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1.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most patients with bipolar disorders (BD) exhibit prodromal symptoms before a first (hypo)manic episode. Patients with clinically significant symptoms fulfilling at-risk criteria for serious mental illness (SMI) require effective and safe treatment. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy (CBT) has shown promising results in early stages of BD and in patients at high risk for psychosis. We aimed to investigate whether group CBT can improve symptoms and functional deficits in young patients at risk for SMI presenting with subthreshold bipolar symptoms. METHOD: In a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial, patients at clinical risk for SMI presenting with subthreshold bipolar symptoms aged 15-30 years were randomized to 14 weeks of at-risk for BD-specific group CBT or unstructured group meetings. Primary efficacy endpoints were differences in affective symptomatology and psychosocial functioning at 14 weeks. At-risk status was defined as a combination of subthreshold bipolar symptomatology, reduction of psychosocial functioning and a family history for (schizo)affective disorders. A prespecified interim analysis was conducted at 75% of the targeted sample. RESULTS: Of 128 screened participants, 75 were randomized to group CBT (n = 38, completers = 65.8%) vs unstructured group meetings (n = 37, completers = 78.4%). Affective symptomatology and psychosocial functioning improved significantly at week 14 (P < .001) and during 6 months (P < .001) in both groups, without significant between-group differences. Findings are limited by the interim character of the analysis, the use of not fully validated early detection interviews, a newly adapted intervention manual, and the substantial drop-outs. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that young patients at-risk for SMI presenting with subthreshold bipolar symptoms benefit from early group sessions. The degree of specificity and psychotherapeutic interaction needed requires clarification.

2.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208050

RESUMO

Substance-related disorders in adolescence and young adulthood Abstract. Adolescence is a critical period for the onset of addiction and comorbid psychological disorders. Although substance use disorders (SUD) are among the most prevalent psychiatric conditions and a leading cause for hospitalization in the young population, young people with SUD can be considered an underserved population. Existing capacities for the provision of specific health services including withdrawal treatment for young SUD patients are inadequate, and medical rehabilitation facilities are lacking almost completely. Because SUD often becomes a chronic condition with high degree of relapse, from a life-course perspective this demands a highly connected healthcare structure at the intersection of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry as well as other health services. These interconnected services must be sensitive to the developmental needs and aspects of adolescent SUD, such as motivational, social, and educational factors. Moreover, there is a need for ongoing and often multidisciplinary support during the transition from child and adolescent to adult psychiatry with a transparent medical documentation and clear allocation of costs. The establishment and formative evaluation of (specific) medical rehabilitation facilities for children, adolescents, and young adults is highly recommended to improve the current healthcare situation for young SUD patients.

