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1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(1): 115312, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561606

RESUMO

Reporting of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) co-infections with other respiratory pathogens has varied. We evaluated 825,280 molecular and/or viral culture respiratory assays within the Veterans Health Administration from September 29, 2019 to May 31, 2020. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected in 10,222 of 174,746 (5.8%) individuals. 30,063 (17.2%) of 174,746 individuals tested for SARS-CoV-2 had additional respiratory pathogen testing; co-infection was identified in 56 of 3757 (1.5%) individuals positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among those negative for SARS-CoV-2, 1022 of 26,306 (3.9%) were positive for at least 1 respiratory pathogen. Compared to COVID-19 mono-infection, individuals with COVID-19 co-infection had lower odds of being female. Compared to non-COVID-19 respiratory pathogen infection, individuals with COVID-19 co-infection had lower odds of being female, were hospitalized more frequently, had higher odds of death, and were younger at death. Our findings suggest COVID-19 co-infections were rare; however, not all COVID-19 patients were concurrently tested for other respiratory pathogens and seasonal decreases in other respiratory pathogens were occurring as COVID-19 emerged.

2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24502, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected older adults and certain racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Data quantifying the disease burden, as well as describing clinical outcomes during hospitalization among these groups, are needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe interim COVID-19 hospitalization rates and severe clinical outcomes by age group and race and ethnicity among US veterans by using a multisite surveillance network. METHODS: We implemented a multisite COVID-19 surveillance platform in 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers located in Atlanta, Bronx, Houston, Palo Alto, and Los Angeles, collectively serving more than 396,000 patients annually. From February 27 to July 17, 2020, we actively identified inpatient cases with COVID-19 by screening admitted patients and reviewing their laboratory test results. We then manually abstracted the patients' medical charts for demographics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we calculated hospitalization incidence and incidence rate ratios, as well as relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and case fatality rate after adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions. RESULTS: We identified 621 laboratory-confirmed, hospitalized COVID-19 cases. The median age of the patients was 70 years, with 65.7% (408/621) aged ≥65 years and 94% (584/621) male. Most COVID-19 diagnoses were among non-Hispanic Black (325/621, 52.3%) veterans, followed by non-Hispanic White (153/621, 24.6%) and Hispanic or Latino (112/621, 18%) veterans. Hospitalization rates were the highest among veterans who were ≥85 years old, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black (430, 317, and 298 per 100,000, respectively). Veterans aged ≥85 years had a 14-fold increased rate of hospitalization compared with those aged 18-29 years (95% CI: 5.7-34.6), whereas Hispanic or Latino and Black veterans had a 4.6- and 4.2-fold increased rate of hospitalization, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic White veterans (95% CI: 3.6-5.9). Overall, 11.6% (72/621) of the patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, 26.6% (165/621) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16.9% (105/621) died in the hospital. The adjusted relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation and admission to the intensive care unit did not differ by age group or race and ethnicity, but veterans aged ≥65 years had a 4.5-fold increased risk of death while hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with those aged <65 years (95% CI: 2.4-8.6). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 surveillance at the 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers across the United States demonstrated higher hospitalization rates and severe outcomes among older veterans, as well as higher hospitalization rates among Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic Black veterans than among non-Hispanic White veterans. These findings highlight the need for targeted prevention and timely treatment for veterans, with special attention to older aged, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black veterans.


Assuntos
/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Veteranos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /mortalidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated COVID-19 infection and death among healthcare personnel (HCP) in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration. METHODS: HCP with positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests between March 1-August 31, 2020 were included. Risk ratios were calculated for sex, age, race/ethnicity, Veteran status, occupation category, facility of employment by inpatient COVID-19 test percent positivity and death. RESULTS: 5,925 HCP were COVID-19-infected out of 131,606 tested (4.5% positivity). Highest risk for COVID-19 infection included: HCP working in hospitals with >15% inpatient COVID-19 test positivity, nursing staff, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic or Latino HCP and HCP who were Veterans. Among 18 HCP who died after COVID-19 infection, male sex, age ≥65 years, and Veteran status were significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Robust national surveillance testing methods are needed to accurately monitor HCP COVID-19 infections and deaths to improve HCP safety.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1528-1534, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090987

