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1.
Prague Med Rep ; 122(3): 212-215, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606433

RESUMO

A fatal case of 67-year-old female with metastatic breast cancer on chemotherapy complicated with febrile neutropenia, colitis and sepsis due to Clostridium septicum is presented. Important clinical symptoms, laboratory and radiology findings together with therapy and outcome of neuropenic colitis are also discussed.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Neoplasias da Mama , Infecções por Clostridium , Clostridium septicum , Colite , Idoso , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/complicações , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos
2.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 160(4): 139-142, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416816

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (SAB) bacteremia is very serious and often fatal infection with the high incidence and lethality. Diagnosis of SAB must be followed by an appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic process. From the point of view of proper SAB management, it is essential to find the primary source of infection, which can be skin and soft tissue infections, catheter infections, infectious endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia or abscesses with hematogenous spread. After the SAB has been identified, it is crucial to determine the appropriate examination and treatment procedure in close collaboration with an infectious disease specialist, clinical microbiologist and clinical pharmacist.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Prague Med Rep ; 122(2): 96-105, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137685

RESUMO

In our study we present an overview of the use of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing technology on the background of Enteric fever. Unlike traditional methods (e.g., qPCR, serological tests), the nanopore sequencing technology enables virtually real-time data generation and highly accurate pathogen identification and characterization. Blood cultures were obtained from a 48-year-old female patient suffering from a high fever, headache and diarrhea. Nevertheless, both the initial serological tests and stool culture appeared to be negative. Therefore, the bacterial isolate from blood culture was used for nanopore sequencing (ONT). This technique in combination with subsequent bioinformatic analyses allowed for prompt identification of the disease-causative agent as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi A. The National Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (NIPH) independently reported this isolate also as serovar Paratyphi A on the basis of results of biochemical and agglutination tests. Therefore, our results are in concordance with certified standards. Furthermore, the data enabled us to assess some basic questions concerning the comparative genomics, i.e., to describe whether the isolated strain differs from the formerly published ones or not. Quite surprisingly, these results indicate that we have detected a novel and so far, unknown variety of this bacteria.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento por Nanoporos , Febre Tifoide , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella , Salmonella paratyphi A/genética
4.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 159(5): 175-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297703

RESUMO

One of the available treatment alternatives for COVID-19 is the administration of convalescent plasma (CP), blood plasma obtained from people who have undergone the disease. Administration of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma is a method of passive specific immunization with an expected therapeutic response. CP can also be used for production a specific immunoglobulin. Experience from previous epidemic infections, caused by the coronaviruses SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, shows that CP contains neutralizing antibodies against the virus, which are probably the main source of its therapeutic potential. However, other immune mechanisms cannot be ruled out, such as antibody-induced cellular cytotoxicity and/or phagocytosis. The use of CP for the treatment of COVID-19 spread during the first half of year 2020 in many countries worldwide and relatively common is also in the Czech Republic, where, at the end of August 2020, about 100 patients were treated with CP. The production and use of CP is governed by the national multidisciplinary guidelines from April 2020 and the recommended therapeutic dose are 2 TU RP (400-450 mL), resp. 4-6 mL/kg. CP is indicated mainly in severe cases of COVID-19, which require oxygen support, ideally within 2-3 days after diagnosis, but our and foreign experience shows a beneficial effect of CP even in moderately severe cases that do not need oxygen treatment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , República Tcheca , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pandemias , Plasma , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 159(5): 181-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297704

RESUMO

70-year-old high-risk patient with severe course of COVID-19 hospitalized for progressive dyspnea due to extensive bilateral pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2. The patient was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin from day one of hospital stay. Because of progression on the therapy, the convalescent plasma was administered on day three of hospitalization. The patient subsequently improved and was discharged home on day eleven of the hospital stay. Risk factors of severe course of the infection, complications and potential therapies of COVID-19 are discussed.


Assuntos
Antivirais , COVID-19 , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/terapia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Terapias em Estudo
6.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2020: 5640960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047574

RESUMO

Objectives: Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is controlled by HSV-specific T cells in the genital tract, and the role of systemic T cell responses is not fully understood. Thus, we analysed T cell responses in patients with recurrent genital herpes (GH). Methods: T cell responses to HSV-1 and HSV-2 native antigens and the expression of HLA-DR and CD38 molecules on circulating CD8+ T cells were analysed in adults with high frequency of GH recurrences (19 patients) and low frequency of GH recurrences (7 patients) and 12 HSV-2 seronegative healthy controls. The study utilized the interferon-γ Elispot assay for measurement of spot-forming cells (SFC) after ex vivo stimulation with HSV antigens and flow cytometry for analysis of the expression of activation markers in unstimulated T cells. Results: The patients with high frequency of GH recurrences (mean number of recurrences of 13.3 per year) had significantly enhanced HSV-specific T cell responses than the HSV-2 seronegative healthy controls. Moreover, a trend of higher numbers of SFC was observed in these patients when compared with those with low frequency of GH recurrences (mean number of recurrences of 3.3 per year). Additionally, no differences in CD38 and HLA-DR expression on circulating CD8+ T cells were found among the study groups. Conclusions: Frequency of GH recurrences positively correlates with high numbers of systemic HSV-specific T cells.