3.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162593

RESUMO

Gender identities in transition Abstract. In recent years, the healthcare system has been confronted with an increasing number of children and adolescents with gender nonconformity, gender incongruence, and gender dysphoria. Medical professionals are still debating how to interpret this phenomenon and how best to meet the healthcare needs of this diverse group of young people. Meanwhile, the transgender and gender nonconforming youths themselves face enormous challenges in finding appropriate support and treatment in the mental healthcare system. This article reviews the available epidemiological data, the paradigm shift in the social, legal, and medical systems, the developments in diagnostic classifications (DSM-5, ICD-11) as well as important aspects of the AWMF S3 guideline for adults with gender incongruence and gender dysphoria. In addition, it describes the complexity of working with transgender, gender nonconforming, and gender-questioning youth in the context of the current discourse and the underlying ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, this article outlines the challenges facing child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy in this complex environment.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Identidade de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Transexualismo/psicologia , Transexualismo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Humanos , Psicoterapia
5.
Trials ; 21(1): 56, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at preschool age. Early detection of children with ADHD symptoms and an early, age-appropriate treatment are needed in order to reduce symptoms, prevent secondary problems and enable a better school start. Despite existing ADHD treatment research and guideline recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in preschool children, there is still a need to optimise individualised treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes. Therefore, the ESCApreschool study (Evidence-Based, Stepped Care of ADHD in Preschool Children aged 3 years and 0 months to 6 years and 11 months of age (3;0 to 6;11 years) addresses the treatment of 3-6-year-old preschool children with elevated ADHD symptoms within a large multicentre trial. The study aims to investigate the efficacy of an individualised stepwise-intensifying treatment programme. METHODS: The target sample size of ESCApreschool is 200 children (boys and girls) aged 3;0 to 6;11 years with an ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) or a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) plus additional substantial ADHD symptoms. The first step of the adaptive, stepped care design used in ESCApreschool consists of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents. Participants are randomised to either the TASH group or a waiting control group. The treatment in step 2 depends on the outcome of step 1: TASH responders without significant residual ADHD/ODD symptoms receive booster sessions of TASH. Partial or non-responders of step 1 are randomised again to either parent management and preschool teacher training or treatment as usual. DISCUSSION: The ESCApreschool trial aims to improve knowledge about individualised treatment strategies for preschool children with ADHD following an adaptive stepped care approach, and to provide a scientific basis for individualised medicine for preschool children with ADHD in routine clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) as a Current Controlled Trial under DRKS00008971 on 1 October 2015. This manuscript is based on protocol version 3 (14 October 2016).

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807943

RESUMO

ADHD often affects multiple generations in a family. Previous studies suggested that children with ADHD benefit less from therapy if parents are also affected, since ADHD symptoms interfere with treatment implementation. This two-group randomised controlled trial examined whether targeting maternal ADHD boosts the efficacy of parent-child training (PCT) for the child's ADHD. Here, we report follow-up results 2 years from baseline. Mothers of 144 mother-child dyads (ADHD according to DSM-IV) were examined for eligibility (T1) and randomised to 12 weeks of intensive multimodal treatment comprising pharmacotherapy and DBT-based cognitive behavioural group psychotherapy (TG, n = 77) or clinical management comprising non-specific counselling (CG, n = 67) for Step 1 (concluded by T2). Subsequently, all dyads participated in 12 weekly PCT sessions for Step 2 (concluded by T3). In Step 3, participants received maintenance treatments for 6 months (concluded by T4). At 24 months after baseline (T5), we performed follow-up assessments. The primary endpoint was child ADHD/ODD score (observer blind rating). Outcomes at T5 were evaluated using ANCOVA. Assessments from 101 children and 95 mothers were available at T5. Adjusted means (m) of ADHD/ODD symptoms (range 0-26) in children did not differ between TG and CG (mean difference = 1.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.1). The maternal advantage of TG over CG on the CAARS-O:L ADHD index (range 0-36) disappeared at T5 (mean difference = 0.2; 95% CI - 2.3 to 2.6). Sensitivity analyses controlling for medication and significant predictors of follow-up participation showed unchanged outcomes. Within-group outcomes remained improved from baseline. At the 24-month follow-up, TG and CG converged. The superiority of intensive treatment regarding maternal symptoms disappeared. In general, cross-generational treatment seems to be effective in the long term. (BMBF grant 01GV0605; registration ISRCTN73911400).

7.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(7): 639-653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711401

RESUMO

Shame and Compassion: Potential Mechanisms Behind Bullying and Depressive Symptoms With a prevalence of 11 % depression is a relevant topic for child- and adolescent-psychiatry. Different factors play a role in genesis and maintenance of depressive symptoms. Shame-proneness and experience with bullying are discussed as reinforcing factors. On the other hand self-compassion is considered to be a protective factor. In this study it is analyzed, whether shame-proneness and self-compassion moderate the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Data of depressive adolescent in-patients (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 19) is analyzed. It could be shown that high shame-proneness reinforces the influence of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. General self-compassion has no moderating influence. However, self-kindness is a protective factor against the negative impact of bully-experience on depressive symptoms. Results are discussed regarding their relevance for therapy and prevention.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Empatia , Fatores de Proteção , Vergonha , Adolescente , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Humanos
8.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(11): 629-633, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756745