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, although increasing evidence indicates that infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can affect multiple organ systems (1). Data that examine all in-hospital complications of COVID-19 and that compare these complications with those associated with other viral respiratory pathogens, such as influenza, are lacking. To assess complications of COVID-19 and influenza, electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,948 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (March 1-May 31, 2020) and 5,453 hospitalized patients with influenza (October 1, 2018-February 1, 2020) from the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated health care system in the United States,* were analyzed. Using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes, complications in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were compared with those in patients with influenza. Risk ratios were calculated and adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions; proportions of complications were stratified among patients with COVID-19 by race/ethnicity. Patients with COVID-19 had almost 19 times the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) than did patients with influenza, (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 18.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 12.40-28.00), and more than twice the risk for myocarditis (2.56; 1.17-5.59), deep vein thrombosis (2.81; 2.04-3.87), pulmonary embolism (2.10; 1.53-2.89), intracranial hemorrhage (2.85; 1.35-6.03), acute hepatitis/liver failure (3.13; 1.92-5.10), bacteremia (2.46; 1.91-3.18), and pressure ulcers (2.65; 2.14-3.27). The risks for exacerbations of asthma (0.27; 0.16-0.44) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (0.37; 0.32-0.42) were lower among patients with COVID-19 than among those with influenza. The percentage of COVID-19 patients who died while hospitalized (21.0%) was more than five times that of influenza patients (3.8%), and the duration of hospitalization was almost three times longer for COVID-19 patients. Among patients with COVID-19, the risk for respiratory, neurologic, and renal complications, and sepsis was higher among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) patients, patients of other races, and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) patients compared with those in non-Hispanic White (White) patients, even after adjusting for age and underlying medical conditions. These findings highlight the higher risk for most complications associated with COVID-19 compared with influenza and might aid clinicians and researchers in recognizing, monitoring, and managing the spectrum of COVID-19 manifestations. The higher risk for certain complications among racial and ethnic minority patients provides further evidence that certain racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionally affected by COVID-19 and that this disparity is not solely accounted for by age and underlying medical conditions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/virologia , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003379, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 testing (i.e., who received testing and who tested positive) and subsequent mortality in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 5,834,543 individuals receiving care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs; most (91%) were men, 74% were non-Hispanic White (White), 19% were non-Hispanic Black (Black), and 7% were Hispanic. We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of COVID-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, with multivariable adjustment for a wide range of demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, health behaviors, medication history, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Between February 8 and July 22, 2020, 254,595 individuals were tested for COVID-19, of whom 16,317 tested positive and 1,057 died. Black individuals were more likely to be tested (rate per 1,000 individuals: 60.0, 95% CI 59.6-60.5) than Hispanic (52.7, 95% CI 52.1-53.4) and White individuals (38.6, 95% CI 38.4-38.7). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (Black versus White: odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% CI 1.85-2.01, p < 0.001; Hispanic versus White: OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.94, p < 0.001), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (Black versus White: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17, p = 0.74; Hispanic versus White: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73-1.34, p = 0.94). The disparity between Black and White individuals in testing positive for COVID-19 was stronger in the Midwest (OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.41-2.95, p < 0.001) than the West (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). The disparity in testing positive for COVID-19 between Hispanic and White individuals was consistent across region, calendar time, and outbreak pattern. Study limitations include underrepresentation of women and a lack of detailed information on social determinants of health. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, we found that Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. There is an urgent need to proactively tailor strategies to contain and prevent further outbreaks in racial and ethnic minority communities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the limited availability of testing for the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and concerns surrounding the accuracy of existing methods, other means of identifying patients are urgently needed. Previous studies showing a correlation between certain laboratory tests and diagnosis suggest an alternative method based on an ensemble of tests. METHODS: We have trained a machine learning model to analyze the correlation between SARS-CoV-2 test results and 20 routine laboratory tests collected within a 2-day period around the SARS-CoV-2 test date. We used the model to compare SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. RESULTS: In a cohort of 75,991 veteran inpatients and outpatients who tested for SARS-CoV-2 in the months of March through July, 2020, 7,335 of whom were positive by RT-PCR or antigen testing, and who had at least 15 of 20 lab results within the window period, our model predicted the results of the SARS-CoV-2 test with a specificity of 86.8%, a sensitivity of 82.4%, and an overall accuracy of 86.4% (with a 95% confidence interval of [86.0%, 86.9%]). CONCLUSIONS: While molecular-based and antibody tests remain the reference standard method for confirming a SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, their clinical sensitivity is not well known. The model described herein may provide a complementary method of determining SARS-CoV-2 infection status, based on a fully independent set of indicators, that can help confirm results from other tests as well as identify positive cases missed by molecular testing.

