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1.
Nutrients ; 14(18)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145121

RESUMO

Diabetes incidence is rising globally at an accelerating rate causing issues at both the individual and societal levels. However, partly inspired by Ayurvedic medicine, a naturally occurring compound called pterostilbene has been demonstrated to protect against diabetes symptoms, though mainly in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the putative protective effect of pterostilbene on the two main aspects of diabetes, namely insulin resistance and decreased insulin secretion, in mice. To accomplish this, we employed diet-induced obese as well as streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL/6NTac mice for fasting glucose homeostasis assessment, tolerance tests and pancreas perfusions. In addition, we used the polygenic model of diabetes TALLYHO/JngJ to assess for prevention of ß-cell burnout. We found that the diet-induced obese C57BL/6NTac mice were insulin resistant, but that pterostilbene had no impact on this or on overall glucose regulation. We further found that the reported protective effect of pterostilbene against streptozotocin-induced diabetes was absent in C57BL/6NTac mice, despite a promising pilot experiment. Lastly, we observed that pterostilbene does not prevent or delay onset of ß-cell burnout in TALLYHO/JngJ mice. In conjunction with the literature, our findings suggest variations in the response to pterostilbene between species or between strains of species.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Estilbenos , Estreptozocina
2.
Front Nutr ; 9: 933118, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061897

RESUMO

Background: Carbohydrate restriction may benefit ß-cell function and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes (T2D) but also leads to weight loss which in itself is beneficial. Methods: In order to determine the additional effect of carbohydrate restriction in addition to a fixed body weight loss, we randomly assigned 72 adults with T2D and obesity (mean ± SD HbA1c 7.4 ± 0.7%, BMI 33 ± 5 kg/m2) to a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet (CRHP; energy percent from carbohydrate/protein/fat: 30/30/40) or an isocaloric conventional diabetes diet (CD; 50/17/33) for 6 weeks. All foods were provided free of charge and total energy intake was tailored individually, so both groups lost 6% of baseline body weight. Results: Despite significantly greater reductions in HbA1c (mean [95% CI] -1.9 [-3.5, -0.3] mmol/mol) after 6 weeks, the CRHP diet neither improved glucose tolerance, ß-cell response to glucose, insulin sensitivity, during a 4-h oral glucose tolerance test, nor basal proinsulin secretion when compared to the CD diet, but increased C-peptide concentration and insulin secretion rate (area under the curve [AUC] and peak) significantly more (~10%, P ≤ 0.03 for all). Furthermore, compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet borderline increased basal glucagon concentration (16 [-0.1, 34]%, P = 0.05), but decreased glucagon net AUC (-2.0 [-3.4, -0.6] mmol/L ×240 min, P < 0.01), decreased basal triglyceride and total AUC (~20%, P < 0.01 for both), and increased gastric inhibitory polypeptide total AUC (14%, P = 0.01). Conclusion: A moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet for 6 weeks decreased HbA1c but did not improve ß-cell function or glucose tolerance beyond the effects of weight loss when compared with a conventional diabetes diet in people with T2D. Clinical trials registration: www.Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02472951.

3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054143

RESUMO

AIM: The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv 11.1 is important for repolarizing the membrane potential in excitable cells such as myocytes, pancreatic α- and ß-cells. Moxifloxacin blocks the Kv 11.1 channel and increases the risk of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. We investigated glucose regulation and secretion of glucoregulatory hormones in young people with and without moxifloxacin, a drug known to block the Kv 11.1 channel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of moxifloxacin (800 mg/day for 4 days) or placebo on glucose regulation was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of young men and women (age 20-40 years and body mass index 18.5-27.5 kg/m2 ) without chronic disease, using 6-h oral glucose tolerance tests and continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants completed the study. Moxifloxacin prolonged the QTcF interval and increased heart rate. Hypoglycaemia was more frequently observed with moxifloxacin, both during the 8 days of continuous glucose monitoring and during the oral glucose tolerance tests. Hypoglycaemia questionnaire scores were higher after intake of moxifloxacin. Moxifloxacin reduced the early plasma-glucose response (AUC0-30 min ) by 7% (95% CI: -9% to -4%, p < .01), and overall insulin response (AUC0-360 min ) decreased by 18% (95% CI: -24% to -11%, p < .01) and plasma glucagon increased by 17% (95% CI: 4%-33%, p = .03). Insulin sensitivity calculated as the Matsuda index increased by 11%, and MISI, an index of muscle insulin sensitivity, increased by 34%. CONCLUSIONS: In young men and women, moxifloxacin, a drug known to block the Kv 11.1 channel, increased QT interval, decreased glucose levels and was associated with increased muscle insulin sensitivity and more frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia.