RESUMO

Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable age for the first manifestation of psychoses due to the brain maturation process and especially with additional stress factors and these have negative psychosocial consequences for the affected persons and their relatives. The disadvantages of an early onset of the disease can be partially compensated for by high-quality early diagnosis and early treatment, taking into account transitional medical approaches. In order to promote a successful transition of adolescent patients with psychoses, there are practical recommendations for the establishment of community-based, flexible and follow-up early diagnosis and treatment networks in which employees work together across diagnosis, age, discipline, and setting, enabling a structured, comprehensive, patient-oriented and flexible successful transition.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico Precoce , Transferência de Pacientes , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777487

RESUMO

The Development of Medication and Psychotherapy from 1952 to 1957 in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics Weissenau and Gütersloh Abstract. OBJECTIVE: As a result of recent discussions concerning the misuse of medication in children in postwar Germany, the paper analyzes the treatment methods, especially psychopharmacotherapy, as well as therapeutic approaches employed in two German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals (Weissenau and Guetersloh). We investigated the progression of prescription and the administration of psychotropic and experimental drugs between 1952 and 1957. METHODS: In total, 966 health records were extensively studied for the time period in question. RESULTS: The use of psychotropic drugs was similar in both hospitals, yet even at that time the use of already established psychotropic drugs differed depending on the concept. Medication-induced fever and shock therapy via insulin were still in use in 1957. Occasionally, initial concepts of a therapeutic treatment approach were observed. Both institutions administered experimental drugs, albeit not in systematic clinical trials. CONCLUSION: The varying methods of treatment and medication strategies reflect the different setup and concept of the respective hospitals. Indications of dangerous medication trials were not detected.