7.
medRxiv ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality from symptomatic SARS-Cov-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Most studies investigating racial and ethnic disparities to date have focused on hospitalized patients or have not characterized who received testing or those who tested positive for Covid-19. OBJECTIVE: To compare patterns of testing and test results for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) and subsequent mortality by race and ethnicity in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). PARTICIPANTS: 5,834,543 individuals in care, among whom 62,098 were tested and 5,630 tested positive for Covid-19 between February 8 and May 4, 2020. Exposures: Self-reported race/ethnicity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of Covid-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, accounting for a wide range of demographic and clinical risk factors including comorbid conditions, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. RESULTS: Among all individuals in care, 74% were non-Hispanic white (white), 19% non-Hispanic black (black), and 7% Hispanic. Compared with white individuals, black and Hispanic individuals were more likely to be tested for Covid-19 (tests per 1000: white=9.0, [95% CI 8.9 to 9.1]; black=16.4, [16.2 to 16.7]; and Hispanic=12.2, [11.9 to 12.5]). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (black vs white: OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.81 to 2.12; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.96), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (black vs white: OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.33; Hispanic vs white: OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.87). CONCLUSIONS: Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of Covid-19 not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. While there was no observed difference in mortality by race or ethnicity, our findings may underestimate risk in the broader US population as health disparities tend to be reduced in VA.

8.
medRxiv ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511595

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), an evolving pandemic. Limited data are available characterizing SARS-Cov-2 infection in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between demographic and clinical factors and testing positive for coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19+), and among Covid-19+ subsequent hospitalization and intensive care. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study including all patients tested for Covid-19 between February 8 and March 30, 2020, inclusive. We extracted electronic health record data from the national Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States, on 2,026,227 patients born between 1945 and 1965 and active in care. Exposures: Demographic data, comorbidities, medication history, substance use, vital signs, and laboratory measures. Laboratory tests were analyzed first individually and then grouped into a validated summary measure of physiologic injury (VACS Index). Main Outcomes and Measures: We evaluated which factors were associated with Covid-19+ among all who tested. Among Covid-19+ we identified factors associated with hospitalization or intensive care. We identified independent associations using multivariable and conditional multivariable logistic regression with multiple imputation of missing values. RESULTS: Among Veterans aged 54-75 years, 585/3,789 (15.4%) tested Covid-19+. In adjusted analysis (C-statistic=0.806) black race was associated with Covid-19+ (OR 4.68, 95% CI 3.79-5.78) and the association remained in analyses conditional on site (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46). In adjusted models, laboratory abnormalities (especially fibrosis-4 score [FIB-4] >3.25 OR 8.73, 95% CI 4.11-18.56), and VACS Index (per 5-point increase OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.84) were strongly associated with hospitalization. Associations were similar for intensive care. Although significant in unadjusted analyses, associations with comorbid conditions and medications were substantially reduced and, in most cases, no longer significant after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Black race was strongly associated with Covid-19+, but not with hospitalization or intensive care. Among Covid-19+, risk of hospitalization and intensive care may be better characterized by laboratory measures and vital signs than by comorbid conditions or prior medication exposure.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) burden, etiology, and severity in adults is not well-characterized. We implemented a multisite AGE surveillance platform in 4 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (Atlanta, Bronx, Houston and Los Angeles), collectively serving >320,000 patients annually. METHODS: From July 1, 2016-June 30, 2018, we actively identified AGE inpatient cases and non-AGE inpatient controls through prospective screening of admitted patients and passively identified outpatient cases through stool samples submitted for clinical diagnostics. We abstracted medical charts and tested stool samples for 22 pathogens via multiplex gastrointestinal PCR panel followed by genotyping of norovirus- and rotavirus-positive samples. We determined pathogen-specific prevalence, incidence, and modified Vesikari severity scores. RESULTS: We enrolled 724 inpatient cases, 394 controls, and 506 outpatient cases. Clostridioides difficile and norovirus were most frequently detected among inpatients (cases vs controls: C. difficile, 18.8% vs 8.4%; norovirus, 5.1% vs 1.5%; p<0.01 for both) and outpatients (norovirus: 10.7%; C. difficile: 10.5%). Incidence per 100,000 population was highest among outpatients (AGE: 2715; C. difficile: 285; norovirus: 291) and inpatients ≥65 years old (AGE: 459; C. difficile: 91; norovirus: 26). Clinical severity scores were highest for inpatient norovirus, rotavirus, and Shigella/EIEC cases. Overall, 12% of AGE inpatient cases had ICU stays and 2% died; 3 deaths were associated with C. difficile and 1 with norovirus. C. difficile and norovirus were detected year-round with a fall/winter predominance. CONCLUSIONS: C. difficile and norovirus were leading AGE pathogens in outpatient and hospitalized US Veterans, resulting in severe disease. Clinicians should remain vigilant for bacterial and viral causes of AGE year-round.