4.
Front Physiol ; 13: 911616, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36148302

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a pathophysiology that is characterized by insulin resistance, beta- and alpha-cell dysfunction. Mathematical models of various glucose challenge experiments have been developed to quantify the contribution of insulin and beta-cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of T2D. There is a need for effective extended models that also capture the impact of alpha-cell dysregulation on T2D. In this paper a delay differential equation-based model is developed to describe the coupled glucose-insulin-glucagon dynamics in the isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) experiment. As the glucose profile in IIGI is tailored to match that of a corresponding oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), it provides a perfect method for studying hormone responses that are in the normal physiological domain and without the confounding effect of incretins and other gut mediated factors. The model was fit to IIGI data from individuals with and without T2D. Parameters related to glucagon action, suppression, and secretion as well as measures of insulin sensitivity, and glucose stimulated response were determined simultaneously. Significant impairment in glucose dependent glucagon suppression was observed in patients with T2D (duration of T2D: 8 (6-36) months) relative to weight matched control subjects (CS) without diabetes (k1 (mM)-1: 0.16 ± 0.015 (T2D, n = 7); 0.26 ± 0.047 (CS, n = 7)). Insulin action was significantly lower in patients with T2D (a1 (10 pM min)-1: 0.000084 ± 0.0000075 (T2D); 0.00052 ± 0.00015 (CS)) and the Hill coefficient in the equation for glucose dependent insulin response was found to be significantly different in T2D patients relative to CS (h: 1.4 ± 0.15; 1.9 ± 0.14). Trends in parameters with respect to fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and 2-h glucose values are also presented. Significantly, a negative linear relationship is observed between the glucagon suppression parameter, k1, and the three markers for diabetes and is thus indicative of the role of glucagon in exacerbating the pathophysiology of diabetes (Spearman Rank Correlation: (n = 12; (-0.79, 0.002), (-0.73,.007), (-0.86,.0003)) respectively).

5.
J Endocr Soc ; 6(9): bvac111, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935071

RESUMO

Context and objective: Obesity and inactivity are risk factors for developing impaired glucose tolerance characterized by insulin resistance and reduced beta-cell function. The stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on insulin secretion is also impaired in obese, inactive individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance training influences beta-cell sensitivity to GLP-1. Participants and intervention: Twenty-four female participants, age 46 ±â€…2 years, body mass index 32.4 ±â€…0.9 kg/m2, and maximal oxygen consumption 24.7 ±â€…0.8 mL/kg/min participated in a 10-week exercise training study. Methods: Beta-cell sensitivity to GLP-1 was assessed in a subset of participants (n = 6) during a 120-minute hyperglycemic glucose clamp (8.5 mM) including a 1-hour GLP-1 (7-36 amide) infusion (0.4 pmol/kg/min). Changes in glucose tolerance, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, magnetic resonance scans, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) tests, respectively. Results: The c-peptide response to infusion of GLP-1 increased 28 ±â€…3% (P < 0.05) toward the end of the hyperglycemic clamp. The insulin response remained unchanged. Training improved glucose tolerance and reduced GLP-1, insulin, and glucagon levels during the OGTTs. Training increased VO2max (from 24.7 ±â€…0.8 to 27.0 ±â€…0.7 mL/kg/min; P < 0.05) and reduced visceral fat volume (from 4176 ±â€…265 to 3888 ±â€…266 cm3; P < 0.01). Conclusion: Along with improved glycemic control, endurance training improved beta-cell sensitivity to GLP-1 in overweight women. The study was deemed not to constitute a clinical trial and was not registered as such.

