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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645250

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore individual amino acid-stimulated GLP-1 responses and the underlying stimulatory mechanisms, as well as to identify the amino acid-sensing-receptors involved in amino acid-stimulated GLP-1 release. Experiments were primarily based on isolated perfused rat small intestines, which have intact epithelial polarization allowing discrimination between luminal and basolateral mechanisms as well as quantitative studies of intestinal absorption and hormone secretion. Expression analysis of amino acid sensors on isolated murine GLP-1 secreting L-cells was assessed by qPCR. We found that L-valine powerfully stimulated GLP-1 secretion but only from the luminal side (2.9-fold increase). When administered from the vascular side, L-arginine and the aromatic amino acids stimulated GLP-1 secretion equally (2.6-2.9 fold increases). Expression analysis revealed that Casr expression was enriched in murine GLP-1 secreting L-cells, whereas Gpr35, Gprc6a, Gpr142, Gpr93 (Lpar5) and the umami taste receptor subunits Tas1r3 and Tas1r1 were not. Consistently, activation of GPR35, GPR93, GPR142 and the umami taste receptor with specific agonists or allosteric modulators did not increase GLP-1 secretion (P>0.05 for all experiments), whereas vascular inhibition of CaSR reduced GLP-1 secretion in response to luminal infusion of mixed amino acids. In conclusion, amino acids differ in their capacity to stimulate GLP-1 secretion. Some amino acids stimulated secretion only from the intestinal lumen, while other amino acids exclusively stimulated secretion from the vascular side, indicating that amino acid-stimulated GLP-1 secretion involves both apical and basolateral (post-absorptive) sensing mechanisms. Sensing of absorbed amino acids involves CaSR activation as vascular inhibition of CaSR markedly diminished amino acid stimulated GLP-1 release.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645252

RESUMO

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is best known as an incretin hormone that is secreted from K-cells of the proximal intestine, but evidence also implicates a role for GIP in regulating lipid metabolism and adiposity. It is well established that GIP receptor knockout (GIPR KO) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity; however, the factors mediating this effect remain unresolved. Accordingly, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms leading to adiposity resistance in GIPR KO mice with a focus on whole-body energy balance and lipid metabolism in adipose tissues. Studies were conducted in age-matched male GIPR KO and wild type (WT) mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks. GIPR KO mice gained less body weight and fat mass compared to WT littermates, and this was associated with increased energy expenditure but no differences in food intake or faecal energy loss. Upon an oral lipid challenge, fatty acid storage in inguinal adipose tissue was significantly increased in GIPR KO compared with WT mice. This was not related to differential expression of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue lipolysis was increased in GIPR KO compared with WT mice, particularly following b-adrenergic stimulation, and could explain why GIPR KO mice gain less adipose tissue despite increased rates of fatty acid storage in inguinal adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that the GIPR is required for normal maintenance of body weight and adipose tissue mass by regulating energy expenditure and lipolysis.

3.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609265
4.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565706

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether a dose-dependent effect in the stimulation of gut hormone release (plasma cholecystokinin [CCK], active glucagon-like peptide-1 [aGLP-1] and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]) is found for the natural sweetener erythritol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy, lean volunteers received solutions with 10, 25 or 50 g erythritol, or tap water enriched with 13 C-sodium acetate on four study days via a nasogastric tube in this randomized (active treatments), placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Blood samples and breath samples (13 C-sodium acetate method for measurement of gastric emptying [GE]) were taken at regular intervals, and sensations of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were rated. RESULTS: We found (a) a dose-dependent stimulation of CCK, aGLP-1 and PYY, and slowing of GE, (b) no effect on blood glucose, insulin, motilin, glucagon or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, (c) no effect on blood lipids and uric acid, and (d) no abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: Solutions with 10 and 50 g of erythritol stimulated gut hormone release. Emptying of erythritol-containing solutions from the stomach was slower compared with placebo. There was no effect on plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, blood lipids or uric acid. All doses were well tolerated.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596309