7.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 6985703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582902

RESUMO

Pancreatic tumors and their surgical resection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and the biomarkers currently used for these conditions have limited sensitivity and specificity. Because calprotectin and calgranulin C serum levels have been demonstrated to be potential biomarkers of certain cancers and complications of major surgery, the levels of both proteins were tested in the current study in patients with benign and malignant pancreatic tumors that were surgically removed. The baseline serum levels and kinetics of calprotectin and calgranulin C during the 7-day postoperative period were evaluated with immunoassays in 98 adult patients who underwent pancreatic surgery. The baseline serum levels of calprotectin and calgranulin C in patients with malignant (n = 84) and benign tumors (n = 14) were significantly higher (p < 0.01) when compared to those in the healthy controls (n = 26). The serum levels of both proteins were also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in patients with benign tumors than in those with malignant tumors. After surgery, the serum levels of calprotectin and calgranulin C were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than their baseline values, and this elevation persisted throughout the seven days of the follow-up period. Interestingly, starting on day 1 of the postoperative period, the serum levels of both proteins were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the 37 patients who developed postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPFs) than in the patients who had uneventful recoveries (n = 61). Moreover, the serum levels of calprotectin and calgranulin C demonstrated a significant predictive value for the development of POPF; the predictive values of these two proteins were better than those of the serum level of C-reactive protein and the white blood cell count. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that calprotectin and calgranulin C serum levels are potential biomarkers for pancreatic tumors, surgical injury to the pancreatic tissue and the development of POPFs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Proteína S100A12/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 93(3): 219-226, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420210

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of calprotectin and calgranulin C and routine biomarkers in patients with bacterial sepsis (BS). The initial serum concentrations of calprotectin and calgranulin C were significantly higher in patients with BS (n = 66) than in those with viral infections (n = 24) and the healthy controls (n = 26); the level of calprotectin was found to be the best predictor of BS, followed by the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR) and the level of procalcitonin (PCT). The white blood cell (WBC) count and the NLCR rapidly returned to normal levels, whereas PCT levels normalized later and the increased levels of calprotectin, calgranulin C, and C-reactive protein persisted until the end of follow-up. Our results suggest that the serum levels of calprotectin are a reliable biomarker of BS and that the WBC count and the NLCR are rapid predictors of the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Proteína S100A12/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Contagem de Leucócitos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/citologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Viroses/sangue , Viroses/diagnóstico
9.
Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek ; 24(1): 10-13, 2018 03.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016533

RESUMO

We report a case of a 39-year-old male admitted for respiratory failure. On admission, the patient was diagnosed with advanced HIV infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). The patient's condition improved following specific PJP therapy but then deteriorated. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and treated with ganciclovir. The severe course of both opportunistic infections required long-term care at an intensive care unit. Despite complications, the patient was discharged after 108 inpatient days in a stable clinical condition. The case demonstrates a rare coincidence of PJP and cytomegalovirus pneumonitis while also emphasizing the importance of correct diagnosis, treatment and interdisciplinary care which, despite poor prognosis, may lead to successful cure of serious simultaneous opportunistic infections in AIDS.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Adulto , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2018: 7028267, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769838

RESUMO

The microbial etiology and source of sepsis influence the inflammatory response. Therefore, the plasma levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), chemokines (CCL2/MCP-1, MIP-1ß), heparin-binding protein (HBP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), and cortisol were analyzed in blood from septic patients obtained during the first 96 hours of intensive care unit hospitalization. The etiology was established in 56 out of a total of 62 patients enrolled in the study. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1, sCD14, IL-6, and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP; n = 10) and infective endocarditis (IE; n = 11) compared to those with bacterial meningitis (BM; n = 18). Next, cortisol levels were higher in IE patients than in those with BM and CAP, and at one time point, cortisol was also higher in patients with gram-negative sepsis when compared to those with gram-positive infections. Furthermore, cortisol and MCP-1 levels correlated positively with the daily measured SOFA score. In addition, HBP levels were significantly higher in patients with IE than in those with BM. Our findings suggest that MCP-1, sCD14, IL-6, IL-10, cortisol, and HBP are modulated by the source of sepsis and that elevated MCP-1 and cortisol plasma levels are associated with sepsis-induced organ dysfunction.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Sepse/metabolismo , Idoso , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiocina CCL4/metabolismo , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
APMIS ; 126(2): 152-159, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700911