6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982119

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of pharmacologically induced weight loss on markers of glucagon resistance in individuals with overweight during treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide. We performed an open-label study in 14 men with overweight (age 38 ± 11 years, BMI 32 ± 4 kg/m2) without simultaneously diabetes. Subjects were treated with liraglutide, initiated and titrated with 0.6 mg/day/week to reach the final dose of 3.0 mg/day. Subjects were examined at baseline, during titration (Week 4), after 2 weeks of steady state (Week 6) of final dosing of liraglutide and 3 weeks after discontinuation of liraglutide (follow-up). Study participants lost 3.3 ± 1.9 kg (3%) total body weight during the first 4 weeks of treatment with liraglutide. Simultaneously, liver fat content decreased from 12.4 ± 11.6% to 10.2 ± 11.1%, p = 0.025, whereas fat content in the spleen and subcutaneous tissue was unaltered. Markers of glucagon resistance, including plasma glucagon and the glucagon-alanine-index, also decreased significantly during treatment, but total and individual plasma amino acid concentrations did not. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was unchanged during treatment, whereas insulin clearance increased. Treatment with the GLP-1 receptor analogue liraglutide decreased liver fat content, and simultaneously attenuated glucagon concentrations and the glucagon-alanine index in individuals with overweight without diabetes.

7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 187(4): 507-518, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35977072

RESUMO

Objective: Gastrointestinal-mediated glucose disposal (GIGD) during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) reflects the percentage of glucose disposal caused by mechanisms elicited by the oral route of glucose administration. GIGD is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to a reduced incretin effect and possibly also due to inappropriate suppression of glucagon after oral glucose. We investigated the effect of glucagon receptor antagonism on GIGD, the incretin effect and glucose excursions in patients with T2D and controls without diabetes. Design: A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. Methods: Ten patients with T2D and 10 gender-, age- and BMI-matched controls underwent two 50 g OGTTs and 2 isoglycaemic i.v. glucose infusions, succeeding (~10 h) single-dose administration of 100 mg of the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 or placebo, respectively. Results: Compared to placebo, LY2409021 reduced fasting plasma glucose in patients with T2D and controls. Plasma glucose excursions after oral glucose assessed by baseline-subtracted area under the curve were increased by LY2409021 compared to placebo in both groups, but no effect of LY2409021 on GIGD or the incretin effect was observed. LY2409021 increased fasting glucagon concentrations three-fold compared to placebo concentrations. Conclusions: Glucagon receptor antagonism with LY2409021 had no effect on the impaired GIGD or the impaired incretin effect in patients with T2D and did also not affect these parameters in the controls. Surprisingly, we observed reduced oral glucose tolerance with LY2409021 which may be specific for this glucagon receptor antagonist.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Incretinas , Compostos de Bifenilo , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucagon , Glucose , Humanos , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Receptores de Glucagon/uso terapêutico
8.
Diabetes ; 71(10): 2209-2221, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35796651

RESUMO

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) degrades the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). DPP-4 inhibitors improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, but the importance of protecting GIP from degradation for their clinical effects is unknown. We included 12 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean ± SD BMI 27 ± 2.6 kg/m2, HbA1c 7.1 ± 1.4% [54 ± 15 mmol/mol]) in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to investigate the contribution of endogenous GIP to the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. Participants underwent two randomized, 13-day treatment courses of sitagliptin (100 mg/day) and placebo, respectively. At the end of each treatment period, we performed two mixed-meal tests with infusion of the GIP receptor antagonist GIP(3-30)NH2 (1,200 pmol/kg/min) or saline placebo. Sitagliptin lowered mean fasting plasma glucose by 1.1 mmol/L compared with placebo treatment. During placebo treatment, postprandial glucose excursions were increased during GIP(3-30)NH2 compared with saline (difference in area under the curve ± SEM 7.3 ± 2.8%) but were unchanged during sitagliptin treatment. Endogenous GIP improved ß-cell function by 37 ± 12% during DPP-4 inhibition by sitagliptin. This was determined by the insulin secretion rate/plasma glucose ratio. We calculated an estimate of the absolute sitagliptin-mediated impact of GIP on ß-cell function as the insulinogenic index during sitagliptin treatment plus saline infusion minus the insulinogenic index during sitagliptin plus GIP(3-30)NH2. This estimate was expressed relative to the maximal potential contribution of GIP to the effect of sitagliptin (100%), defined as the difference between the full sitagliptin treatment effect, including actions mediated by GIP (sitagliptin + saline), and the physiological response minus any contribution by GIP [placebo treatment + GIP(3-30)NH2]. We demonstrate insulinotropic and glucose-lowering effects of endogenous GIP in patients with type 2 diabetes and that endogenous GIP contributes to the improved ß-cell function observed during DPP-4 inhibition.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4 , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Incretinas/metabolismo , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/farmacologia , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico
9.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775631