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The importance of fasting GLP-1 in altered metabolic outcomes has been questioned. OBJECTIVE: To assess if fasting GLP-1 differs in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity compared to a population-based reference, and whether concentrations predict cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors. METHODS: Analyses were based on The Danish Childhood Obesity Data- and Biobank, a cross-sectional study including children and adolescents, 6-19 years old, from an obesity clinic group (n = 1978) and from a population-based group (n = 2334). Fasting concentrations of plasma total GLP-1 and quantitative CMR factors were assessed. The effects of GLP-1 as a predictor of CMR risk outcomes were examined by multiple linear and logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: The obesity clinic group had higher fasting GLP-1 concentrations (median 3.3 pmol/L; interquartile range 2.3-4.3) than the population-based group (2.8 pmol/L; 2.1-3.8; P < 2.2E-16). BMI SDS, waist circumference and total body fat percentage were significant predictors of fasting GLP-1 concentrations in boys and girls. Fasting GLP-1 concentrations positively associated with HOMA-IR, fasting values of insulin, hs-CRP, C-peptide, triglycerides, ALT, HbA1c and SDS of diastolic and systolic blood pressure. A 1-SD increase in fasting GLP-1 associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance (Odds ratio [OR] 1.59), dyslipidemia (OR 1.16), increased ALT (OR 1.14), hyperglycemia (OR 1.12) and hypertension (OR 1.12). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obesity in children and adolescents is associated with increased fasting plasma total GLP-1 concentrations, which was predictive of higher cardiometabolic risk factors.

6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(3): 387-398, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449919

RESUMO

Aims: The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is believed to reduce plasma glucose by delaying hydrolysis of carbohydrates. Acarbose-induced transfer of carbohydrates to the distal parts of the intestine increases circulating glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39)NH2, we investigated the effect of acarbose-induced GLP-1 secretion on postprandial glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, 15 participants with metformin-treated type 2 diabetes (age: 57-85 years, HbA1c: 40-74 mmol/mol) were subjected to two 14-day treatment periods with acarbose or placebo, respectively, separated by a 6-week wash-out period. At the end of each period, two randomized 4-h liquid mixed meal tests with concomitant infusion of exendin(9-39)NH2 and saline, respectively, were performed. Results: Compared to placebo, acarbose increased postprandial GLP-1 concentrations and decreased postprandial glucose. We observed no absolute difference in the exendin(9-39)NH2-induced increase in postprandial glucose excursions between placebo and acarbose periods, but relatively, postprandial glucose was increased by 119 ± 116% (mean ± s.d.) during exendin(9-39)NH2 infusion in the acarbose period vs a 39 ± 27% increase during the placebo period (P = 0.0163). Conclusions: We confirm that acarbose treatment stimulates postprandial GLP-1 secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Using exendin(9-39)NH2, we did not see an impact of acarbose-induced GLP-1 secretion on absolute measures of postprandial glucose tolerance, but relatively, the effect of exendin(9-39)NH2 was most pronounced during acarbose treatment.

7.
Obes Surg ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: There are no formal guidelines for choosing among different bariatric surgery procedures for obesity treatment. So, our aim was to evaluate whether post-absorptive metabolite and hormone profiles could aid the surgeon decision when considering bariatric surgery interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subjects (N=38) previously submitted to biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS, n=9), single anastomosis duodenal-ileum bypass with sleeve gastrectomy (SADI-S, n= 9), long biliopancreatic limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB-M, n= 11), and classic RYGB (RYGB-C, n= 9) underwent a mixed meal test to evaluate post-absorptive glucose, total amino acid (AA), insulin, and GLP-1 profiles. RESULTS: Glucose, AA, insulin, and GLP-1 excursions were lower after BPD-DS when compared to other surgeries. SADI-S resulted in lower glucose but similar AA and insulin excursions when compared to RYGB-M. The highest GLP-1 excursion was observed after RYGB-M. There were no significant differences in glucose or AA post-prandial excursions between RYGB procedures, yet insulin excursion was higher after RYGB-C when compared to RYGB-M. CONCLUSION: Post-prandial metabolite excursions diverge across bariatric procedures being lowest after BPD-DS, intermediate after SADI-S, and highest after RYGB, in parallel with the anti-diabetic efficacy and malabsorption risk reported for each type of intervention. SADI-S and RYGB-M seem to elicit similar post-prandial hormonal profiles, with potentially lower risk of protein malnutrition when compared to BPD-DS. Post-absorptive metabolite and hormone profiles could provide a rationale as decision-aid when choosing among bariatric surgery interventions, as long as these findings are validated in future trials.

