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1.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008405, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647808

RESUMO

Obesity traits are causally implicated with risk of cardiometabolic diseases. It remains unclear whether there are similar causal effects of obesity traits on other non-communicable diseases. Also, it is largely unexplored whether there are any sex-specific differences in the causal effects of obesity traits on cardiometabolic diseases and other leading causes of death. We constructed sex-specific genetic risk scores (GRS) for three obesity traits; body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and WHR adjusted for BMI, including 565, 324, and 337 genetic variants, respectively. These GRSs were then used as instrumental variables to assess associations between the obesity traits and leading causes of mortality in the UK Biobank using Mendelian randomization. We also investigated associations with potential mediators, including smoking, glycemic and blood pressure traits. Sex-differences were subsequently assessed by Cochran's Q-test (Phet). A Mendelian randomization analysis of 228,466 women and 195,041 men showed that obesity causes coronary artery disease, stroke (particularly ischemic), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, type 2 and 1 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver disease, and acute and chronic renal failure. Higher BMI led to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in women than in men (Phet = 1.4×10-5). Waist-hip-ratio led to a higher risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Phet = 3.7×10-6) and higher risk of chronic renal failure (Phet = 1.0×10-4) in men than women. Obesity traits have an etiological role in the majority of the leading global causes of death. Sex differences exist in the effects of obesity traits on risk of type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and renal failure, which may have downstream implications for public health.

2.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 240, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We characterised the phenotypic consequence of genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus and compared findings with recent trials of pharmacological inhibitors of PCSK9. METHODS: Published and individual participant level data (300,000+ participants) were combined to construct a weighted PCSK9 gene-centric score (GS). Seventeen randomized placebo controlled PCSK9 inhibitor trials were included, providing data on 79,578 participants. Results were scaled to a one mmol/L lower LDL-C concentration. RESULTS: The PCSK9 GS (comprising 4 SNPs) associations with plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels were consistent in direction with treatment effects. The GS odds ratio (OR) for myocardial infarction (MI) was 0.53 (95% CI 0.42; 0.68), compared to a PCSK9 inhibitor effect of 0.90 (95% CI 0.86; 0.93). For ischemic stroke ORs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.57; 1.22) for the GS, compared to 0.85 (95% CI 0.78; 0.93) in the drug trials. ORs with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were 1.29 (95% CI 1.11; 1.50) for the GS, as compared to 1.00 (95% CI 0.96; 1.04) for incident T2DM in PCSK9 inhibitor trials. No genetic associations were observed for cancer, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or Alzheimer's disease - outcomes for which large-scale trial data were unavailable. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation at the PCSK9 locus recapitulates the effects of therapeutic inhibition of PCSK9 on major blood lipid fractions and MI. While indicating an increased risk of T2DM, no other possible safety concerns were shown; although precision was moderate.

3.
JAMA ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475726

RESUMO

Importance: The relationship between exposure to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) with the risk of cardiovascular disease has not been reliably quantified. Objective: To assess the association of lifetime exposure to the combination of both lower LDL-C and lower SBP with the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: Among 438 952 participants enrolled in the UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 and followed up through 2018, genetic LDL-C and SBP scores were used as instruments to divide participants into groups with lifetime exposure to lower LDL-C, lower SBP, or both. Differences in plasma LDL-C, SBP, and cardiovascular event rates between the groups were compared to estimate associations with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease. Exposures: Differences in plasma LDL-C and SBP compared with participants with both genetic scores below the median. Genetic risk scores higher than the median were associated with lower LDL-C and lower SBP. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratio (OR) for major coronary events, defined as coronary death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or coronary revascularization. Results: The mean age of the 438 952 participants was 65.2 years (range, 40.4-80.0 years), 54.1% were women, and 24 980 experienced a first major coronary event. Compared with the reference group, participants with LDL-C genetic scores higher than the median had 14.7-mg/dL lower LDL-C levels and an OR of 0.73 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.70-0.75; P < .001). Participants with SBP genetic scores higher than the median had 2.9-mm Hg lower SBP and an OR of 0.82 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.79-0.85, P < .001). Participants in the group with both genetic scores higher than the median had 13.9-mg/dL lower LDL-C, 3.1-mm Hg lower SBP, and an OR of 0.61 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.59-0.64; P < .001). In a 4 × 4 factorial analysis, exposure to increasing genetic risk scores and lower LDL-C levels and SBP was associated with dose-dependent lower risks of major coronary events. In a meta-regression analysis, combined exposure to 38.67-mg/dL lower LDL-C and 10-mm Hg lower SBP was associated with an OR of 0.22 for major coronary events (95% CI, 0.17-0.26; P < .001), and 0.32 for cardiovascular death (95% CI, 0.25-0.40; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Lifelong genetic exposure to lower levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and lower systolic blood pressure was associated with lower cardiovascular risk. However, these findings cannot be assumed to represent the magnitude of benefit achievable from treatment of these risk factors.