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic fat content in obese individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a double-blind, parallel-group trial, 37 obese, non-diabetic individuals were randomized to placebo or curcumin treatment for 6 weeks. Curcumin was dosed as lecithin-formulated tablet; 200 mg twice daily. The primary endpoint was hepatic fat content as assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Other endpoints included anthropometric measurements, hepatic biomarkers including FibroScan measurements, metabolic variables, inflammation markers, appetite measures and ad libitum food intake. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics (mean ± SD) were age 46 ± 14 years, hepatic fat content 12.2% ± 8.8% points, body mass index 38.8 ± 6.1 kg/m2 and waist circumference 125.8 ± 12.3 cm. After 6 weeks of treatment with curcumin, hepatic fat content was changed by -0.86% points (95% CI -3.65; 1.94) compared with 0.71% points (95% CI - 2.08; 3.51) with placebo, thus resulting in a non-significant estimated treatment difference of -1.57% points (95% CI -5.36; 2.22, P = .412). Compared with placebo, curcumin treatment caused small reductions in fasting plasma glucose (estimated treatment difference [ETD] - 0.24 mmol/L [95% CI -0.45; -0.03]), triglycerides (ETD [percentage change] -20.22% [95% CI -33.21; -6.03]) and gamma glutamyltransferase (ETD [percentage change] -15.70% [95% CI -23.32; -7.32]), but except for gamma glutamyltransferase, none of these differences remained statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Treatment was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, curcumin treatment for 6 weeks had no significant effect on MRS-assessed hepatic fat content in obese individuals with primarily mild steatosis. Curcumin was well tolerated.

10.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 323(3): E207-E214, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830690

RESUMO

Amino acids stimulate the secretion of glucagon, and glucagon receptor signaling regulates amino acid catabolism via ureagenesis, together constituting the liver-α cell axis. Impairment of the liver-α cell axis is observed in metabolic diseases such as diabetes. It is, however, unknown whether glucose affects the liver-α cell axis. We investigated the role of glucose on the liver-α cell axis in vivo and ex vivo. The isolated perfused mouse pancreas was used to evaluate the direct effect of low (3.5 mmol/L) and high (15 mmol/L) glucose levels on amino acid (10 mmol/L arginine)-induced glucagon secretion. High glucose levels alone lowered glucagon secretion, but the amino acid-induced glucagon responses were similar in high and low glucose conditions (P = 0.38). The direct effect of glucose on glucagon and amino acid-induced ureagenesis was assessed using isolated perfused mouse livers stimulated with a mixture of amino acids (VaminR, 10 mmol/L) and glucagon (10 nmol/L) during high and low glucose conditions. Urea production increased robustly but was independent of glucose levels (P = 0.95). To investigate the whole body effects of glucose on the liver-α cell axis, four groups of mice received intraperitoneal injections of glucose-Vamin (2 g/kg, + 3.5 µmol/g, respectively, G/V), saline-Vamin (S/V), glucose-saline (G/S), or saline-saline (S/S). Blood glucose did not differ significantly between G/S and G/V groups. Levels of glucagon and amino acids were similar in the G/V and S/V groups (P = 0.28). Amino acids may overrule the inhibitory effect of glucose on glucagon secretion and the liver-α cell axis may operate independently of glucose in mice.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Glucagon is an essential regulator of our metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that the physiological actions of glucagon reside in amino acid catabolism in the so-called liver-α cell axis, in which amino acids stimulate glucagon secretion and glucagon enhances hepatic amino acid catabolism. Here, it is demonstrated that this feedback system is independent of glycemia possibly explaining why hyperglycemia in diabetes may not suppress α cell secretion.