8.
Endocrinology ; 162(3)2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508122

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation is used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity; however, GLP-1 induces many other physiological effects with unclear mechanisms of action. To identify the cellular targets of GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogues, we generated a Glp1r.tdTomato reporter mouse expressing the reporter protein, tdTomato, in Glp1r-expressing cells. The reporter signal is expressed in all cells where GLP-1R promoter was ever active. To complement this, we histologically mapped tdTomato-fluorescence, and performed Glp-1r mRNA in situ hybridization and GLP-1R immunohistochemistry on the same tissues. In male mice, we found tdTomato signal in mucus neck, chief, and parietal cells of the stomach; Brunner's glands; small intestinal enteroendocrine cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes; and myenteric plexus nerve fibers throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Pancreatic acinar-, ß-, and δ cells, but rarely α cells, were tdTomato-positive, as were renal arteriolar smooth muscle cells; endothelial cells of the liver, portal vein, and endocardium; aortal tunica media; and lung type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes. Some thyroid follicular and parafollicular cells displayed tdTomato expression, as did tracheal cartilage chondrocytes, skin fibroblasts, and sublingual gland mucus cells. In conclusion, our reporter mouse is a powerful tool for mapping known and novel sites of GLP-1R expression in the mouse, thus enhancing our understanding of the many target cells and effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1R agonists.

9.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434183

RESUMO

Somatostatin (SS) inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion in a paracrine manner. We hypothesized that blocking somatostatin subtype receptor 2 (SSTR2) and 5 (SSTR5) would improve glycemia by enhancing GLP-1 secretion. In the perfused mouse small intestine, the selective SSTR5 antagonist (SSTR5a) stimulated glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion to a larger degree than the SSTR2 antagonist (SSTR2a). In parallel, mice lacking the SSTR5R showed increased glucose-induced GLP-1 secretion. Both antagonists improved glycemia in vivo in a GLP-1 receptor-dependent (GLP-1R-dependent) manner, as the glycemic improvements were absent in mice with impaired GLP-1R signaling and in mice treated with a GLP-1R-specific antagonist. SSTR5a had no direct effect on insulin secretion in the perfused pancreas, whereas SSTR2a increased insulin secretion in a GLP-1R-independent manner. Adding a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) in vivo resulted in additive effects on glycemia. However, when glucose was administered intraperitoneally, the antagonist was incapable of lowering blood glucose. Oral administration of SSTR5a, but not SSTR2a, lowered blood glucose in diet-induced obese mice. In summary, we demonstrate that selective SSTR antagonists can improve glucose control primarily through the intestinal GLP-1 system in mice.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459181