4.
Diabetes ; 68(11): 2155-2164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399431

RESUMO

In observational studies, type 2 diabetes is associated with two- to fourfold higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we examined associations of genetically predicted type 2 diabetes with CVD among ∼160,000 participants to assess whether these relationships are causal. A type 2 diabetes genetic risk score (comprising 48 established risk variants) was associated with the presence of carotid plaque (odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI 1.05, 1.29] per 1 unit higher log-odds of type 2 diabetes; n = 6,819) and elevated risk of ischemic stroke (IS) (1.08 [1.02, 1.14]; n = 17,097), nonlacunar IS (1.09 [1.03, 1.16]; n = 13,924), and major coronary event (1.12 [1.02, 1.23]; n = 5,081). There was no significant association with lacunar IS (1.03 [0.91, 1.16], n = 3,173) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (1.01 [0.94, 1.10], n = 6,973), although effect estimates were imprecise. These associations were consistent with observational associations of type 2 diabetes with CVD in CKB (P for heterogeneity >0.3) and with the associations of type 2 diabetes with IS, ICH, and coronary heart disease in two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses based on summary statistics from European population genome-wide association studies (P for heterogeneity >0.2). In conclusion, among Chinese adults, genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes was associated with atherosclerotic CVD, consistent with a causal association.

5.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(9): 386-396, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about the relevance of circulating metabolites for these associations. METHODS: A nested case-control study within the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank included 3195 incident CVD cases (2057 occlusive CVD and 1138 intracerebral hemorrhage) and 1465 controls aged 30 to 79 years without prior CVD or statin use at baseline. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure 225 metabolic markers and derived traits in baseline plasma samples. Linear regression was used to relate self-reported physical activity and sedentary leisure time to biomarkers, adjusting for potential confounders. These were contrasted with associations of biomarkers with occlusive CVD risk. RESULTS: Physical activity and sedentary leisure time were associated with >100 metabolic markers, with patterns of associations generally mirroring each other. Physical activity was inversely associated with very low and low-density and positively with large and very large HDL (high-density lipoprotein) particle concentrations. Physical activity was also inversely associated with alanine, glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, and the inflammatory marker glycoprotein acetyls. In general, associations of physical activity and sedentary leisure time with specific metabolic markers were directionally consistent with the associations of these metabolic markers with occlusive CVD risk. Overall, metabolic markers potentially explained ≈70% of the protective associations of physical activity and ≈50% of the positive associations of sedentary leisure time with occlusive CVD. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, physical activity and sedentary behavior have opposing associations with a diverse range of circulating metabolites, which may partially explain their associations with CVD risk.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 40(41): 3393-3396, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280284
8.
Gene ; 707: 30-35, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking have significant negative health consequences and both are influenced by genetic predispositions. Some studies suggest that the FTO gene is associated with alcohol consumption. We investigated whether a tagging variant (rs17817449) within the FTO gene is associated with alcohol intake, problem drinking and smoking behaviour. METHODS: We analysed data from 26,792 Caucasian adults (47.2% of males; mean age 58.9 (±7.3) years), examined through the prospective cohort HAPIEE study. The primary outcomes were daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking, problem drinking (CAGE score 2+) and smoking status in relation to tagging variants within the FTO and ADH1B genes. RESULTS: We found no significant association of the FTO polymorphism with smoking status in either sex. The associations of the FTO polymorphism with drinking pattern were inconsistent and differed by gender. In men, GG homozygote carriers had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p = 0.03). In women, the combination of the FTO/ADH1B GG/+A genotypes doubled the risk of binge drinking (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.19-3.71, p < 0.05), and the risk was further increased among smoking women (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.64-10.24, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population study, the FTO gene appeared associated with binge and problem drinking, and the associations were modified by sex, smoking status and the ADH1B polymorphism.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Bebedeira/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/genética
9.
BMJ ; 365: l1855, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, and smoking behaviour in explaining the effect of education on the risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank and international genome-wide association study data. PARTICIPANTS: Predominantly participants of European ancestry. EXPOSURE: Educational attainment, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and smoking behaviour in observational analysis, and randomly allocated genetic variants to instrument these traits in mendelian randomisation. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: The risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular disease (all subtypes; all measured in odds ratio), and the degree to which this is mediated through BMI, systolic blood pressure, and smoking behaviour respectively. RESULTS: Each additional standard deviation of education (3.6 years) was associated with a 13% lower risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.89) in observational analysis and a 37% lower risk (0.63, 0.60 to 0.67) in mendelian randomisation analysis. As a proportion of the total risk reduction, BMI was estimated to mediate 15% (95% confidence interval 13% to 17%) and 18% (14% to 23%) in the observational and mendelian randomisation estimates, respectively. Corresponding estimates were 11% (9% to 13%) and 21% (15% to 27%) for systolic blood pressure and 19% (15% to 22%) and 34% (17% to 50%) for smoking behaviour. All three risk factors combined were estimated to mediate 42% (36% to 48%) and 36% (5% to 68%) of the effect of education on coronary heart disease in observational and mendelian randomisation analyses, respectively. Similar results were obtained when investigating the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: BMI, systolic blood pressure, and smoking behaviour mediate a substantial proportion of the protective effect of education on the risk of cardiovascular outcomes and intervening on these would lead to reductions in cases of cardiovascular disease attributable to lower levels of education. However, more than half of the protective effect of education remains unexplained and requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Escolaridade , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido
10.
Clin Chem ; 65(8): 1042-1050, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC) is a functional attribute that may have a protective role in atherogenesis. However, the estimation of HDL-CEC is based on in vitro cell assays that are laborious and hamper large-scale phenotyping. METHODS: Here, we present a cost-effective high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method to estimate HDL-CEC directly from serum. We applied the new method in a population-based study of 7603 individuals including 574 who developed incident coronary heart disease (CHD) during 15 years of follow-up, making this the largest quantitative study for HDL-CEC. RESULTS: As estimated by NMR-spectroscopy, a 1-SD higher HDL-CEC was associated with a lower risk of incident CHD (hazards ratio, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.79-0.93, adjusted for traditional risk factors and HDL-C). These findings are consistent with published associations based on in vitro cell assays. CONCLUSIONS: These corroborative large-scale findings provide further support for a potential protective role of HDL-CEC in CHD and substantiate this new method and its future applications.