RESUMO

The dysregulation of inflammatory response to surgical injury affects outcomes. Alarmins, the earliest bioactive substances from damaged cells, play a crucial role in initiating the inflammation. We analyzed serum levels of alarmins (S100A8, S100A12, high mobility group box, and heat shock protein 70) after major abdominal surgery (MAS) in surgical (S) (n = 82) and nonsurgical (NS) groups (n = 35). The main objective was determining a role of selected alarmins in host response to MAS. The secondary objectives were (i) evaluation of the relationship among alarmins and selected biomarkers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), (ii) influence of the place of gastrointestinal resection, and (iii) role of alarmins in MAS for cancer. Except for HMGB1, the levels of all alarmins were higher in the S group compared with the NS group. In the S group, positive correlations were found between S100A8 and both IL-6 and CRP. Additionally, the S100A8 level was higher (p < 0.01) in patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) surgery compared to middle and lower GIT resections. Alarmins levels did not differ between cancer and noncancer patients. MAS is able to elicit increase in alarmin levels. S100A8 can be considered a potential biomarker of surgical injury, especially in the upper part of the GIT.


Assuntos
Alarminas/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Calgranulina A/sangue , Feminino , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
J Invest Surg ; 30(3): 152-161, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689623

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tissue injury causing immune response is an integral part of surgical procedure. Evaluation of the degree of surgical trauma could help to improve postoperative management and determine the clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed serum levels of alarmins, including S100A5, S100A6, S100A8, S100A9, S100A11, and S100A12; high-mobility group box 1; and heat-shock protein 70, after elective major abdominal surgery (n = 82). Blood samples were collected for three consecutive days after surgery. The goals were to evaluate the relationships among the serum levels of alarmins and selected surgical characteristics and to test potential of alarmins to predict the clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Significant, positive correlations were found for high-mobility group box 1 with the length of surgery, blood loss, and intraoperative fluid intake for all three days of blood sampling. The protein S100A8 serum levels showed positive correlations with intensive care unit length of stay, 28-day and in-hospital mortality. The protein S100A12 serum levels had significant, positive correlations with intensive care unit length of stay, 28-day mortality, and in-hospital mortality. We did not find significant differences in alarmin levels between cancer and noncancer subjects. CONCLUSION: The high-mobility group box 1 serum levels reflect the degree of surgical injury, whereas proteins S100A8 and S100A12 might be considered good predictors of major abdominal surgery morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Alarminas/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Proteína HMGB1/sangue , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/sangue , Proteínas S100/sangue , Abdome/cirurgia , Idoso , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Respir Care ; 62(1): 113-122, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27803355

RESUMO

ARDS is severe form of respiratory failure with significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of critical care patients. Epidemiological data are crucial for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, designing studies, and optimizing resource distribution. The goal of this review is to present general aspects of mortality data published over the past decades. A systematic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed was performed. The articles were divided according to their methodology, type of reported mortality, and time. The main outcome was mortality. Extracted data included study duration, number of patients, and number of centers. The mortality trends and current mortality were calculated for subgroups consisting of in-hospital, ICU, 28/30-d, and 60-d mortality over 3 time periods (A, before 1995; B, 1995-2000; C, after 2000). The retrospectivity and prospectivity were also taken into account. Moreover, we present the most recent mortality rates since 2010. One hundred seventy-seven articles were included in the final analysis. General mortality rates ranged from 11 to 87% in studies including subjects with ARDS of all etiologies (mixed group). Linear regression revealed that the study design (28/30-d or 60-d) significantly influenced the mortality rate. Reported mortality rates were higher in prospective studies, such as randomized controlled trials and prospective observational studies compared with retrospective observational studies. Mortality rates exhibited a linear decrease in relation to time period (P < .001). The number of centers showed a significant negative correlation with mortality rates. The prospective observational studies did not have consistently higher mortality rates compared with randomized controlled trials. The mortality trends over 3 time periods (before 1995, 1995-2000, and after 2000) yielded variable results in general ARDS populations. However, a mortality decrease was present mostly in prospective studies. Since 2010, the overall rates of in-hospital, ICU, and 28/30-d and 60-d mortality were 45, 38, 30, and 32%, respectively.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
APMIS ; 124(8): 711-8, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27307383