RESUMO

AIMS Bile acids (BA) regulate post-prandial metabolism directly and indirectly by affecting the secretion of gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The post-prandial effects of BA on the secretion of other metabolically active hormones are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on post-prandial secretion of GLP-1, oxyntomodulin (OXM), peptide YY (PYY), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon and ghrelin. METHODS Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a mixed meal test 60 minutes after ingestion of UDCA (12-16 mg/kg), CDCA (13-16 mg/kg) or no BA in a randomised cross-over study. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, OXM, PYY, GIP, glucagon, ghrelin and fibroblast growth factor 19 were measured prior to BA administration at -60, 0 (just prior to mixed meal) and 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after the meal. RESULTS UDCA and CDCA provoked differential gut hormone responses: UDCA did not have any significant effects, but CDCA provoked significant increases in GLP-1 and OXM and a profound reduction in GIP. CDCA increased fasting GLP-1 and OXM secretion in parallel with an increase in insulin. On the other hand, CDCA reduced post-prandial secretion of GIP, with an associated reduction in post-prandial insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS Exogenous CDCA can exert multiple salutary effects on the secretion of gut hormones; if these effects are confirmedin obesity and type 2 diabetes, CDCA may be a potential therapy for these conditions.

11.
Endocr Connect ; 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480865

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) originate from the common precursor, proglucagon, and their plasma concentrations have been reported to be increased during inflammatory conditions. Increased blood glucose levels are frequently observed in septic patients, and therefore we hypothesized that glucagon, but not GLP-1, is increased in individuals with inflammation. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal cohort study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured glucagon and GLP-1 in plasma sampled consecutively in three cohorts consisting of patients with infective endocarditis (n=16), urosepsis (n=28) and post-operative inflammation following percutaneous aortic valve implantation or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (n=5). Correlations between C-Reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, and glucagon and GLP-1 concentrations were investigated. Additionally, glucagon and GLP-1 concentrations were measured after a bolus infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1ng/kg) in nine healthy young males. RESULTS: Glucagon and CRP were positively and significantly correlated (r=0.27; P=0.0003), whereas no significant association between GLP-1 and CRP was found (r=0.08, P=0.30). LPS infusion resulted in acute systemic inflammation reflected by increased temperature, pulse, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and concomitantly increased concentrations of glucagon (P<0.05) but not GLP-1. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inflammation caused by bacterial infections or developed as a non-infected condition is associated with increased plasma concentration of glucagon, but not GLP-1. Hyperglucagonemia may contribute to the impaired glucose control in patients with systemic inflammatory diseases.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429977

RESUMO

Sugar consumption is associated with a whole range of negative health effects and should be reduced and the natural sweetener xylitol might be helpful in achieving this goal. The present study was conducted as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Twelve healthy, lean volunteers received intragastric solutions with 7, 17 or 35 g xylitol or tap water on four separate days. We examined effects on: gut hormones, glucose, insulin, glucagon, uric acid, lipid profile, as well as gastric emptying rates, appetite-related sensations and gastrointestinal symptoms. We found: (i) a dose-dependent stimulation of cholecystokinin (CCK), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (aGLP-1), peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)-release, and decelerated gastric emptying rates, (ii) a dose-dependent increase in blood glucose and insulin, (iii) no effect on motilin, glucagon, or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)-release, (iv) no effect on blood lipids, but a rise in uric acid, and (v) increased bowel sounds as only side effects. In conclusion, low doses of xylitol stimulate the secretion of gut hormones and induce a deceleration in gastric emptying rates. There is no effect on blood lipids and only little effect on plasma glucose and insulin. This combination of properties (low-glycemic sweetener which stimulates satiation hormone release) makes xylitol an attractive candidate for sugar replacement.

