenches processed under same conditions. The Ge trenches promoted horizontal orientations compared to Si due to difference in surface properties without any prior surface treatments. This methodology allows to create Ge nanopatterns for device fabrication since native oxides on Ge often induce patterning challenges. Subsequently, a selective metal inclusion method was used to form hardmask nanoarrays to pattern transfer into those substrates through dry etching. The hardmask allows to create good fidelity, low line edge roughness (LER) materials nanopatterns.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7252, 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740003

RESUMO

In an effort to develop block copolymer lithography to create high aspect vertical pore arrangements in a substrate surface we have used a microphase separated poly(ethylene oxide) -b- polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) block copolymer (BCP) thin film where (and most unusually) PS not PEO is the cylinder forming phase and PEO is the majority block. Compared to previous work, we can amplify etch contrast by inclusion of hard mask material into the matrix block allowing the cylinder polymer to be removed and the exposed substrate subject to deep etching thereby generating uniform, arranged, sub-25 nm cylindrical nanopore arrays. Briefly, selective metal ion inclusion into the PEO matrix and subsequent processing (etch/modification) was applied for creating iron oxide nanohole arrays. The oxide nanoholes (22 nm diameter) were cylindrical, uniform diameter and mimics the original BCP nanopatterns. The oxide nanohole network is demonstrated as a resistant mask to fabricate ultra dense, well ordered, good sidewall profile silicon nanopore arrays on substrate surface through the pattern transfer approach. The Si nanopores have uniform diameter and smooth sidewalls throughout their depth. The depth of the porous structure can be controlled via the etch process.

16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(2): 2191-2201, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29240397

RESUMO

Monolayer doping (MLD) involves the functionalization of semiconductor surfaces followed by an annealing step to diffuse the dopant into the substrate. We report an alternative doping method, oxide-MLD, where ultrathin SiO2 overlayers are functionalized with phosphonic acids for doping Si. Similar peak carrier concentrations were achieved when compared with hydrosilylated surfaces (∼2 × 1020 atoms/cm3). Oxide-MLD offers several advantages over conventional MLD, such as ease of sample processing, superior ambient stability, and minimal carbon contamination. The incorporation of an oxide layer minimizes carbon contamination by facilitating attachment of carbon-free precursors or by impeding carbon diffusion. The oxide-MLD strategy allows selection of many inexpensive precursors and therefore allows application to both p- and n-doping. The phosphonic acid-functionalized SiO2 surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas doping was assessed using electrochemical capacitance voltage and Hall measurements.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(44): 38959-38966, 2017 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027461

RESUMO

Nonpolar resistive switching (RS), a combination of bipolar and unipolar RS, is demonstrated for the first time in a single nanowire (NW) system. Exploiting Ag@TiO2 core-shell (CS) NWs synthesized by postgrowth shell formation, the switching mode is controlled by adjusting the current compliance effectively, tailoring the electrical polarity response. We demonstrate ON/OFF ratios of 105 and 107 for bipolar and unipolar modes, respectively. In the bipolar regime, retention times could be controlled up to 103 s, and in the unipolar mode, >106 s was recorded. We show how the unique dual-mode switching behavior is enabled by the defect-rich polycrystalline material structure of the TiO2 shell and the interaction between the Ag core and the Ag electrodes. These results provide a foundation for engineering nonpolar RS behaviors for memory storage and neuromorphic applications in CSNW structures.

18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 12: 6131-6152, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28883725

RESUMO

Development of multifunctional nanomaterials, one of the most interesting and advanced research areas in the field of nanotechnology, is anticipated to revolutionize cancer diagnosis and treatment. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are now being widely utilized in bio-imaging and phototherapy due to their tunable and highly sensitive optical and electronic properties (the surface plasmon resonance). As a new concept, termed "theranostics," multifunctional AuNPs may contain diagnostic and therapeutic functions that can be integrated into one system, thereby simultaneously facilitating diagnosis and therapy and monitoring therapeutic responses. In this review, the important properties of AuNPs relevant to diagnostic and phototherapeutic applications such as structure, shape, optics, and surface chemistry are described. Barriers for translational development of theranostic AuNPs and recent advances in the application of AuNPs for cancer diagnosis, photothermal, and photodynamic therapy are discussed.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Nanomedicina Teranóstica/métodos , Ouro/química , Humanos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fototerapia/métodos , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície
19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(21): 14042-14047, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28516985

RESUMO

Nanoscale heating production using nanowires has been shown to be particularly attractive for a number of applications including nanostructure growth, localized doping, transparent heating and sensing. However, all proof-of-concept devices proposed so far relied on the use of highly conductive nanomaterials, typically metals or highly doped semiconductors. In this article, we demonstrate a novel nanoheater architecture based on a single semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistor (NW-FET). Nominally undoped ZnO nanowires were incorporated into three-terminal devices whereby control of the nanowire temperature at a given source-drain bias was achieved by additional charge carriers capacitatively induced via the third gate electrode. Joule-heating selective ablation of poly(methyl methacrylate) deposited on ZnO nanowires was shown, demonstrating the ability of the proposed NW-FET configuration to enhance by more than one order of magnitude the temperature of a ZnO nanowire, compared to traditional two-terminal configurations. These findings demonstrate the potential of field-effect architectures to improve Joule heating power in nanowires, thus vastly expanding the range of suitable materials and applications for nanowire-based nanoheaters.

20.
ACS Omega ; 2(5): 1750-1759, 2017 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31457539

RESUMO

The functionalization and subsequent monolayer doping of InGaAs substrates using a tin-containing molecule and a compound containing both silicon and sulfur was investigated. Epitaxial InGaAs layers were grown on semi-insulating InP wafers and functionalized with both sulfur and silicon using mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane and with tin using allyltributylstannane. The functionalized surfaces were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surfaces were capped and subjected to rapid thermal annealing to cause in-diffusion of dopant atoms. Dopant diffusion was monitored using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Raman scattering was utilized to nondestructively determine the presence of dopant atoms, prior to destructive analysis, by comparison to a blank undoped sample. Additionally, due to the As-dominant surface chemistry, the resistance of the functionalized surfaces to oxidation in ambient conditions over periods of 24 h and 1 week was elucidated using XPS by monitoring the As 3d core level for the presence of oxide components.

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