10.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 20(6): 619-636, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Companion diagnostics (CDx) are important in oncology therapeutic decision-making, but specific regulatory-approved CDx for infectious disease treatment are officially lacking. While not approved as CDx, several ID diagnostics are used as CDx. The diagnostics community, manufacturers, and regulatory agencies have made major efforts to ensure that diagnostics for new antimicrobials are available at or near release of new agents. AREAS COVERED: This review highlights the status of Complementary and companion diagnostic (c/CDx) in the infectious disease literature, with a focus on genotypic antimicrobial resistance testing against pathogens as a class of diagnostic tests. EXPERT OPINION: CRISPR, sepsis markers, and narrow spectrum antimicrobials, in addition to current and emerging technologies, present opportunities for infectious disease c/CDx. Challenges include slow guideline revision, high costs for regulatory approval, lengthy buy in by agencies, discordant pharmaceutical/diagnostic partnerships, and higher treatment costs. The number of patients and available medications used to treat different infectious diseases is well suited to support competing diagnostic tests. However, newer approaches to treatment (for example, narrow spectrum antibiotics), may be well suited for a small number of patients, i.e. a niche market in support of a CDx. The current emphasis is rapid and point-of-care (POC) diagnostic platforms as well as changes in treatment.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(11): 2423-2427, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626687

RESUMO

International Classification of Diseases diagnostic codes are used to estimate acute gastroenteritis (AGE) disease burden. We validated AGE-related codes in pediatric and adult populations using 2 multiregional active surveillance platforms. The sensitivity of AGE codes was similar (54% and 58%) in both populations and increased with addition of vomiting-specific codes.

12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 41(3): 320-330, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822316

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with case clusters at 3 medical facilities. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using molecular typing of patient and water isolates. SETTING: Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). METHODS: Isolation and identification of NTM from clinical and water samples using culture, MALDI-TOF, and gene population sequencing to determine species and genetic relatedness. Clinical data were abstracted from electronic health records. RESULTS: An identical strain of Mycobacterium conceptionense was isolated from 41 patients at VA Medical Centers (VAMCs A, B, and D), and from VAMC A's ICU ice machine. Isolates were initially identified as other NTM species within the M. fortuitum clade. Sequencing analyses revealed that they were identical M. conceptionense strains. Overall, 7 patients (17%) met the criteria for pulmonary or nonpulmonary infection with NTM, and 13 of 41 (32%) were treated with effective antimicrobials regardless of infection or colonization status. Separately, a M. mucogenicum patient strain from VAMC A matched a strain isolated from a VAMC B ICU ice machine. VAMC C, in a different state, had a 4-patient cluster with Mycobacterium porcinum. Strains were identical to those isolated from sink-water samples at this facility. CONCLUSION: NTM from hospital water systems are found in hospitalized patients, often during workup for other infections, making attribution of NTM infection problematic. Variable NTM identification methods and changing taxonomy create challenges for epidemiologic investigation and linkage to environmental sources.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(1): 40-48, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is an important cause of epidemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE), yet the burden of endemic disease in adults has not been well documented. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of outpatient and community-acquired inpatient norovirus AGE at 4 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMC) (Atlanta, Georgia; Bronx, New York; Houston, Texas; and Los Angeles, California) and examined trends over 4 surveillance years. METHODS: From November 2011 to September 2015, stool specimens collected within 7 days of AGE symptom onset for clinician-requested diagnostic testing were tested for norovirus, and positive samples were genotyped. Incidence was calculated by multiplying norovirus prevalence among tested specimens by AGE-coded outpatient encounters and inpatient discharges, and dividing by the number of unique patients served. RESULTS: Of 1603 stool specimens, 6% tested were positive for norovirus; GII.4 viruses (GII.4 New Orleans [17%] and GII.4 Sydney [47%]) were the most common genotypes. Overall prevalence and outpatient and inpatient community-acquired incidence followed a seasonal pattern, with higher median rates during November-April (9.2%, 376/100 000, and 45/100 000, respectively) compared to May-October (3.0%, 131/100 000, and 13/100 000, respectively). An alternate-year pattern was also detected, with highest peak prevalence and outpatient and inpatient community-acquired norovirus incidence rates in the first and third years of surveillance (14%-25%, 349-613/100 000, and 43-46/100 000, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This multiyear analysis of laboratory-confirmed AGE surveillance from 4 VAMCs demonstrates dynamic intra- and interannual variability in prevalence and incidence of outpatient and inpatient community-acquired norovirus in US Veterans, highlighting the burden of norovirus disease in this adult population.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4927, 2019 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666527