13.
Diabetologia ; 64(1): 142-151, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043402

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The endocrine pancreas comprises the islets of Langerhans, primarily consisting of beta cells, alpha cells and delta cells responsible for secretion of insulin, glucagon and somatostatin, respectively. A certain level of intra-islet communication is thought to exist, where the individual hormones may reach the other islet cells and regulate their secretion. Glucagon has been demonstrated to importantly regulate insulin secretion, while somatostatin powerfully inhibits both insulin and glucagon secretion. In this study we investigated how secretion of somatostatin is regulated by paracrine signalling from glucagon and insulin. METHODS: Somatostatin secretion was measured from perfused mouse pancreases isolated from wild-type as well as diphtheria toxin-induced alpha cell knockdown, and global glucagon receptor knockout (Gcgr-/-) mice. We studied the effects of varying glucose concentrations together with infusions of arginine, glucagon, insulin and somatostatin, as well as infusions of antagonists of insulin, somatostatin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptors. RESULTS: A tonic inhibitory role of somatostatin was demonstrated with infusion of somatostatin receptor antagonists, which significantly increased glucagon secretion at low and high glucose, whereas insulin secretion was only increased at high glucose levels. Infusion of glucagon dose-dependently increased somatostatin secretion approximately twofold in control mice. Exogenous glucagon had no effect on somatostatin secretion in Gcgr-/- mice, and a reduced effect when combined with the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin 9-39. Diphtheria toxin-induced knockdown of glucagon producing cells led to reduced somatostatin secretion in response to 12 mmol/l glucose and arginine infusions. In Gcgr-/- mice (where glucagon levels are dramatically increased) overall somatostatin secretion was increased. However, infusion of exendin 9-39 in Gcgr-/- mice completely abolished somatostatin secretion in response to glucose and arginine. Neither insulin nor an insulin receptor antagonist (S961) had any effect on somatostatin secretion. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate that somatostatin and glucagon secretion are linked in a reciprocal feedback cycle with somatostatin inhibiting glucagon secretion at low and high glucose levels, and glucagon stimulating somatostatin secretion via the glucagon and GLP-1 receptors. Graphical abstract.

14.
Diabetologia ; 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275161

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Many individuals who develop type 2 diabetes also display increased glucagon levels (hyperglucagonaemia), which we have previously found to be associated with the metabolic syndrome. The concept of a liver-alpha cell axis provides a possible link between hyperglucagonaemia and elevated liver fat content, a typical finding in the metabolic syndrome. However, this association has only been studied in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Hence, we searched for a link between the liver and the alpha cells in individuals with non-steatotic levels of liver fat content. We hypothesised that the glucagon-alanine index, an indicator of the functional integrity of the liver-alpha cell axis, would associate with liver fat and insulin resistance in our cohort of women with low levels of liver fat. METHODS: We analysed data from 79 individuals participating in the Prediction, Prevention and Subclassification of Type 2 Diabetes (PPSDiab) study, a prospective observational study of young women at low to high risk for the development of type 2 diabetes. Liver fat content was determined by MRI. Insulin resistance was calculated as HOMA-IR. We conducted Spearman correlation analyses of liver fat content and HOMA-IR with the glucagon-alanine index (the product of fasting plasma levels of glucagon and alanine). The prediction of the glucagon-alanine index by liver fat or HOMA-IR was tested in multivariate linear regression analyses in the whole cohort as well as after stratification for liver fat content ≤0.5% (n = 39) or >0.5% (n = 40). RESULTS: The glucagon-alanine index significantly correlated with liver fat and HOMA-IR in the entire cohort (ρ = 0.484, p < 0.001 and ρ = 0.417, p < 0.001, respectively). These associations resulted from significant correlations in participants with a liver fat content >0.5% (liver fat, ρ = 0.550, p < 0.001; HOMA-IR, ρ = 0.429, p = 0.006). In linear regression analyses, the association of the glucagon-alanine index with liver fat remained significant after adjustment for age and HOMA-IR in all participants and in those with liver fat >0.5% (ß = 0.246, p = 0.0.23 and ß = 0.430, p = 0.007, respectively) but not in participants with liver fat ≤0.5% (ß = -0.184, p = 0.286). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We reproduced the previously reported association of liver fat content and HOMA-IR with the glucagon-alanine index in an independent study cohort of young women with low to high risk for type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicates an insulin-resistance-independent association of liver fat content with the glucagon-alanine index. In summary, our study supports the concept that even lower levels of liver fat (from 0.5%) are connected to relative hyperglucagonaemia, reflecting an imminent impairment of the liver-alpha cell axis.