11.
Lancet ; 393(10183): 1831-1842, 2019 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in many studies, in comparison with abstinence or with heavier drinking. Studies in east Asia can help determine whether these associations are causal, since two common genetic variants greatly affect alcohol drinking patterns. We used these two variants to assess the relationships between cardiovascular risk and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake in men, contrasting the findings in men with those in women (few of whom drink). METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 715 adults between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008, from ten areas of China, recording alcohol use and other characteristics. It followed them for about 10 years (until Jan 1, 2017), monitoring cardiovascular disease (including ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, and myocardial infarction) by linkage with morbidity and mortality registries and electronic hospital records. 161 498 participants were genotyped for two variants that alter alcohol metabolism, ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984. Adjusted Cox regression was used to obtain the relative risks associating disease incidence with self-reported drinking patterns (conventional epidemiology) or with genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake (genetic epidemiology-ie, Mendelian randomisation), with stratification by study area to control for variation between areas in disease rates and in genotype-predicted intake. FINDINGS: 33% (69 897/210 205) of men reported drinking alcohol in most weeks, mainly as spirits, compared with only 2% (6245/302 510) of women. Among men, conventional epidemiology showed that self-reported alcohol intake had U-shaped associations with the incidence of ischaemic stroke (n=14 930), intracerebral haemorrhage (n=3496), and acute myocardial infarction (n=2958); men who reported drinking about 100 g of alcohol per week (one to two drinks per day) had lower risks of all three diseases than non-drinkers or heavier drinkers. In contrast, although genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake varied widely (from 4 to 256 g per week-ie, near zero to about four drinks per day), it did not have any U-shaped associations with risk. For stroke, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake had a continuously positive log-linear association with risk, which was stronger for intracerebral haemorrhage (relative risk [RR] per 280 g per week 1·58, 95% CI 1·36-1·84, p<0·0001) than for ischaemic stroke (1·27, 1·13-1·43, p=0·0001). For myocardial infarction, however, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake was not significantly associated with risk (RR per 280 g per week 0·96, 95% CI 0·78-1·18, p=0·69). Usual alcohol intake in current drinkers and genotype-predicted alcohol intake in all men had similarly strong positive associations with systolic blood pressure (each p<0·0001). Among women, few drank and the studied genotypes did not predict high mean alcohol intake and were not positively associated with blood pressure, stroke, or myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Genetic epidemiology shows that the apparently protective effects of moderate alcohol intake against stroke are largely non-causal. Alcohol consumption uniformly increases blood pressure and stroke risk, and appears in this one study to have little net effect on the risk of myocardial infarction. FUNDING: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, GlaxoSmithKline, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1030, 2019 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833571