Assuntos
Arginina , Glicemia , Células Secretoras de Glucagon , Glucagon , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Células Secretoras de Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina , Camundongos , Ureia
11.
Diabetes ; 71(9): 1852-1861, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35657688

RESUMO

Glucagon and insulin are the main regulators of blood glucose. While the actions of insulin are extensively mapped, less is known about glucagon. Besides glucagon's role in glucose homeostasis, there are additional links between the pancreatic α-cells and the hepatocytes, often collectively referred to as the liver-α-cell axis, that may be of importance for health and disease. Thus, glucagon receptor antagonism (pharmacological or genetic), which disrupts the liver-α-cell axis, results not only in lower fasting glucose but also in reduced amino acid turnover and dyslipidemia. Here, we review the actions of glucagon on glucose homeostasis, amino acid catabolism, and lipid metabolism in the context of the liver-α-cell axis. The concept of glucagon resistance is also discussed, and we argue that the various elements of the liver-α-cell axis may be differentially affected in metabolic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This conceptual rethinking of glucagon biology may explain why patients with type 2 diabetes have hyperglucagonemia and how NAFLD disrupts the liver-α-cell axis, compromising the normal glucagon-mediated enhancement of substrate-induced amino acid turnover and possibly fatty acid ß-oxidation. In contrast to amino acid catabolism, glucagon-induced glucose production may not be affected by NAFLD, explaining the diabetogenic effect of NAFLD-associated hyperglucagonemia. Consideration of the liver-α-cell axis is essential to understanding the complex pathophysiology underlying diabetes and other metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo
12.
Physiol Behav ; 254: 113890, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35750246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors like time of eating and stress exposure may impact physiology to promote excess weight gain. To understand behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying these potential effects, we compared appetite and gut hormone responses to a series of meal and stress challenges beginning in the morning and the afternoon, in adults with normal-weight and obesity. METHOD: Thirty-two adults (16 with normal-weight, 16 with obesity) underwent the same test protocol on different days, each following an 8 h fast. On one day the protocol began in the morning (AM condition); on the other day it began in the late afternoon (PM condition). On each day they first received a standardized liquid meal (9:00am/4:00pm), then a stress test (Socially-Evaluated Cold Pressor Test, 11:10am/6:10pm), then an ad libitum buffet meal (11:40am/6:40pm). Appetite and stress ratings were obtained, and blood was drawn for measures of ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, insulin, glucose, cortisol and leptin. Acetaminophen was administered as a tracer to assess gastric emptying of the liquid meal. RESULTS: Across all three challenges, AUC cortisol was lower in the PM vs. AM condition (all p<.001), and AUC insulin and leptin were higher in the obesity vs. normal-weight group (all p<.001). For the standardized liquid meal only, AUC hunger, desire to eat and ghrelin were greater in the PM vs. AM condition (all p<0.05), and AUC ghrelin was lower in the obesity vs. normal-weight group, even when controlling for baseline values (p<0.05). AUC glucose was higher in the evening for the normal-weight group only (condition x group interaction p<0.05). Post-liquid meal gastric emptying as indexed by AUC acetaminophen was slower in the PM vs. AM (p<.01). For the stress test, AUC cortisol was lower in the PM than the AM condition even when controlling for baseline values (p<.05). AUC leptin was lower in the evening in the obesity group only (condition x group interaction p<0.01). PYY showed an acute decrease post-stressor in the normal-weight but not the obesity group (p<.05). Post-stress ad libitum buffet meal intake was similar in the evening and morning conditions, and higher in the obesity group (p<0.05). Only among the obesity group in the evening condition, higher stressor-associated stress and cortisol were associated with greater meal-associated appetite (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Normal-weight individuals and those with obesity may be at risk of evening overeating as a result of differential appetite and gut hormone responses following meal intake and stress exposure.


Assuntos
Apetite , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Acetaminofen , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Ingestão de Energia , Grelina , Glucose , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Insulina , Leptina , Obesidade , Período Pós-Prandial
13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(10): 2017-2026, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676803