15.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266325

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms of hunger, satiety and how nutrients affect appetite control is important for successful weight management across the lifecourse. The primary aim of this study was to describe acute appetite control across the lifecourse, comparing age groups (children, adolescents, adults, elderly), weight categories, genders and European sites (Scotland and Greece). Participants (n = 391) consumed four test drinks, varying in composition (15% (normal protein, NP) and 30% (high protein, HP) of energy from protein) and quantity (based on 100% basal metabolic rate (BMR) and 140% BMR), on four separate days in a double-blind randomized controlled study. Ad libitum energy intake (EI), subjective appetite and biomarkers of appetite and metabolism (adults and elderly only) were measured. The adults' appetite was significantly greater than that of the elderly across all drink types (p < 0.004) and in response to drink quantities (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in EI between age groups, weight categories, genders or sites. Concentrations of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) were significantly greater in the elderly than the adults (p < 0.001). Ghrelin and fasting leptin concentrations differed significantly between weight categories, genders and sites (p < 0.05), while GLP-1 and PYY concentrations differed significantly between genders only (p < 0.05). Compared to NP drinks, HP drinks significantly increased postprandial GLP-1 and PYY (p < 0.001). Advanced age was concomitant with reduced appetite and elevated anorectic hormone release, which may contribute to the development of malnutrition. In addition, appetite hormone concentrations differed between weight categories, genders and geographical locations.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382423

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Mitchell Riley syndrome (MRS) due to RFX6 gene mutations is characterized by neonatal diabetes and protracted diarrhea. RFX6 gene encodes a transcription factor involved in enteroendocrine cell differentiation required for beta-cell maturation. In contrast to the pathway by which RFX6 mutations leads to diabetes, the mechanisms underlying protracted diarrhea are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was involved in the pathogenesis of MRS protracted diarrhea. DESIGN: Two case report descriptions. SETTING: Tertiary pediatric hospital. INTERVENTION: "Off-label" treatment with liraglutide. PATIENTS: We report two children diagnosed with MRS, presenting neonatal diabetes and protracted diarrhea. Both patients had nearly undetectable GLP-1 plasma levels and absence of GLP-1 immunostaining in distal intestine and rectum. MAIN OUTCOME: To evaluate whether GLP-1 analogue therapy could improve MRS protracted diarrhea. RESULTS: "Off-label" liraglutide treatment, licensed for type 2 diabetes treatment in children, was started as rescue therapy for protracted intractable diarrhea resulting in rapid improvement during the course of 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital GLP-1 deficiency was identified in patients with MRS. The favorable response to liraglutide further supports GLP-1 involvement in the pathogenesis of protracted diarrhea and its potential therapeutic use.

17.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(1): 100006, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205056

RESUMO

Individuals with obesity due to pathogenic heterozygous melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) mutations can be treated efficiently with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) liraglutide. Here, we report the effect of 16 weeks of liraglutide 3 mg/day treatment in a woman with morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to homozygous pathogenic MC4R mutation. The body weight loss was 9.7 kg, similar to weight loss in heterozygous MC4R mutation carriers and common obesity. In addition, the treatment led to clinically relevant decreases in fasting glucose, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, and normalization of glucose tolerance. We conclude that liraglutide reduces body weight and blood glucose levels in hetero- and homozygous MC4R mutation carriers. This serves as proof-of-concept that MC4Rs are not required for the body weight and glucose lowering effects of GLP-1 RAs and that liraglutide may be used as part of the treatment of obesity and T2D due to MC4R mutations.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146457