10.
Trials ; 19(1): 706, 2018 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD) have had only limited success. In recent years, research has underlined the role of self-regulatory processes and impulsivity in the development and maintenance of SUD in adolescents. Mindfulness has gained much attention due to its capacity to influence self-regulatory processes, particularly in adult populations. Initial studies have shown the potential of mindfulness-based approaches in younger SUD patients. The aim of the present clinical trial is to evaluate the added treatment effect of a mindfulness-based group psychotherapy ("Mind it!") for adolescents with SUD in comparison to the current standard treatment. Moreover, we seek to explore the feasibility of the intervention and possible mediators of treatment effects. METHODS/DESIGN: There will be N = 340 participants aged between 13 and 19 years who are receiving child or adolescent psychiatric or psychotherapeutic inpatient or day treatment targeting their SUD and who have reported substance use 30 days before detoxification and do not show acute psychotic or suicidal symptoms at baseline. The study is a prospective randomized controlled multi-center trial in which patients are assessed: (1) after completing a prior detoxification phase (t0), (2) at 4 weeks (t1), (3) at 8 weeks (t2), and (4) at 6 months after t2 (t3). Participants in the intervention group will receive mindfulness-based group psychotherapy in addition to their existing treatment regime. The primary outcome is substance use in the past 30 days at follow-up based on the Timeline Followback self-report. Secondary outcomes include craving, severity of dependence, and abstinence motivation. Mindfulness, impulsivity, and emotion regulation will be analyzed as possible mediators of treatment effects. DISCUSSION: This trial is expected to provide evidence of the added effect of a novel, safe, and feasible treatment option for adolescents with SUD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Register of Clinical Studies, DRKS00014041 . Registered on 17 April 2018.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Atenção Plena , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Trials ; 19(1): 568, 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are among the most prominent health problems in youth. Even with the best available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, remission rates are low. Without early treatment, depression in youth is associated with a high risk of symptom progression, chronicity, co-morbidity, and suicidal behavior. Thus, adolescent depression is a prime candidate for innovation in treatment. In depressive adults, meta-analytic evidence has proven that bright light therapy (BLT) is a potent low-threshold intervention, promising due to easy application, low side effects, and optimized compliance. In adolescents, studies with small samples show promising effects. This randomized controlled trial will examine the effectiveness of BLT in youth inpatients. METHODS/DESIGN: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind multicenter parallel group trial, morning BLT is applied for four weeks in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) for depressed youth inpatients (daily morning exposure to bright light via light-emitting glasses, 10,000 lx, for 30 min) and will be compared to a control condition (placebo light treatment, red light, identical light glasses). The primary objective is to assess whether BLT reduces symptoms of depression in youth with greater effect compared to placebo light therapy. Secondary objectives are to examine the impact of BLT on responder status, application of antidepressant medication, and further depression-related symptoms (sleep, activity, quality of life, satisfaction with health, general psychopathology, alertness, and circadian function). N = 224 patients will be recruited in a naturalistic inpatient setting. A follow-up will be carried out after three and six months. DISCUSSION: The study aims to discuss and evaluate BLT as an additive method supporting standardized clinical procedures dealing with severe to moderate depressive symptoms in youth. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS00013188 . Registered on November 30, 2017.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Fototerapia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adolescente , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother ; 46(5): 423-429, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30015544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bright light therapy (BLT) has recently come into increasing focus in the treatment of adolescent depression, whereby light glasses today appear to be more feasible than light therapy boxes. This study investigated the feasibility and efficacy of 4 weeks of BLT with light glasses. It also analyzed whether a treatment duration of 4 weeks of BLT yields larger effects than the 2 weeks of BLT investigated in previous studies. METHODS: This first open-label, single-arm, prospective clinical trial pursued a naturalistic approach: 39 inpatients aged 12-18 years with moderate or severe depression received 4 weeks of morning BLT with light glasses in addition to usual treatment. Depressive symptoms, sleep problems, circadian phase, and the clinical global impression were assessed at several timepoints. In a second analysis, the data of the present study were compared to those from a previous pilot trial. RESULTS: Depressive symptoms, sleep problems, and the global clinical impression improved significantly after BLT with light glasses, whereas the circadian phase did not change over time. Light glasses showed similarly positive effects on sleep parameters and depressive symptoms as light boxes. Contrary to expectation, prolonging BLT to 4 weeks did not yield larger effects on depressive symptoms and sleep complaints compared to 2 weeks of intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Light glasses seem to be a feasible and highly acceptable method for the treatment of adolescent depression. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to obtain sufficient evidence regarding the efficacy of BLT as an add-on intervention to psychological and pharmacological approaches for adolescent depression.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Óculos , Hospitalização , Fototerapia/instrumentação , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Ritmo Circadiano , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nutr Res ; 52: 39-47, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764626

RESUMO

Vitamin D (vitD) is involved in immune regulation, and its receptor has been identified in several tissues including lung, adipose tissue, brain, and skin. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that vitD has an essential role not only in bone metabolism but also in other diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD), bronchial asthma (BA), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and obesity because the affected tissues express vitD receptors. Furthermore, obesity, AD, and BA are regarded as inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we hypothesized that vitD concentrations are lower in children with AD, BA, ADHD, and obesity compared to healthy children. We measured 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in 235 children (60% boys, age 9.3±1.7years) with obesity, BA, AD, or ADHD and compared them to those of 3352 children from a healthy population. Additionally, parathyroid hormone was measured in the children with obesity, ADHD, BA, and AD. VitD concentrations were not lower in children with obesity, ADHD, BA, and AD compared to healthy children. In multiple regression analyses adjusted to migration background, time period of blood sample, age, and sex, VitD levels correlated significantly with the severity of AD measured by SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index and attention deficit measured by Conners questionnaire in ADHD. VitD levels were not linked to hyperactivity in ADHD, the severity of BA measured as forced expiration volume in the first second, or body mass index standard deviation score. Parathyroid hormone was not associated with the activity of any analyzed disease. In conclusion, most of our findings do not support the hypothesis that vitD is involved in the pathogenesis of these entities.