RESUMO

AIMS: Sacubitril/valsartan is a neprilysin-inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker used for the treatment of heart failure. Recently, a post-hoc analysis of a 3-year randomized controlled trial showed improved glycaemic control with sacubitril/valsartan in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes. We previously reported that sacubitril/valsartan combined with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor increases active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in healthy individuals. We now hypothesized that administration of sacubitril/valsartan with or without a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor would lower postprandial glucose concentrations (primary outcome) in patients with type 2 diabetes via increased active GLP-1. METHODS: We performed a crossover trial in 12 patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A mixed meal was ingested following five respective interventions: (a) a single dose of sacubitril/valsartan; (b) sitagliptin; (c) sacubitril/valsartan + sitagliptin; (d) control (no treatment); and (e) valsartan alone. Glucose, gut and pancreatic hormone responses were measured. RESULTS: Postprandial plasma glucose increased by 57% (incremental area under the curve 0-240 min) (p = .0003) and increased peak plasma glucose by 1.7 mM (95% CI: 0.6-2.9) (p = .003) after sacubitril/valsartan compared with control, whereas postprandial glucose levels did not change significantly after sacubitril/valsartan + sitagliptin. Glucagon, GLP-1 and C-peptide concentrations increased after sacubitril/valsartan, but insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide did not change. CONCLUSIONS: The glucose-lowering effects of long-term sacubitril/valsartan treatment reported in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes may not depend on changes in entero-pancreatic hormones. Neprilysin inhibition results in hyperglucagonaemia and this may explain the worsen glucose tolerance observed in this study. CLINICALTRIALS: gov (NCT03893526).


Assuntos
Aminobutiratos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Compostos de Bifenilo , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipoglicemiantes , Neprilisina , Valsartana , Idoso , Aminobutiratos/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neprilisina/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/uso terapêutico , Tetrazóis/uso terapêutico , Valsartana/uso terapêutico
14.
Front Nutr ; 9: 889710, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571890

RESUMO

Background and aims: The metabolic consequences after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) are often studied using a liquid mixed meal. However, liquid meals may not be representative of the patients' everyday diet. We therefore examined postprandial glucose and gut hormone responses using mixed meals differing only with respect to meal texture. Methods: Twelve RYGB-operated, 12 SG-operated, and 12 unoperated individuals (controls) were enrolled in the study. Participants were matched on age, sex, and body mass index. In randomized order, each participant underwent a liquid and a solid 4-h mixed meal test on separate days. The meals were isocaloric (309 kcal), and with identical macronutrient composition (47 E% carbohydrate, 18 E% protein, 32 E% fat, and 3 E% dietary fibers). The liquid meal was blended to create a smooth liquid texture while the other meal retained its solid components. Results: Postprandial glucose concentrations (peak and incremental area under curve, iAUC) did not differ between the two meal textures in any group. In the control group, peak C-peptide was higher after the liquid meal compared with the solid meal (p = 0.04), whereas iAUCs of C-peptide were similar between the two meals in all groups. Peak of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was higher after the liquid meal compared with the solid meal in RYGB- and SG-operated individuals (RYGB p = 0.02; SG p < 0.01), but iAUC of GLP-1 did not differ between meal textures within any group. Peak of glucose-dependent insulin tropic polypeptide (GIP) was higher after the liquid meal in the SG and control groups (SG p = 0.02; controls p < 0.01), but iAUCs of GIP were equal between meals. There were no differences in total AUC of ghrelin between the liquid and solid meals within any of the groups. Conclusion: A liquid and a solid meal with identical macronutrient composition result in similar postprandial glucose responses, both in operated and unoperated individuals. Small differences were observed for the postprandial peaks of C-peptide, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations. Overall, a liquid meal is suitable for evaluating glucose tolerance, ß-cell function, and gut hormones responses, both after RYGB and SG and in unoperated individuals. Clinical Trial Registration: [www.clinicaltrials.gov], identifier [NCT04082923].