RESUMO

Raman optical spectroscopy promises label-free bacterial detection, identification, and antibiotic susceptibility testing in a single step. However, achieving clinically relevant speeds and accuracies remains challenging due to weak Raman signal from bacterial cells and numerous bacterial species and phenotypes. Here we generate an extensive dataset of bacterial Raman spectra and apply deep learning approaches to accurately identify 30 common bacterial pathogens. Even on low signal-to-noise spectra, we achieve average isolate-level accuracies exceeding 82% and antibiotic treatment identification accuracies of 97.0±0.3%. We also show that this approach distinguishes between methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA) with 89±0.1% accuracy. We validate our results on clinical isolates from 50 patients. Using just 10 bacterial spectra from each patient isolate, we achieve treatment identification accuracies of 99.7%. Our approach has potential for culture-free pathogen identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing, and could be readily extended for diagnostics on blood, urine, and sputum.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Aprendizado Profundo , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Bactérias/química , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Candida/química , Candida/classificação , Enterococcus/química , Enterococcus/classificação , Escherichia coli/química , Escherichia coli/classificação , Humanos , Klebsiella/química , Klebsiella/classificação , Modelos Logísticos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteus mirabilis/química , Proteus mirabilis/classificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/classificação , Salmonella enterica/química , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Análise de Célula Única , Staphylococcus aureus/química , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Streptococcus/química , Streptococcus/classificação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 118: 14-20, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446218