Assuntos
Asma/sangue , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Asma/etiologia , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/etiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/sangue , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Trials ; 19(1): 254, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29703226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the high persistence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) throughout the lifespan, there is a considerable gap in knowledge regarding effective treatment strategies for adolescents with ADHD. This group in particular often shows substantial psychosocial impairment, low compliance and insufficient response to psychopharmacological interventions. Effective and feasible treatments should further consider the developmental shift in ADHD symptoms, comorbidity and psychosocial adversity as well as family dysfunction. Thus, individualised interventions for adolescent ADHD should comprise a multimodal treatment strategy. The randomised controlled ESCAadol study addresses the needs of this patient group and compares the outcome of short-term cognitive behavioural therapy with parent-based telephone-assisted self-help. METHODS/DESIGN: In step 1, 160 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD will undergo a treatment as usual (TAU) observation phase of 1 month. In step 2, those still severely affected are randomised to the intervention group with an Individualised Modular Treatment Programme (IMTP) or a telephone-assisted self-help programme for parents (TASH) as an active control condition. The IMTP was specifically designed for the needs of adolescent ADHD. It comprises 10 sessions of individual cognitive behavioural therapy with the adolescents and/or the parents, for which participants choose three out of 10 available focus modules (e.g. organisational skills and planning, emotion regulation, problem solving and stress management, dysfunctional family communication). TASH combines a bibliotherapeutic component with 10 counselling sessions for the parents via telephone. Primary outcome is the change in ADHD symptoms in a clinician-rated diagnostic interview. Outcomes are assessed at inclusion into the study, after the TAU phase, after the intervention phase and after a further 12-week follow-up period. The primary statistical analysis will be by intention-to-treat, using linear regression models. Additionally, we will analyse psychometric and biological predictors and moderators of treatment response. DISCUSSION: ESCAadol compares two short-term non-pharmacological interventions as cost-efficient and feasible treatment options for adolescent ADHD, addressing the specific needs and obstacles to treatment success in this group. We aim to contribute to personalised medicine for adolescent ADHD intended to be implemented in routine clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS), Current Controlled Trial DRKS00008974, http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial2.aspx?TrialID=DRKS00008974 ; http://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00008974 ; Registered on 28 December 2015.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Comportamento Infantil , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Psicoterapia Breve/métodos , Autocuidado , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Aconselhamento/métodos , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pais/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Telefone , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 27(10): 1261-1281, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435654

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with significant impairments in social, educational, and occupational functioning, as well as specific strengths. Currently, there is no internationally accepted standard to assess the functioning of individuals with ADHD. WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-child and youth version (ICF) can serve as a conceptual basis for such a standard. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive, a common brief, and three age-appropriate brief ICF Core Sets for ADHD. Using a standardised methodology, four international preparatory studies generated 132 second-level ICF candidate categories that served as the basis for developing ADHD Core Sets. Using these categories and following an iterative consensus process, 20 ADHD experts from nine professional disciplines and representing all six WHO regions selected the most relevant categories to constitute the ADHD Core Sets. The consensus process resulted in 72 second-level ICF categories forming the comprehensive ICF Core Set-these represented 8 body functions, 35 activities and participation, and 29 environmental categories. A Common Brief Core Set that included 38 categories was also defined. Age-specific brief Core Sets included a 47 category preschool version for 0-5 years old, a 55 category school-age version for 6-16 years old, and a 52 category version for older adolescents and adults 17 years old and above. The ICF Core Sets for ADHD mark a milestone toward an internationally standardised functional assessment of ADHD across the lifespan, and across educational, administrative, clinical, and research settings.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Classificação Internacional de Funcionalidade, Incapacidade e Saúde/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consenso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
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