RESUMO

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common and disabling condition of the hand caused by entrapment of the median nerve at the level of the wrist. It is the commonest entrapment neuropathy, with estimates of prevalence ranging between 5-10%. Here, we undertake a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of an entrapment neuropathy, using 12,312 CTS cases and 389,344 controls identified in UK Biobank. We discover 16 susceptibility loci for CTS with p < 5 × 10-8. We identify likely causal genes in the pathogenesis of CTS, including ADAMTS17, ADAMTS10 and EFEMP1, and using RNA sequencing demonstrate expression of these genes in surgically resected tenosynovium from CTS patients. We perform Mendelian randomisation and demonstrate a causal relationship between short stature and higher risk of CTS. We suggest that variants within genes implicated in growth and extracellular matrix architecture contribute to the genetic predisposition to CTS by altering the environment through which the median nerve transits.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Genoma Humano/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Mediano , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Punho
14.
Res Synth Methods ; 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861319

RESUMO

Mendelian randomization (MR) uses genetic variants as instrumental variables to infer whether a risk factor causally affects a health outcome. Meta-analysis has been used historically in MR to combine results from separate epidemiological studies, with each study using a small but select group of genetic variants. In recent years, it has been used to combine genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data for large numbers of genetic variants. Heterogeneity among the causal estimates obtained from multiple genetic variants points to a possible violation of the necessary instrumental variable assumptions. In this article, we provide a basic introduction to MR and the instrumental variable theory that it relies upon. We then describe how random effects models, meta-regression, and robust regression are being used to test and adjust for heterogeneity in order to improve the rigor of the MR approach.

15.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(4): e002471, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 is a recognized risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, its effect on disease progression and subsequent events is unclear, raising questions about its value for stratification of residual risk. METHODS: A variant at chromosome 9p21 (rs1333049) was tested for association with subsequent events during follow-up in 103 357 Europeans with established CHD at baseline from the GENIUS-CHD (Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease) Consortium (73.1% male, mean age 62.9 years). The primary outcome, subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction (CHD death/myocardial infarction), occurred in 13 040 of the 93 115 participants with available outcome data. Effect estimates were compared with case/control risk obtained from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D consortium (Coronary Artery Disease Genome-wide Replication and Meta-analysis [CARDIoGRAM] plus The Coronary Artery Disease [C4D] Genetics) including 47 222 CHD cases and 122 264 controls free of CHD. RESULTS: Meta-analyses revealed no significant association between chromosome 9p21 and the primary outcome of CHD death/myocardial infarction among those with established CHD at baseline (GENIUS-CHD odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.99-1.05). This contrasted with a strong association in CARDIoGRAMPlusC4D odds ratio 1.20; 95% CI, 1.18-1.22; P for interaction <0.001 compared with the GENIUS-CHD estimate. Similarly, no clear associations were identified for additional subsequent outcomes, including all-cause death, although we found a modest positive association between chromosome 9p21 and subsequent revascularization (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to studies comparing individuals with CHD to disease-free controls, we found no clear association between genetic variation at chromosome 9p21 and risk of subsequent acute CHD events when all individuals had CHD at baseline. However, the association with subsequent revascularization may support the postulated mechanism of chromosome 9p21 for promoting atheroma development.

16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(4): e002470, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Genetics of Subsequent Coronary Heart Disease (GENIUS-CHD) consortium was established to facilitate discovery and validation of genetic variants and biomarkers for risk of subsequent CHD events, in individuals with established CHD. METHODS: The consortium currently includes 57 studies from 18 countries, recruiting 185 614 participants with either acute coronary syndrome, stable CHD, or a mixture of both at baseline. All studies collected biological samples and followed-up study participants prospectively for subsequent events. RESULTS: Enrollment into the individual studies took place between 1985 to present day with a duration of follow-up ranging from 9 months to 15 years. Within each study, participants with CHD are predominantly of self-reported European descent (38%-100%), mostly male (44%-91%) with mean ages at recruitment ranging from 40 to 75 years. Initial feasibility analyses, using a federated analysis approach, yielded expected associations between age (hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.14-1.16) per 5-year increase, male sex (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13-1.21) and smoking (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35-1.51) with risk of subsequent CHD death or myocardial infarction and differing associations with other individual and composite cardiovascular endpoints. CONCLUSIONS: GENIUS-CHD is a global collaboration seeking to elucidate genetic and nongenetic determinants of subsequent event risk in individuals with established CHD, to improve residual risk prediction and identify novel drug targets for secondary prevention. Initial analyses demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of a federated analysis approach. The consortium now plans to initiate and test novel hypotheses as well as supporting replication and validation analyses for other investigators.