15.
J Pers Med ; 12(5)2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35629259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Established neuroendocrine signals do not sufficiently account for the exercise-induced increase in glucose production. Using an innovative, yet classical cross-circulation procedure, we studied whether contracting muscle produces a factor that directly stimulates hepatic glycogenolysis. METHODS: Isolated rat hindquarters were perfused in series with isolated livers. RESULTS: Stimulation of the sciatic nerve of one or both legs resulted in an increase in force, which rapidly waned. During one-legged contractions, hepatic glucose production increased initially (from -0.9 ± 0.5 (mean ± SE) to 3.3 ± 0.7 µmol/min, p < 0.05). The peak did not differ significantly from that seen after 20 nM of epinephrine (5.1 ± 1.2 µmol/min, p > 0.05). In response to two-legged contractions, the increase in hepatic glucose production (to 5.4 ± 1.3 µmol/min) was higher (p < 0.05) and lasted longer than that seen during one-legged contractions. During contractions, peak hepatic glucose output exceeded concomitant hepatic lactate uptake (p < 0.05), and glucose output decreased to basal levels, while lactate uptake rose to a plateau. Furthermore, in separate experiments an increase in lactate supply to isolated perfused livers increased lactate uptake, but not glucose output. In intact rats, intra-arterial injection of extract made from mixed leg muscle elicited a prolonged increase (p < 0.05) in plasma glucose concentration (from 5.2 ± 0.1 mM to 8.3 ± 1.5 mM). In perfused livers, muscle extract increased glucose output dose dependently. Fractionation by chromatography of the extract showed that the active substance had a MW below 2000. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that contracting skeletal muscle may produce a hormone with a MW below 2000, which enhances hepatic glycogenolysis according to energy needs. Further chemical characterization is warranted.

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 884501, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35600607

RESUMO

Purpose: Decreased circulating levels of food-intake-regulating gut hormones have been observed in type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, it is still unknown if this is due to decreased secretion from the gut mucosal cells or due to extra-intestinal processing of hormones. Methods: We measured intestinal hormone content and assessed morphological differences in the intestinal mucosa by histology and immunohistochemistry. Secretion of hormones and absorption of glucose and bile acids (BA) were assessed in isolated perfused mouse intestine. Results: GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and SS (somatostatin) contents were higher in the duodenum of control mice (p < 0.001, and <0.01). Duodenal GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) content (p < 0.01) and distal ileum PYY content were higher in DIO mice (p < 0.05). Villus height in the jejunum, crypt depth, and villus height in the ileum were increased in DIO mice (p < 0.05 and p = 0.001). In the distal ileum of DIO mice, more immunoreactive GLP-1 and PYY cells were observed (p = 0.01 and 0.007). There was no difference in the absorption of glucose and bile acids. Distal secretion of SS tended to be higher in DIO mice (p < 0.058), whereas no difference was observed for the other hormones in response to glucose or bile acids. Conclusion: Our data suggest that differences regarding production and secretion are unlikely to be responsible for the altered circulating gut hormone levels in obesity, since enteroendocrine morphology and hormone secretion capacity were largely unaffected in DIO mice.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Dieta , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Glucose , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia
17.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100582, 2022 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35492241

RESUMO

The gastric hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake and increases plasma glucose through activation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) has been proposed to inhibit actions of ghrelin through inverse effects on GHSR activity. Here, we investigate the effects of exogenous LEAP2 on postprandial glucose metabolism and ad libitum food intake in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of 20 healthy men. We report that LEAP2 infusion lowers postprandial plasma glucose and growth hormone concentrations and decreases food intake during an ad libitum meal test. In wild-type mice, plasma glucose and food intake are reduced by LEAP2 dosing, but not in GHSR-null mice, pointing to GHSR as a potential mediator of LEAP2's glucoregulatory and appetite-suppressing effects in mice.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Grelina , Glucose , Animais , Glicemia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Receptores de Grelina
18.
Hum Reprod ; 37(7): 1414-1422, 2022 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580859