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the effects of dapagliflozin, metformin and exercise treatment on changes in plasma glucagon concentrations in individuals with overweight and HbA1c-defined prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One-hundred and twenty individuals with overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 ) and prediabetes (HbA1c of 39-47 mmol/mol) were randomized to a 13-week intervention with dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily), metformin (850 mg twice daily), exercise (30 minutes of interval training 5 days per week) or control (habitual living). A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (0, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) was administered at baseline, at 13 weeks (end of intervention) and at 26 weeks (end of follow-up). Linear mixed effects models with participant-specific random intercepts were used to investigate associations of the interventions with fasting plasma glucagon concentration, insulin/glucagon ratio and glucagon suppression during the OGTT. RESULTS: At baseline, the median (Q1; Q3) age was 62 (54; 68) years, median fasting plasma glucagon concentration was 11 (7; 15) pmol/L, mean (SD) HbA1c was 40.9 (2.3) mmol/mol and 56% were women. Compared with the control group, fasting glucagon did not change in any of the groups from baseline to the end of the intervention (dapagliflozin group: -5% [95% CI: -29; 26]; exercise group: -8% [95% CI: -31; 24]; metformin group: -2% [95% CI: -27; 30]). Likewise, there were no differences in insulin/glucagon ratio and glucagon suppression during the OGTT between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with prediabetes, 13 weeks of treatment with dapagliflozin, metformin or exercise was not associated with changes in fasting or post-OGTT glucagon concentrations.

19.
Endocr Connect ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252353

RESUMO

The T allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 is a common genetic variant associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), possibly by modulation of incretin action. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele on the incretin effect and other glucometabolic parameters in normal glucose tolerant individuals (NGT) and participants with T2D. The rs7903146 variant was genotyped in cohorts of 61 NGT individuals (23 were heterozygous (CT) or homozygous (TT) T allele carriers) and 43 participants with T2D (20 with CT/TT). Participants were previously examined by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a subsequent isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI). The incretin effect was assessed by quantification of the difference in integrated beta cell secretory responses during an OGTT and IIGI. Glucose and hormonal levels were measured during experimental days, and from these, indices of beta cell function and insulin sensitivity were calculated. No genotype-specific differences in the incretin effect were observed in the NGT group (P = 0.70) or the T2D group (P = 0.68). NGT T allele carriers displayed diminished glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response during OGTT (P = 0.01) while T allele carriers with T2D were characterized by lower C-peptide AUC after OGTT (P = 0.04) and elevated glucose AUC after OGTT (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our findings do not exclude that this specific TCF7L2 variant increases the risk of developing T2D via diminished incretin effect, but genotype-related defects were not detectable in these cohorts.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103448

RESUMO

Background & Aims Dietary carbohydrate-restriction may improve the phenotype of type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to investigate 6 weeks of carbohydrate-restriction on postprandial glucose metabolism, pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell function, gut hormone secretion, and satiety in T2D patients. Methods In a cross-over design, 28 T2D patients (mean: HbA1c 60 mmol/mol) were randomized to 6 weeks of carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet and 6 weeks of conventional diabetes (CD) diet (energy-percentage carbohydrate/protein/fat: 30/30/40 versus 50/17/33). Twenty-four-hour continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and mixed meal tests were undertaken and fasting intact proinsulin (IP), 32,33 split proinsulin concentrations (SP), and postprandial insulin secretion rates (ISR), insulinogenic index (IGI), beta-cell sensitivity to glucose (Bup), glucagon and gut hormones were measured. Gastric emptying was evaluated by postprandial paracetamol concentrations and satiety by visual analogue scale ratings. Results A CRHP diet reduced: postprandial glucose area under curve (net AUC) by 60% (p<0.001), 24h glucose by 13% (p<0.001), fasting IP and SP concentrations (both absolute and relative to C-peptide, p<0.05), and postprandial ISR (24%, p=0.015), while IGI and Bup improved by 31% and 45% (both p<0.001). The CRHP diet increased postprandial glucagon net AUC by 235% (p<0.001), subjective satiety by 18% (p=0.03), delayed gastric emptying by 15 minutes (p<0.001), decreased gastric inhibitory polypeptide net AUC by 29% (p<0.001), but had no significant effect on glucagon-like-peptide-1, total peptide YY and cholecystokinin responses. Conclusions A CRHP diet reduced glucose excursions and improved beta-cell function, including proinsulin processing, and increased subjective satiety in patients with T2D.

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