17.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(4): 197-198, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700860
18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(4): 477-487, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704580

RESUMO

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) facilitates exchange of triglycerides and cholesteryl ester between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins. Evidence from genetic studies that variants in the CETP gene were associated with higher blood HDL cholesterol, lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower risk of coronary heart disease suggested that pharmacological inhibition of CETP may be beneficial. To date, 4 CETP inhibitors have entered phase 3 cardiovascular outcome trials. Torcetrapib was withdrawn due to unanticipated off-target effects that increased risk of death, and major trials of dalcetrapib and evacetrapib were terminated early for futility. In the 30,000-patient REVEAL (Randomized Evaluation of the Effects of Anacetrapib through Lipid Modification) trial, anacetrapib doubled HDL cholesterol, reduced non-HDL cholesterol by 17 mg/dl (0.44 mmol/l), and reduced major vascular events by 9% over 4 years, but anaceptrapib was found to accumulate in adipose tissue, and regulatory approval is not being sought. Therefore, despite considerable initial promise, CETP inhibition provides insufficient cardiovascular benefit for routine use.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Proteínas de Transferência de Ésteres de Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Humanos
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 785, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692555

RESUMO

Adiposity is an increasing public health problem in China. We aimed to examine the associations of adiposity with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and other chronic liver diseases in Chinese adults. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512,891 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 areas. During 10 years of follow-up, 7,386 incident liver disease cases were recorded among 503,991 participants without prior cancer or chronic liver disease at baseline. The mean body mass index (BMI) (SD) was 23.7 (3.3) kg/m2 and mean waist circumference (WC) 80.3 (9.8) cm, with 33% having BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Throughout the range examined (BMI 15-50) BMI showed a log-linear positive association with NAFLD (n = 1,298), with adjusted HR per 5 kg/m2 of 2.81 (95% CI 2.63-3.01), adjusting for regression dilution. There were also positive associations of percent body fat, WC, and waist-to-hip ratio with NAFLD, with HRs per 1-SD of 2.27 (2.14-2.41), 2.60 (2.44-2.76), and 1.84 (1.76-1.92). BMI was unrelated to viral hepatitis (n = 1,477), and had a U-shaped association with cirrhosis (n = 2,082) and an inverse association with liver cancer (n = 2,568), which disappeared after excluding the first 5 years of follow-up. Among Chinese adults, adiposity was a major risk factor for NAFLD but not other chronic liver diseases.

20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 978-993, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative molecular data from urine are rare in epidemiology and genetics. NMR spectroscopy could provide these data in high throughput, and it has already been applied in epidemiological settings to analyse urine samples. However, quantitative protocols for large-scale applications are not available. METHODS: We describe in detail how to prepare urine samples and perform NMR experiments to obtain quantitative metabolic information. Semi-automated quantitative line shape fitting analyses were set up for 43 metabolites and applied to data from various analytical test samples and from 1004 individuals from a population-based epidemiological cohort. Novel analyses on how urine metabolites associate with quantitative serum NMR metabolomics data (61 metabolic measures; n = 995) were performed. In addition, confirmatory genome-wide analyses of urine metabolites were conducted (n = 578). The fully automated quantitative regression-based spectral analysis is demonstrated for creatinine and glucose (n = 4548). RESULTS: Intra-assay metabolite variations were mostly <5%, indicating high robustness and accuracy of urine NMR spectroscopy methodology per se. Intra-individual metabolite variations were large, ranging from 6% to 194%. However, population-based inter-individual metabolite variations were even larger (from 14% to 1655%), providing a sound base for epidemiological applications. Metabolic associations between urine and serum were found to be clearly weaker than those within serum and within urine, indicating that urinary metabolomics data provide independent metabolic information. Two previous genome-wide hits for formate and 2-hydroxyisobutyrate were replicated at genome-wide significance. CONCLUSION: Quantitative urine metabolomics data suggest broad novelty for systems epidemiology. A roadmap for an open access methodology is provided.

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