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Does diet-induced weight loss improve semen parameters, and are these possible improvements maintained with sustained weight loss? SUMMARY ANSWER: An 8-week low-calorie diet-induced weight loss was associated with improved sperm concentration and sperm count, which were maintained after 1 year in men who maintained weight loss. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Obesity is associated with impaired semen quality. Weight loss improves metabolic health in obesity, but there is a lack of knowledge on the acute and long-term effects of weight loss on semen parameters. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This is a substudy of men with obesity enrolled in a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial (the S-LITE trial). The trial was conducted between August 2016 and November 2019. A total of 56 men were included in the study and assigned to an initial 8-week low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day) followed by randomization to 52 weeks of either: placebo and habitual activity (placebo), exercise training and placebo (exercise), the Glucagon Like Peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogue liraglutide and habitual activity (liraglutide) or liraglutide in combination with exercise training (combination). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Inclusion criteria were men who delivered semen samples, 18 to 65 years of age, and a body mass index between 32 and 43 kg/m2, but otherwise healthy. The study was carried out at Hvidovre Hospital and at the University of Copenhagen, and the participants were from the Greater Copenhagen Area. We assessed semen parameters and anthropometrics and collected blood samples before (T0), after the 8-week low-calorie dietary intervention (T1), and after 52 weeks (T2). MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The men lost on average 16.5 kg (95% CI: 15.2-17.8) body weight during the low-calorie diet, which increased sperm concentration 1.49-fold (95% CI: 1.18-1.88, P < 0.01) and sperm count 1.41-fold (95% CI: 1.07-1.87, P < 0.01). These improvements were maintained for 52 weeks in men who maintained the weight loss, but not in men who regained weight. Semen volume, sperm motility and motile sperm count did not change. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The S-LITE trial was a randomized controlled trial of weight loss maintenance. Analysis of semen was preregistered to explore the effects of weight loss and weight loss maintenance on semen parameters, but definite inferences cannot be made. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This study shows that sperm concentration and sperm count were improved after a diet-induced weight loss in men with obesity. Our findings indicate that either or both liraglutide and exercise as weight maintenance strategies may be used to maintain the improvements in sperm concentration and count. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work is supported by an excellence grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF16OC0019968), a Challenge Programme Grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF18OC0033754) and a grant from Helsefonden. The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research is an independent research centre at the University of Copenhagen, partially funded by an unrestricted donation from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (NNF18CC0034900). Saxenda (liraglutide) and placebo pens were provided by Novo Nordisk. Cambridge Weight Plan diet products for the 8-week low-calorie diet were provided by Cambridge Weight Plan. E.A.: shareholder, employee of ExSeed Health Ltd. Grant Recipient from ExSeed Health Ltd and listed on Patents planned, issued or pending with ExSeed Health Ltd; J.J.H.: consultant for Eli Lilly A/S and Novo Nordisk A/S. Lecture fees for Novo Nordisk A/S. Listed on Patents planned, issued or pending with the University of Copenhagen, Advocacy group for Antag Therapeutics and Bainan Biotech; S.M.: lecture fees for Novo Nordisk A/S. Recipient of Support for attending meetings from Novo Nordisk A/S. Advisory boards of Novo Nordisk A/S; Sanofi Aventis and Merck Sharp & Dohme. S.S.T.: research grant recipient Novo Nordisk. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: The trial was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (H-16027082) and the Danish Medicines Agency (EudraCT Number: 2015-005585-32). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier (NCT number): NCT04122716. TRIAL REGISTRATION DATE: 11 May 2016. DATE OF FIRST PATIENT'S ENROLMENT: August 2016.


Assuntos
Análise do Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Dieta Redutora , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Humanos , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/terapia , Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides , Redução de Peso
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 187(1): 75-84, 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521766

RESUMO

Objective: Incretins are known to influence lipid metabolism in the intestine when administered as pharmacologic agents. The aggregate influence of endogenous incretins on chylomicron production and clearance is less clear, particularly in light of opposing effects of co-secreted hormones. Here, we tested the hypothesis that physiological levels of incretins may impact on production or clearances rates of chylomicrons and VLDL. Design and methods: A group of 22 overweight/obese men was studied to determine associations between plasma levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1 and GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) after a fat-rich meal and the production and clearance rates of apoB48- and apoB100-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Subjects were stratified by above- and below-median incretin response (area under the curve). Results: Stratification yielded subgroups that differed about two-fold in incretin response. There were neither differences in apoB48 production rates in chylomicrons or VLDL fractions nor in apoB100 or triglyceride kinetics in VLDL between men with above- vs below-median incretin responses. The men with above-median GLP-1 and GLP-2 responses exhibited higher postprandial plasma and chylomicron triglyceride levels, but this could not be related to altered kinetic parameters. No differences were found between incretin response subgroups and particle clearance rates. Conclusion: We found no evidence for a regulatory effect of endogenous incretins on contemporaneous chylomicron or VLDL metabolism following a standardised fat-rich meal. The actions of incretins at pharmacological doses may not be reflected at physiological levels of these hormones.


Assuntos
Incretinas , Período Pós-Prandial , Apolipoproteína B-48/metabolismo , Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Masculino , Triglicerídeos
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