RESUMO

This study tested the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of KPAX002-a combination of methylphenidate hydrochloride plus a micronutrient formula designed to support mitochondrial function-as a treatment for Gulf War Illness (GWI). This open-label trial enrolled 17 subjects meeting the Kansas case definition for GWI. Of the 17 subjects enrolled, 15 qualified for the Intent-to-Treat (ITT) population with 10 subjects completing the trial per protocol. All analyses were on the ITT population. At 12 weeks, subjects taking KPAX002 experienced a mean 25% reduction in their overall GWI symptoms severity as measured by the GWI Symptoms Assessment Tool (SAT) (p < 0.001). Visual analog scale scores were also significantly reduced for fatigue (p = 0.019), cognitive symptoms (p = 0.006), sleep problems (p = 0.026), and pain (p = 0.05). Twelve weeks of KPAX002 administration resulted in a significant improvement in GWI symptoms with an acceptable side effect profile. A larger randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial is necessary to determine if the observed benefit can be replicated.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/tratamento farmacológico , Veteranos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Micronutrientes/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome do Golfo Pérsico/dietoterapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 190, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), the odorless, colorless gas resulting from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, is preventable. Despite the significant risk of morbidity and mortality associated with CO poisoning, there currently exists no active national CO surveillance system in the United States (U.S.). Our study aims to use electronic health record data to describe the epidemiology of CO poisoning in the Veterans Health Administration healthcare population. METHODS: We identified unique inpatient and outpatient encounters coded with International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for CO poisoning and analyzed relevant demographic, laboratory, treatment, and death data from January 2010 through December 2017 for Veterans across all 50 U.S. states and Puerto Rico. Statistical methods used were 95% CI calculations and the two-tailed z test for proportions. RESULTS: We identified 5491 unique patients with CO poisoning, of which 1755 (32%) were confirmed/probable and 3736 (68%) were suspected. Unintentional poisoning was most common (72.9%) overall. Age less than 65 years, residence in Midwest U.S. Census region versus South or West, and winter seasonal trend were characteristics associated with confirmed/probable CO poisoning. Twenty-six deaths (1.5%) occurred within 30 days of confirmed/probable CO poisoning and were primarily caused by cardiovascular events (42%) or anoxic encephalopathy (15%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the use of ICD-coded data for targeted CO poisoning surveillance, however, improvements are needed in ICD coding to reduce the percentage of cases coded with unknown injury intent and/or CO poisoning source. Prevalence of CO poisoning among Veterans is consistent with other U.S. estimates. Since most cases are unintentional, opportunities exist for provider and patient education to reduce risk.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Características de Residência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde dos Veteranos
18.
Med Decis Making ; 38(7): 849-865, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total cost of treating the 3 million Americans chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a substantial affordability challenge requiring treatment prioritization. This study compares the health and economic outcomes of alternative treatment prioritization schedules. METHODS: We developed a multiyear HCV treatment budget allocation model to evaluate the tradeoffs of 7 prioritization strategies. We used optimization to identify the priority schedule that maximizes population net monetary benefit (NMB). We compared prioritization schedules in terms of the number of individuals treated, the number of individuals who progress to end-stage liver disease (ESLD), and population total quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). We applied the model to the population of treatment-naive patients with a total annual HCV treatment budget of US$8.6 billion. RESULTS: First-come, first-served (FCFS) treats the fewest people with advanced fibrosis, prevents the fewest cases of ESLD, and gains the fewest QALYs. A schedule developed from optimizing population NMB prioritizes treatment in the first year to patients with moderate to severe fibrosis who are younger than 65 years, followed by older individuals with moderate to severe fibrosis. While this strategy yields the greatest population QALYs, prioritization by disease severity alone prevents more cases of ESLD. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the differences between prioritization schedules are greater when the budget is smaller. A 10% annual treatment price reduction enabled treatment 1 year sooner to several patient subgroups, specifically older patients and those with less severe liver fibrosis. CONCLUSION: In the absence of a sufficient budget to treat all patients, explicit prioritization targeting younger people with more severe disease first provides the greatest health benefits. We provide our spreadsheet model so that decision makers can compare health tradeoffs of different budget levels and various prioritization strategies with inputs tailored to their population.


Assuntos
Antivirais/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hepacivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde da População , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Alocação de Recursos , Estados Unidos
19.
Value Health ; 21(8): 921-930, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementation of interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reached groups less likely to benefit from earlier therapies, including patients with genotype 1 virus or contraindications to interferon treatment, and groups that faced treatment disparities: African Americans, patients with HIV co-infection, and those with drug use disorder. METHODS: Electronic medical records of the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and the treatments they received. Initiation of treatment in 206,544 patients with chronic HCV characterized by viral genotype, demographic characteristics, and comorbid medical and mental illness was studied using a competing events Cox regression over 6 years. RESULTS: With the advent of interferon-free regimens, the proportion treated increased from 2.4% in 2010 to 18.1% in 2015, an absolute increase of 15.7%. Patients with genotype 1 virus, poor response to previous treatment, and liver disease had the greatest increase. Large absolute increases in the proportion treated were observed in patients with HIV co-infection (18.6%), alcohol use disorder (11.9%), and drug use disorder (12.6%) and in African American (13.7%) and Hispanic (13.5%) patients, groups that were less likely to receive interferon-containing treatment. The VHA spent $962 million on interferon-free treatments in 2015, 1.5% of its operating budget. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of patients with HCV treated in VHA increased sevenfold. The VHA was successful in implementing interferon treatment in previously undertreated populations, and this may become the community standard of care.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Interferons/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração
20.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 92(1): 34-36, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866411

RESUMO

In direct acting antiviral (DAA)-treated HCV genotype 1, the sustained virologic response rate with the ∆G/∆G genotype of IFNL4 rs368234815 (86.8%) was significantly lower than with ∆G/TT (95.9%, P = 0.03) or TT/TT (98.6%, P = 0.01). The SVR odds ratio for ∆G/∆G compared to TT/TT was 0.10 (P = 0.03). IFNL4 genotype might predict DAA-response.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resposta Viral Sustentada
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