RESUMO

The aim was to analyze T-regulatory cells (Tregs), activated CD8(+) T cells, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF)-ß in hepatitis C patients. We enrolled 31 patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 30 seropositive persons with spontaneous HCV elimination, and 23 healthy volunteers. The patients were examined at the beginning of the interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based therapy (baseline) and at weeks 4 (W4) and 12 (W12) of the therapy. The percentage of Tregs and the expression of activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR on CD8(+) T cells were analyzed in the peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Serum levels of TGF-ß were measured in a multiplex assay using flow cytometry. The percentage of Tregs in patients was higher than in controls and seropositive persons. Similarly, the percentage of CD8(+) T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR was higher in patients compared with controls and seropositive persons. Chronic HCV infection is associated with elevated circulating Tregs and activated CD8(+) T cells. During IFN-α-based therapy these cells gradually increase, whereas TGF-ß serum levels decrease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/patologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/química , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-DR/análise , Hepacivirus/classificação , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Soro/química , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 155(3): 21-4, 2016.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256144

RESUMO

Traditionally, parenteral (i. e. intravenous) antimicrobial therapy has been used in inpatients with various bacterial infections. In recent decades there has been growing experience with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy, mainly in the USA and western Europe. This article provides basic information on OPAT, based on available literature and the author´s experience on running OPAT service in the UK.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia por Infusões no Domicílio/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais/métodos , Reino Unido
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 49: 67, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256166
17.
Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek ; 22(4): 141-143, 2016 12.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28147427

RESUMO

The article discusses new definitions for sepsis and septic shock called Sepsis-3. The definitions are put in the historical and factual context of the 1992 definition and their extended 2003 version. Also mentioned are potential impacts on clinical practice, with it-being clear that the new definition shifts the sepsis issues more to intensive care as it emphasizes organ failure. In prehospital care, emergency departments and general wards of hospitals where patients are triaged, a new scoring system, the so-called quick SOFA, may be used. In this approach, stress is placed on impaired consciousness, a drop in systolic pressure and tachypnea but its role in more precise identification is yet to be verified in common clinical practice.


Assuntos
Sepse/classificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/classificação , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Sepse/patologia , Choque Séptico/patologia
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2015: 271842, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26247013

RESUMO

A relationship between latent toxoplasmosis and the immune system during HIV disease is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this follow-up study was to characterize immunological parameters in HIV-infected patients with latent toxoplasmosis and noninfected individuals. A total of 101 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in the study. The patients were classified into two groups based on anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies: a group of 55 toxoplasma-positive persons (TP) and a group of 46 toxoplasma-negative persons (TN). Absolute counts of several lymphocyte subsets decreased in the TP group, namely, T cells (p = 0.007), B cells (p = 0.002), NK cells (p = 0.009), CD4 T cells (p = 0.028), and CD8 T cells (p = 0.004). On the other hand, the percentage of CD8 T cells expressing CD38 and HLA-DR significantly increased during the follow-up in the TP group (p = 0.003, p = 0.042, resp.) as well as the intensity of CD38 and HLA-DR expression (MFI) on CD8 T cells (p = 0.001, p = 0.057, resp.). In the TN group, analysis of the kinetics of immunological parameters revealed no significant changes over time. In conclusion, the results suggest that latent T. gondii infection modulates the immune response during HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
APMIS ; 122(1): 33-41, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23489281

RESUMO

Neisseria meningitidis may cause severe invasive disease. The carriage state of the pathogen is common, and the reasons underlying why the infection becomes invasive are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to compare the differences between invasive and carrier strains in the activation of innate immunity. The monocyte expression of TLR2, TLR4, CD14, and HLA-DR, cytokine production, and the granulocyte oxidative burst were analyzed after in vitro stimulation by heat-killed invasive (n = 14) and carrier (n = 9) strains of N. meningitidis. The expression of the cell surface markers in monocytes, the oxidative burst, and cytokine concentrations were measured using flow cytometry. Carrier strains stimulated a higher production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative burst in granulocytes than invasive strains (all p < 0.001), whereas invasive strains significantly up-regulated TLR2, TLR4 (p < 0.001), and CD14 (p < 0.01) expression on monocytes. Conversely, the monocyte expression of HLA-DR was higher after the stimulation by carrier strains (p < 0.05) in comparison to invasive strains. The LPS inhibitor polymyxin B abolished the differences between the strains. Our findings indicate different immunostimulatory potencies of invasive strains of N. meningitidis compared with carrier strains.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Infecções Meningocócicas/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/imunologia , Neisseria meningitidis/patogenicidade , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Portador Sadio/metabolismo , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/metabolismo , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Explosão Respiratória , Especificidade da Espécie , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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